The universal visibility and projection of the results of scientific research, now more than ever, has been converted into an indispensible element in the promotion of faculty in universities around the world. Consequently, the prestige of universities and their global ranking is inextricably linked to the number of publications they produce. These publications are indexed in the databases of Thomson and Reuters. (Lee, 2014; Fernández-Ríos & Rodríguez-Díaz, 2014; Giménez & Jiménez, 2013).
The need of researchers for recognition in the academic community means they must have their work quantified in these databases. This helps them to defend their theses, achieve promotions, receive research grants, or simply to hold onto their jobs. At the same time however, it creates a vicious circle in which a great deal of pressure is put upon top quality scientific research journals by universities and researchers because they are so widely considered to be the only worthwhile medium through which to publish scientific research. The pressure is even stronger in a field like education with such a high number of researchers. However, the same perception doesn’t exist in every country. According to Lee (2014), a researcher at the University of Hong-Kong who had to dispute the quality of her publications for the evaluation of her research, the responses of various editors of scientific research journals based in North America were the following; “We don’t pay any real attention at all to this kind of stuff here (SSCI and ‘A’ versus ‘B’ journals) but I know they do in Europe. I never even heard of this stuff until lately, believe it or not; it’s just a non-issue in universities here” (…) “We don’t have assessments beyond the university. We have annual reviews by the department and promotion/tenure reviews by the department, college and university committees (as well as the president and the board of trustees). The research output affects the university ranking, which may affect funding indirectly, but not necessarily. The crucial criteria are the prestige of the journal, its acceptance rate, and whether the publication is refereed or not. The impact factor does not play such a huge role, though things may be changing at some universities” (Lee, 2014: 252).
That is to say, the annual job evaluation for promotion is done within the departments by the faculty and the different committees of the university who value highly the prestige of the journal, its acceptance rate, and whether or not it is a refereed journal.
Fernández-Ríos & Rodríguez-Díaz (2014: 156), detailing the “market of the sciences,” describe the “impact index as a generator of unreflective thought” and comment further: “The impact index creates an organizational culture in which many researchers value the utility of being published above the social benefit of a reflective knowledge.” The social benefit is precisely one of the objectives closest to the core of education. The dream of every editor of a scientific journal is to offer their readers interesting and relevant articles that provide contributions to the pool of knowledge of the discipline to which their journal pertains. The researchers that are impacted not only publish in journals with a high level of impact, but also in journals with recognized signs of quality and professionalism. The prime objective of this article is to reflect upon the most relevant characteristics of these scientific journals of excellence, particularly the characteristics of their editorial management that aid them in the task of sharing the findings of the educational researchers whose works they publish. These characteristics allow international researchers to effectively share their work and contribute to the central knowledge of the field. Editorial management, visibility and diffusion in the international community, publication times, peer revision, and the language of publication, are themes to highlight when defending a thesis in front of JCR-centrism. The quality and impact of a publication depends on its true contribution to the growth of the field and extends far beyond the indexes.
The mapping of scientific journals in education and their contextualizing
The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of journals indexed in the databases of Thomson Reuters Social Science Citation Index is updated in the middle of each year. This index measures the international impact that elite scientific journals have in their fields. It is one of the principal tools used to measure the quality and impact of an investigation on various different levels (regions, countries, investigatory teams, and researchers). In the category “Education & Educational Research” the following journals are listed in order of their ‘impact factor,’ a categorization that changes annually.
Table 1: Top journals in the Category of “Education & Educational Research” (JCR, 2013)
Delgado, Jiménez and Ruiz, (2009) comment that one of the difficulties of Spanish research journals is that they’re not sufficiently represented in the indexes of international quality. But the field of social sciences is changing; according to Moreno-Pulido et al. (2013), 52 Spanish journals were recognized in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) in the year 2010, corresponding to 40% on those journals on the themes of Economics and Psychology. In the period of the study, 2006 to 2010, the number of journals indexed in the JCR had increased by 2.500%. The data of Moreno-Pulido et al. (2013) demonstrated that Spanish education journals represented 9.62% (5 journals) in 2010. In addition it states that: “It’s very probable that, in the coming years, the number of journals will continue to grow for two reasons: the labor of the FECYT (Coslado, Baez and Lacunza, 2010), Latindex (Flores, Penkova and Roman, 2009), REDALYC (Aguado and Rogel, 2006) and SciELO (Garcia-Testal, 2000) in the improvement of the quality of scientific publications and the inrush of competing evaluatory tools such as Scopus (Elsevier), Google Scholar Citation and Microsoft Academic Search, that forced the expansion of Thomson-Reuters to countries and areas underrepresented in their products” (Moreno-Pulido et al., 2013: 8).
In fact, in the JCR 2013, there are seven Spanish education journals (Table 2). They are grouped in the fourth quartile, all with a similar impact rate. The leading journals are Cultura y Eduación (166) which is associated with the British editorial Routledge and Comunicar pertaining to a professional collective of Huelva (177).
Table 2: Spanish Journals in the Category “Education & Educational Research” (JCR, 2013)
The ranking of the journals by country, SCImago Journal & Country Rank (SRJ) that contains all of the journals indexed by Scopus, ranks the Spanish education journals between the second and fourth quartiles (table 3).
Table 3: Spanish Education Journals (SJR, 2013)
According to SRJ 2013, in this moment the presence of Spanish scientific education journals is not on the rise. In fact, it is observing a decline (http://goo.gl/PYybnz: Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Citation trends
Google Scholar Metrics (GSM) published a list of the 100 Spanish social science journals with the highest (h5) index. An index that measures the visibility and influence of published articles. Psicothema tops the list with an h5 index of 27, followed by Comunicar, which occupies the 4th place in the general classification and the first in education.
Table 4: h5 Index and h5 Median of Spanish Education Journals (GSM, 2014)
International Visibility and Scientific Evaluation
Spanish scientific production of Education occupies a certain level of invisibility in regard to the central body of knowledge of the discipline. Reputable international investigators don’t tend to consult it seriously. This is either due to a lack of knowledge of the language in which it’s published, or because the topics aren’t considered sufficiently central to the discipline, unreflective of investigations relevant to the central knowledge, or because they’re not adequately dispersed among international databases of the highest level and social networks aren’t conscious of their existence. Lee (2014) questioned impactful authors about their criteria when selecting a journal in which to publish. By order of preference, their choices were based in first part on whether a journal corresponds to their subject (50%), as well as whether that journal is included in the SSCI (33%). In second place, with the same percentage (33%) researchers confirmed that their selection depends on the prestige of the journal, if it’s an internationally recognized publication, with multiple strategies for visibility like the “call for papers,” or scientific social networks… Third place (25%) is occupied by journals accessibility to a large audience of readers and whether it possesses a high acceptance rate. Finally other criteria include required taxes to the university to which the journal pertains (17%), the factor of official impact, and the speed with which the editing staff decides whether or not to publish a certain article (8%).
Exactly 90% of important publications pertain to 10% of journals. These 10% of journals are based in highly industrialized countries and are associated with editors of prestigious institutions with broad economic backing (see Table 1). Good investigation and diffusion platforms are expensive because they require excellent teams, fluid networks, and excellent training. In order to produce competitive investigations a minimal amount of government inversion or backing by the business sector is required (Salager-Meyer, 2008). Small or local scientific publications have to overcome many obstacles in comparison with the large editing houses that benefit from reaching a much larger audience.
According to Salager-Mayer (2008), there are two basic requisites that allow a scientific journal to compete or at least to position itself in the competition: frequency and punctuality, and quality revisions by external reviewers.
Frequency and Punctuality
One criterion demanded by all databases and evaluation platforms is a regular form of publication abiding by a strict schedule. Having this confers a degree of seriousness and prestige upon a journal that affects the editorial staff all down the line (Ruiz-Pérez, Delgado, & Jiménez-Contreras, 2006). Regularity in publication concerns printed and electronic journals equally. Whereas 20 years ago RELIEVE was the pioneer in Spanish education journals (Aliaga, 2014), newer journals, the number of which has increased exponentially in the last decade, also have the possibility of publishing articles in the preprint format and adjudging their works by means of a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This is especially useful to researchers and to journals as a connector of published data, the contributions of which can be consulted (and cited) rapidly, thus increasing a journals possibility of positioning itself in the “market of the sciences.” In this way, publication times can be cut without influencing the regularity and punctuality of the journal. Another manner in which journals stay relevant is through the Call for Papers mechanism. Using this, journalists can gather research on a specific theme by referring to a number dedicated to that subject. This helps to concentrate the contributions of researchers who have published on the subject. The Call for Papers is an instrument used by editing teams to close the gaps in academic knowledge that require exploration, thereby marking trends in the research. Additionally they announce the concrete period in which proposals are accepted and the time in which publication will be released, permitting the investigator to organize their own time.
Revisions of quality and language as an impact factor
Salager (2008) defends the perspective that the growth in the visibility of a journal depends on the competent evaluation of “extramural referees,” and on scientific committees and international revisers being aware of the existence of the journal and being the first to assess its contributions. These committees and revisers serve as ambassadors for the journal beyond its national borders.
The use of English also plays a predominant role as a scientific language for a journal, adding to the scope of possible academic discourse and demonstrating an expert level in scientific publication. The analysis of Cremades et al. (2013) of articles published in English in five multilingual Spanish biomedical journals concludes that the articles written in English, (more frequently by foreign authors), merit the most references and more citations per published article. Publishing in English does create problems for national authors. The lack of university financing for specialized editorial staff, for ghost writing services of professional authors, for translators or linguistic correctors, obliges the journals to put in place unique strategies so that the authors can compete at the international level. Comunicar, for example, is a bilingual publication in English and Spanish. It is a complete text that also has versions in Chinese and an interface with titles, summaries and key words. While the printed version (ISSN: 1134-3478) is only Spanish, the online version (e-ISSN:1988-3293) is published in Spanish and English. The English edition (www.comunicarjournal.com) is associated with the general edition. The journal accepts initial manuscripts in either English or Spanish and the authors agree to their translation. The English version is a notable effort by authors, translators, linguistic revisers, and editors to offer a quality product that is internationally recognized (Aguaded & Fonseca-Mora, 2013). Other options are Spanish journals like NAER, which only accepts manuscripts written in English that once accepted, are translated and published in both languages. The regulations of RELIEVE dictate that the manuscripts have to be written in Spanish to later be translated to English.
The Prestige of a Journal: Internationally Known Publications
The prestige of a journal is also based on the seriousness of its contributions, subjection to thorough revision by experts, and its international reputation. It was mentioned earlier the role that English plays as a scientific language, but that doesn’t diminish the scope of influence of the Spanish language. The accessibility of a journal’s content also influences its visibility. Tagging in databases thereby commercializing scientific knowledge, open access, institutional repositories, scientific social networks like ResearchGate, Academia.edu, the collective international catalogues like COPAC (United Kingdom), SUDOC (France) and ZBD (Germany) or Library of Congress (U.S.), to name a few, are all ways to liberate scientific publications and make them more accessible over the internet. Given the natural instability of the web, metadata is relevant, including metatags that make up the source code of each article and contain identifier categories like date, volume, number, etc., and the universal identification of authors (ORCID, ResearchID) and of manuscripts (DOIs). The semantic publication of metadata, universal identification of authors and fixed URL of articles preserve the possibility of appropriate and persistent citations.
Another strategy of journals to make their products known is the constant activation of English and Spanish content and interesting news for their readers by means of email, or social networks like Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter. This fuels forums of debate on the journals themes on sites like Wordpress and Youtube. The selection of articles by the editor, the interviews with researchers, the roundtables of experts and the audiovisual presentation bits in the journal, among other possible tactics, can make their contributions more visible. According to Torres, Cabezas & Jiménez (2013), the altmetrics, or alternative indicators that are emerging for the study of the impact of scientific publications have in mind mentions on blogs, number of tweets, or the number of people who bookmark an article. Comunicar has launched a metrics section, making Spain a pioneer in the visibility of multi-impacts.
Some voices also defend multiple authorship as a strategy to spread publications. The investigation of Li, Liao & Yen (2013) on the networks of co-authorship and the impact of the investigation concluded that writing with prolific authors helped researchers to develop centrality in their contributions and to generate the highest number of citations. However, Spanish studies in social sciences, more concretely in the area of communication and education (Escribá and Cortiñas, 2013) and of mathematical education (Brancho-López et al. 2012), ascertained that there still exists a low rate of scientific collaboration among Spaniards and internationals.
The prestige of a journal and its international reputation, also depend on that journals relation with other journals. The large commercial publishers not only put out their products in isolation, but also in conjunction. Journals consider working in conjunction as a mark of quality and a strategy for attracting the looks of international researchers who could then read and cite Spanish scientific production (Aguaded and Fonseca-Mora, 2013).
New Indicators of Quality
Apart from those already mentioned, there are other new indicators of quality that can lend more credibility to scientific production. In first place, the visual presentation, that is to say, the format of presentation of the journal and its articles. An academic work has to be well presented in its printed versions as well as in its electronic ones. A sleek document, without strident colors, and with a clear and welcoming organization following scientific regulations, lends credibility to the publication and generates a positive assessment. Regulations for authors of the journals of impact are often very specific, some include templates for the articles. Indications in the specialized platforms of shipments in the manuscripts (OJS, EM…) favor a professional edition of the manuscripts.
The title, the abstract, and the keywords of an article are also elements of diffusion of the databases and social or academic networks that invite the rest of the researchers to read the contribution. Publishers , as for example, SAGE, offer indications of the combinations of key words so that the search engines show the article among the first results.
Search engines and studies of citations track references as well. Authors have to select updated readings that reflect the contextualization of the studies in the international scope, in turn defending Spanish journals in the bibliographies of their articles (Fonseca-Mora, 2012).
The transparency of the editorial management, as well as the existence of an ethical code, demonstrate rigor and integrity and avoid any type of mal-practice (Aguaded and Fonseca, 2013; Tur-Viñes, Fonseca-Mora, Gutiérrez-San Miguel, 2012). This supposes the inclusion of detailed information on their authors (credits, titles, offices and emails), as well as on the process of estimation, evaluation, and deadlines for revision. Other information that the authors want to know about the journal to which they send their contributions is the acceptance rate of manuscripts of the journal and the publication deadlines. The speed of publication has become a preponderant criterion of the selection of the authors.
If Spain wants to continue growing, maturing, and consolidating to transcend borders and situate itself in the context of the best countries in the development and dissemination of science and technology it faces various challenges. Its position in the international indexes situates it on the outer fringes; those of low visibility and impact in citations. This could influence a migration of national, relevant contributions to foreign journals. The reflections throughout this article point to strategies that can be implemented to attract international researchers with impactful contributions. Among them, we’ve highlighted:
● The implantation of the journal on an international level with international co-editions, printed as well as digital editions, and editions in different languages. Additionally creating a staff of multiple nationalities with networks of collaboration and investigation.
● The importance of the “Call for papers” to release the topic and the publication times.
● English as a scientific international language with impact factor.
● The relevance of international reputation to which co-authors may help, authors’ inclusion in references, open access, electronic publication, diffusion (indexes and networks); extra-mural reviewerss, international committees, collaboration, and coordination among editors of journals.
● The clarity of guidelines.
● The rate of publication to be able to compete in the international market of sciences.
● The interactivity with the readers through multiple channels both bidirectional and multidirectional (Milojević, Kleut and Ninković, 2013).
Aguaded, I. y Fonseca-Mora, M.C. (2013). Calidad del proceso editorial y visibilización internacional como proceso a la excelencia en la revista Comunicar/ Editorial process quality and international visibility as a process towards excellence in the Journal Comunicar. In FECYT (Ed.), Manual de Buenas Prácticas en la edición de revistas científicas. (pp. 11-19). Madrid: Fundación Española de Ciencia y Tecnología (FECYT)
Aliaga, F.M. (2014). Twenty years of electronic publishing and open access: a pioneer reaches maturity. RELIEVE, 20(1). DOI: 10.7203/relieve.20.1.3856
Bracho-López, R., Maz-Machado, A., Gutiérrez-Arenas, P., Torralbo-Rodríguez, M., Jiménez-Fanjul, N.N. & Adamuz-Povedano, N. (2012). La investigación en Educación Matemática a través de las publicaciones científicas españolas. Revista Española de Documentación Científica, 35(2), 262-280.
Cremades, R, Burbano, P., Valcárcel, M.A, Burillo, G., Fernández-Ríos, L. & Rodríguez-Díaz, J. (2014). The impact factor style of thinking: A new theoretical framework. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 14, 154-160.
Delgado, E., Jiménez, E. & Ruiz, R. (2009). La ciencia española a través del Web of Science (1996-2007): las disciplinas. El Profesional de la Información, 18, 4, 437-443
Fonseca-Mora, M.C. (2012). Funciones de la figura de Scientific Journal Consultant en la visibilidad, difusión e indización de revistas. In V. Tur (Ed.), Bases de datos y citación. Reflexiones compartidas. I Encuentro de Revistas Científicas. Tenerife 2011. La Laguna (Tenerife): Sociedad Latina de Comunicación Social.
Giménez, E. & Jiménez, E. (2013). Los agujeros negros de la comunicación: Comunicación científica y metainvestigación. Comunicar, 41, 10-13. (DOI: 10.3916/C41-2013-a2).
Lee, I. (2014). Publish or perish: The myth and reality of academic publishing. Language Teaching, 47, 250-261. DOI: 10.1017/S0261444811000504
Li, E.Y., Liao, C.H. & Yen, H.R. (2013). Co-authorship networks and research impact: A social capital perspective. Research Policy, 42(9), 1515-1530.
Martín-Sánchez, F.J. & Miró, O. (2013). Impacto de la inclusión de artículos escritos en inglés en revistas biomédicas españolas de edición multilingüe. An. Sist. Sanit. Navar, 3 6(3), 467-470.
Milojević, A., Kleut, J. & Ninković, D. (2013). Propuesta metodológica para el estudio de la interactividad en revistas de comunicación. Comunicar, 41, 93-103. DOI: 10.3916/C41-2013-09
Moreno-Pulido, A., López-González, M.A., Rubio, F., Saúl, L.A. & Sánchez-Elvira-Paniagua, A. (2013). Evolución de las revistas españolas de Ciencias Sociales en el Journal Citation Reports (2006-10) y su valoración como indicio de calidad en la normativa evaluadora española. Revista Española de Documentación Científica, 36(3):e014. DOI: 10.3989/redc.2013.3.987 .
Ruiz-Pérez, R., Delgado, E. & Jiménez-Contreras, E. (2006). Criterios del Institute for Scientific Information para la selección de revistas científicas. Su aplicación a las revistas españolas: metodología e indicadores. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 6(2), 401-424.
Salager-Meyer, F. (2008). Scientific publishing in developing countries: Challenges for the future. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 7(2), 121-132.
Torres, D., Cabezas, Á. & Jiménez, E. (2013). Altmetrics: New Indicators for Scientific Communication in Web 2.0. Comunicar, 41, 53-60. DOI: 10.3916/C41-2013-05
Tur-Viñes, V., Fonseca-Mora, M.C. & Gutiérrez-San-Miguel, B. (2012). Ética de la publicación científica: iniciativas y recomendaciones. El Profesional de la Información, 21(5), 491-497.
 Prestige is understood here as 'internationally renowned journal'
 The category "Education, Special" have not been included because the first of this category “American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities” has an impact factor of 2.407, and in this category there is not one spanish journal.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS / SOBRE
Fonseca-Mora, M. C.
(firstname.lastname@example.org). Professor in the Department of
English Philology at the
University of Huelva, Spain. Her
main research interests are
applied linguistics, language
teacher training and scientific
publications. Her work has
appeared in a significant number
of academic journals and edited
volumes published by Heidelberg
Verlag, SGEL, Mergablum, Hebling,
Comunicar, Septem Editions,
Cambridge Scholars, Oxford
Journals, among others. She has
lectured in Germany, Portugal,
France, Italy, Great Britain,
Sweden, Peru, United States and
Spain. She is currently
co-editor of the English Edition
journal, a media education
Her postal address:
Universidad de Huelva.
Facultad de Educación. Campus El
(Spain). Buscar otros
artículos de esta autora en
Google Académico / Find
other articles by this author in
Chair Professor of
the Department of Education of the University of Huelva (Spain). He
leads the fields of Technology and Innovation and is a Chairman of
Group Comunicar, in Andalusia, a veteran in Spain in
Education through Mass Media. He is the Editor of
Media Education Research Journal (ISSN: 1134-3478; 1988-3293), which
is distributed in Europe and America. He is also scientific advisor
to several national and international scientific journals, as well
as manager of «Agora» Investigation Group in the Andalusian Plan of
Investigation, developing various international investigation
projects. He has participated in many educational/investigation
activities in the didactic use of mass media and has been the
organizer and chairman of several scientific committees of
international academic events. His postal address is
Huelva. Facultad de Ciencias de
21071 Huelva (Spain).
artículos de este autor en
Google Académico / Find
other articles by this author in
ABOUT THE AUTHORS / SOBRE LOS AUTORES
Fonseca-Mora, M. C. (email@example.com). Professor in the Department of English Philology at the University of Huelva, Spain. Her main research interests are applied linguistics, language teacher training and scientific publications. Her work has appeared in a significant number of academic journals and edited volumes published by Heidelberg Verlag, SGEL, Mergablum, Hebling, Netbiblio, Unesco-Grupo Comunicar, Septem Editions, Cambridge Scholars, Oxford Journals, among others. She has lectured in Germany, Portugal, France, Italy, Great Britain, Sweden, Peru, United States and Spain. She is currently co-editor of the English Edition of Comunicar, journal, a media education research journal. Her postal address: Universidad de Huelva. Facultad de Educación. Campus El Carmen. 21071-Huelva (Spain). Buscar otros artículos de esta autora en Google Académico / Find other articles by this author in Scholar Google
Aguaded, Ignacio (firstname.lastname@example.org). Chair Professor of the Department of Education of the University of Huelva (Spain). He leads the fields of Technology and Innovation and is a Chairman of Group Comunicar, in Andalusia, a veteran in Spain in Education through Mass Media. He is the Editor of Comunicar, Media Education Research Journal (ISSN: 1134-3478; 1988-3293), which is distributed in Europe and America. He is also scientific advisor to several national and international scientific journals, as well as manager of «Agora» Investigation Group in the Andalusian Plan of Investigation, developing various international investigation projects. He has participated in many educational/investigation activities in the didactic use of mass media and has been the organizer and chairman of several scientific committees of international academic events. His postal address is Universidad de Huelva. Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. 21071 Huelva (Spain). Buscar otros artículos de este autor en Google Académico / Find other articles by this author in Scholar Google
ARTICLE RECORD / FICHA DEL ARTÍCULO
Fonseca-Mora, M.C. & Aguaded, I. (2014). Scientific Journals as Platforms to Publish Research of Excellence in Education: Strategies to Attract Researchers. RELIEVE, v. 20 (2), art. M3. DOI: 10.7203/relieve.20.2.4274
Title / Título
Scientific Journals as Platforms to Publish Research of Excellence in Education: Strategies to Attract Researchers. [Las revistas científicas como plataformas para publicar la investigación de excelencia en educación: estrategias para atracción de investigadores].
Authors / Autores
Fonseca-Mora, M.C. & Aguaded, I.
Review / Revista
|RELIEVE (Revista ELectrónica de Investigación y EValuación Educativa), v. 20 n. 2|
Publication date /
Fecha de publicación
2014 (Reception Date: 2014 August 22 ; Approval Date: 2014 October 22. Publication Date: 2014 October 22)
Abstract / Resumen
This article helps to reflect on the most relevant characteristics of research journals of excellence, on those quality editorial management traits that facilitate the work of disseminating the findings of researchers in education so that they can contribute, along with all international researchers, to the central knowledge of science.
Este artículo ayuda a reflexionar sobre las características más relevantes de las revistas científicas de excelencia, sobre aquellos rasgos de calidad de la gestión editorial que facilitan la labor de difundir los hallazgos de los investigadores de educación para que puedan aportar, junto a todos los investigadores internacionales, al conocimiento central de la ciencia.
Keywords / Descriptores
Education research journals, research, scientific publication, quality indicators, international visibility.
Revistas de educación, investigación, publicación científica, indicadores de calidad, visibilidad internacional.
Institution / Institución
University of Huelva (Spain)
Publication site / Dirección
Language / Idioma
Español & English version (Title, abstract and keywords in English & Spanish)
Volumen 20, n. 2
© Copyright, RELIEVE. Reproduction and distribution of this article is authorized if the content is no modified and its origin is indicated (RELIEVE Journal, volume, number and electronic address of the document).
© Copyright, RELIEVE. Se autoriza la reproducción y distribución de este artículo siempre que no se modifique el contenido y se indique su origen (RELIEVE, volumen, número y dirección electrónica del documento).
[ ISSN: 1134-4032 ]
Revista ELectrónica de Investigación y EValuación Educativa
E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation