To see a World in a Grain of Sand

And Heaven in a Wild Flower

Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand

And Eternity in an hour

William Blake

(from Auguries of Innocence c.1800)

 

Internet: ferramenta d'investigació lite Gr.SG (28034) 2006-07

 01 What's up?

Instrucciones para el curso

Para leer correctamente esta información debéis ir a la siguiente dirección:(cut & paste address) http://aulavirtual.uv.es/dotlrn/classes/c062/28034/c07c062a28034gSG/wp-slim/display/19524927/ 00 INDICE_Módulo Multi MEDIA básico Público * 00 Listado de textos a leer, analizar y para opinar. * 01 Lévy, Pierre_Cyberspace and the Future of Memory * 02 Becker, Howard_Theory: The Necessary Evil * 03 Birkerts, Sven_The Gutenberg Elegies * 04 Bolter, Jay David_Degrees of Freedom * 05 Cixous, Hélène_Three Steps on the Ladder of Writing * 06 Landow, George P._HyperTextTheory * 07 Kendall, Robert_Writing for the New Millenium * 08 McGann, Jerome_Comp[u/e]ting Editorial F[u/ea]tures * 09 Moulthrop, Stuart_Hypertext and the Laws of Media * 10 honoria in ciberspazio. De la teoría a la práctica. Estos son los textos que propongo como background teórico para el presente curso. Lo qu hay que hacer es: 1) leer los textos con atención y cierto interés. 2) escribir algún comentario, análisis, opinión sobre cada uno de ellos 3) publicar eso en el Weblog de la asignatura, donde mediante añadir comentario TODOS deben opinar y aportar su punto de vista. 4) El orden de los artículos es irrelevante, empecemos por aquellos que más os llaman la atención o que más difíciles os parecen, o por el criterio que querais. El plazo es desde ya hasta finales de Abril aproximadamente (no es un deadline) En una segunda fase intentaremos elaborar una página web propia que contendrá nuestras aportaciones al weblog, por un lado, y lo que más os interese incluir en una página web dedicada a comentar, analizar, presentar lo que considereis interesante en vuestra navegación por internet sobre Shakespeare en castellano y Cervantes en inglés. La temática debeis elegirla vosotros. De tener problemas, dudas o necesitar aclaraciones ruego se planteen al máximo posible mediante el weblog. Gracias a tod@s salut Dr. Forés

Contributed by Vicente Fores Lopez

Acabo de publicar la lista de los 10 textos que propongo se trabajen durante el presente "curso de doctorado"

00 INDICE_Módulo Multi MEDIA básico Público
[ Print View ]

 

 

00 noticias Weblogger

El Weblogger Internet: ferramenta d'investigació lite Gr.SG (28034) 2006-07

queda inaugurado el weblogger de la asignatura.
Espero que todos contribuyáis de forma muy activa a despejar dudas, preguntas, y que aportéis muchas opiniones, análisis y recomendaciones para los demás participantes del curso.

Gracias

Dr. Forés

 

 

00 INDICE_Módulo Multi MEDIA básico Público

a Wimpy Point Presentation owned by Vicente Fores Lopez .



00 Listado de textos a leer, analizar y para opinar.


Para ver el contexto teórico y un listado mucho más exhaustivo y detallado id a:

http://www.uv.es/fores/teoriauvp.html

Los 10 textos (autores) que propongo para el presente curso, sin embargo, son: 

01 http://www.cibersociedad.net/public/k3_multimedia/levy.pdf

02 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/becker_necessaryevil.html

03 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/birkerts_gutenberg.html

04 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/bolter_freedom.html

05 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/cixous_writing.html

06 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/hopkins_hypertexttheory.html

07 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/kendall_newmillennium.html

08 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/mcgann_comp.html

09 http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/moulthrop_yousay.html

10 http://www.cyberopera.org/

El último es un ejemplo de aplicación como regalo personal y para que veáis que no todo es teoría cruda y dura. Su aplicación puede ser de lo más divertido y enriquecedor que imaginar se pueda. Para mi ha sido la experiencia teórica y personal de mayor valor que hasta ahora he tenido la suerte y privilegio de vivir en mi actividad académica.

¡Que lo disfrutéis tanto como yo!

 

salut

 

Dr. Forés

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

01 Lévy, Pierre_Cyberspace and the Future of Memory


Cyberspace and
the Future of Memory
Vic
e-week 2006
Prof. Pierre Lévy
Canada Research Chair in Collective Intelligence
Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada
University of Ottawa

 

 

  • http://www.cibersociedad.net/public/k3_multimedia/levy.pdf

 

 

http://www.cibersociedad.net/public/k3_multimedia/levy.pdf No questions, thoughts, or comments to this comparison? •Sciences of nature since the scientific revolution – Universal physical space – High tech observation instruments – Formalized and consistent languages – High computability – High testability – « Explicit » shareable, cumulative knowledge => strong knowledge management • Current Sciences of culture – Fragmentation among disciplines and paradigms. No integrated causal model of human development. – Low tech observation instruments – Non-formalized languages or different formalizations according to cultures, disciplines and paradigms – Low computability – Low testability – « Tacit » knowledge (non- shareable, non-cumulative) => weak knowledge management

 

 

02 Becker, Howard_Theory: The Necessary Evil


 

To come full circle, the reasons and the people and the times for research are organizational facts, not philosophical constructs. Epistemology and philosophy of science are problems insofar as we cohabit with the people who make those topics their business and are thus sensitive to their opinions, questions, and complaints. Educational researchers, poised uneasily as they are between the institutions of (mostly) public education, the scientific and scholarly communities of the university world, and the people who give money in Washington, who aren't sure which of those constituencies they ought to take seriously, have the unenviable task of inventing a practice that will answer to all of them more or less adequately. The difficulties are compounded by the splintering of the academic component of the mix into a variety of disputatious factions, which is mostly what I have been discussing. No amount of careful reasoning or thoughtful analysis will make the difficulties go away. They are grounded in different standards and demands based in different worlds. In particular, as long as theory consists of a one-way communication from specialists who live in the world of philosophical discourse, empirical researchers will not be able to satisfy them. In my own view, we (the empirical researchers, among whom I still count myself) should listen carefully to those messages, see what we can use, and be polite about the rest of it. After all, as Joe E. Brown remarked in the last scene of "Some Like It Hot," when he discovered that the woman he wanted to marry was a man after all, "Nobody's perfect!"
 

 

 

03 Birkerts, Sven_The Gutenberg Elegies


The Gutenberg Elegies

The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age

Sven Birkerts

Faber and Faber

BOSTON ï LONDON

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. First published in 1994 in the United States by Faber and Faber, Inc., 50 Cross Street, Winchester, MA 01890.

Copyright © 1994 by Sven Birkerts 


part ii

The Electronic

Millennium

(Selected Fragments)

8 Into the Electronic Millenium

9 Perseus Unbound

10 Close Listening

11 Hypertext: Of Mouse and Man

 

 

04 Bolter, Jay David_Degrees of Freedom


Degrees of Freedom by Jay David Bolter

jay.bolter@lcc.gatech.edu
LCC-0165
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0165
(404) 894-2735

[The following essay is based in part on two pieces that will appear in print in 1996: "Virtual Reality and the Redefinition of Self" (to appear in Communication and Cyberspace, published by the Hampton Press) and "Virtual Reality, Ekphrasis, and the Future of the Book" (to appear in The Future of the Book, published by Brepols). This essay will eventually be part of a full-length monograph on our emerging (electronically mediated) visual culture. I would appreciate any comments: sharp and specific critiques are especially welcome. Please mail comments to me at jay.bolter@lcc.gatech.edu.

 Please do not copy or cite this essay without my permission.]

Return to my home page.


Degrees of Freedom

·  Introduction

·  The hypertextual and the virtual

·  Modes of representation

·  Looking through the text

·  The natural sign

·  Hypertext

·  The breakout of the visual

·  Text in Multimedia

·  Text and the Internet

·  Text in virtual reality

·  Popular culture and the visual

·  The future of the book

·  Virtual silence

·  Virtual gaze

·  Denying Descartes

·  Media and the self

·  Virtual knowing

·  Virtual community

·  References

 

 

05 Cixous, Hélène_Three Steps on the Ladder of Writing


The Wellek Library Lectures for 1990

The Critical Theory Institute
University of California, Irvine
Presents a Lecture Series by

Hélène Cixous

Three Steps on The Ladder of Writing

Tuesday, April 24, 1990

"The Hour of the Worst"

Wednesday, April 25, 1990

"The School of Dreams"

Thursday, April 26, 1990

"The School of Roots"

Hélène Cixous
©1998, Hélène Cixous

 

 

 

06 Landow, George P._HyperTextTheory


Cover design by Glen Burris

In January 1995 Johns Hopkins University Press published a companion (print) volume to Hypertext -- Hyper/Text/Theory, which contains substantial essays by ten authors on the relation of this technology to individual theorists, including Michel de Certeau, Gerard Genette, Jurgen Habermas, Donna J. Haraway, Ilya Prigogine, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and to issues in theory, such as linearity, narrativity, and philosophical argument. Here is the table of contents:

Part I: Introduction

What's a Critic to Do? Critical Theory in the Age of Hypertext. George P. Landow

Part II: Nonlinearity

Nonlinearity and Literary Theory. Espen J. Aarseth

Wittgenstein, Genette, and the Reader's Narrative in Hypertext. Gunnar Liestol

The Screener's Maps: Michel de Certeau's "Wandersmänner" and Paul Auster's Hypertextual Detective. Mireille Rosello

"How Do I Stop This Thing?"Closure and Indeterminacy in Interactive Narratives. J. Yellowlees Douglas

Conclusions. Terrence Harpold

Part III: The Politics of Hypertext

The Political Computer: Hypertext, Democracy, and Habermas.Charles Ess

Physics and Hypertext: Liberation and Complicity in Art and Pedagogy. Martin E. Rosenberg

Rhizome and Resistance: Hypertext and the Dreams of a New Culture.Stuart Moulthrop

Part IV: The New Writing

Socrates in the Labyrinth. David Kolb

The Miranda Warnings: An Experiment in Hyperrhetoric. Gregory L. Ulmer


To place an order with the Johns Hopkins University Press

 

 

07 Kendall, Robert_Writing for the New Millenium


 

 

 

  • http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/kendall_newmillennium.html

 

Literature has always been a remarkably adaptable art form. It's at home on the lips of the storyteller or the actor. It happily dons the accoutrements of song. Even the printed page may spawn extraverbal hybrids such as visual poetry, calligraphy, and illustrated books. Now the range extends still further. The computer--that remarkable melting pot of all communication--has become another medium for expressing the incomparable beauty and power of the word. A growing number of poets and fiction writers are using the personal computer to stretch the boundaries of the written tradition. From the electronic pen come poems and stories that couldn't be represented in print--work that can exist only on the infinitely flexible "cyberpage" offered by the personal computer monitor. The new electronic literature breaks the bonds of linearity and stasis imposed by paper. In digital form, a story can draw readers into its world by giving them a role in shaping it, letting them choose which narrative thread to follow, which new situation or character to explore. Within a "page" of poetry on screen, words or lines can change continually as the reader watches, making the text resonate with shifting shades of meaning. Written work can "improvise," altering its own content every time it's read. With its power to mix text, graphics, sound, and video, the PC can extend the ancient interdisciplinary traditions of writing. This emerging genre--often called interactive literature, because the reader can interact with it--has gained an inexorable momentum in the past few years. Such prominent writers as William Dickey, Thomas M. Disch, and Robert Pinsky have tried their hand at interactivity, and the medium has attracted many other talented practitioners in this country and abroad, as well as a number of publishers devoted almost exclusively to it. It has garnered favorable critical attention from such conservative voices as The New York Times Book Review and The Washington Post Book World and spawned an eloquent body of critical theory. Interactive literature has found its way into the curricula of English and writing departments at many colleges, including the New School for Social Research in New York, where I teach interactive poetry and fiction. (See sidebar.)

 

08 McGann, Jerome_Comp[u/e]ting Editorial F[u/ea]tures


A short time ago an essay of mine was rejected by the distinguished journal Computers and the Humanities. I had been informally asked to submit something by one of the journal's editors and I was pleased to be able to send a new piece that was nearing completion.

Don't turn off your set. It's true that anecdotes, especially personal ones, often make dismal invitations in the discourse of scholarship. But this one is, I hope, peculiarly apt in the present instance -- that is to say, in the context of this collection of original (in both senses of the word) essays about "re-imagining textuality".

The problem with my essay arrived in two waves.

When I sent it for consideration I noted to the editors that it called for some half dozen color reproductions "illustrating" the final section of the paper. Would this present any difficulties? I asked. None at all, a return letter assured me, though I would have to pay for the costs involved. The charges came to several thousand dollars.

Since I couldn't afford that expense I made a double decision. First, I would remove the last part of the essay and modify the earlier parts to accommodate the change. The essay was organized in modular units in any case, so the revision would not be too difficult to execute. But because that last section contained material that was for me the most intellectually challenging in the piece, I knew that I would have to find a way to "publish" it. That move wasn't very difficult either. I would simply put up the whole of the essay on my webpage, including links to the digital files of the color images that couldn't be included in the print essay. (There is a benevolent irony here. Those images were originally digital files created in Adobe Photoshop. Had they been reproduced in Computers and the Humanities, the print texts would have been, as Frank O'Hara might have said, "a step away from them".)

Several months passed before the reader's report arrived with its second wave of problems. It was an excellent report -- searching, intelligent, and even (always a pleasing matter) full of favorable remarks. Making revisions in light of the critique was going to improve the essay so I felt -- and still feel -- grateful to this reader, whoever s/he was.

But there was (is) for the reviewer a "major weakness" in the essay: "its somewhat unclear structure". The point was elaborated in this way:

There is no initial overview, and no final summary. . . . The thematic composition suffers from a lot of back and forth, and it contains a combination of project report and theoretical argument which makes the paper too long, confusing and hard to follow. The statement of goals for the paper (or for the Rossetti Archive) is clear enough, but it is not always clear that the material discussed is relevant to these goals, and there is no clear evaluation of the results in terms of the goals.

I weighed these comments for some time before realizing they couldn't be dealt with through any kind of "revision" process. The reader's difficulties signalled a skew between an essay that was being looked for, and an essay that had actually been written. More importantly, this skew seemed to me an index of a wider division of thought about how to address certain key conceptual issues that attend many current projects involving "computers" and "humanities" scholarship. The problem with printing the images represents an elementary version of this larger question.

 

 

 

09 Moulthrop, Stuart_Hypertext and the Laws of Media


You Say You Want a Revolution? Hypertext and the Laws of Media

Stuart Moulthrop

© 1991
PMC 1.3

 
The original Xanadu (Coleridge's) came billed as "a Vision in a Dream," designated doubly unreal and thus easily aligned with our era of "operational simulation" where, strawberry fields, nothing is "real" in the first place since no place is really "first" (Baudrillard, Simulations 10). But all great dreams invite revisions, and these days we find ourselves perpetually on the re-make. So here is the new Xanadu(TM), the universal hypertext system proposed by Theodor Holm Nelson--a vision which, unlike its legendary precursor, cannot be integrated into the dream park of the hyperreal. Hyperreality, we are told, is a site of collapse or implosion where referential or "grounded" utterance becomes indistinguishable from the self-referential and the imaginary. We construct our representational systems not in serial relation to indisputably "real" phenomena, but rather in recursive and multiple parallel, "mapping on to different co-ordinate systems" (Pynchon 159). Maps derive not from territories but from other map-making enterprises: all the world's a simulation.
 
 

This reality implosion brings serious ideological consequences, for some would say it invalidates the informing "master narratives" of modernity, leaving us with a proliferation of incompatible discourses and methods (Lyotard 26). Such unchecked variation, it has been objected, deprives social critique of a clear agenda (Eagleton 63). Hyperreality privileges no discourse as absolute or definitive; critique becomes just another form of paralogy, a countermove in the language game that is techno-social construction of reality. The game is all- encompassing, and therein lies a problem. As Linda Hutcheon observes, "the ideology of postmodernism is paradoxical, for it depends upon and draws its power from that which it contests. It is not truly radical; nor is it truly oppositional" (120).

 

 

10 honoria in ciberspazio. De la teoría a la práctica.


A worldwide effort has been underway for four years to make a cyberspace opera, not by one lone person behind a single computer, but by you, and the person who came to this page before you, and the person who will be here tomorrow..

honoria in ciberspazio is an opera in the making. We invited everyone who visited these pages to send poetry about their Internet-facilitated relationships. This website is the hub and repository of the project.

honoria in ciberspazio is a romantic, collaborative opera. Over 60 contributors have sent their poetry and arias to the libretto, the opera's script. Thus, the libretto is written by net-citizens, people with intimate knowledge of the ways virtual relationships form and deconstruct in cyberspace. The opera's characters sing and type their words into the constant flow of Internet information. Their fragmented net communication leads to misunderstandings, complex philosophical positioning, confrontations, danger and love. Original music is being composed by George Oldziey. The project is headed towards a full-scale professional opera stage production.

This opera artfully expores insights into the complex ways in which online communication and relationships are experienced by many of us. Since the days of the beginning of the project, activity in the on-line social realm has been steadily growing, making the subject of this work of art one of ever-present relevance

 

 

  • http://www.cyberopera.org/

 

 

 



© VFL at UVPress, València 2007

 

 

 

Cyberspace and the Future of Memory

a Wimpy Point Presentation owned by Vicente Fores Lopez .



de esta wimpy © uvpress.uv.es © Dr. Forés


© Prof. Pierre Lévy

00 Presentación http://www.cibersociedad.net/


Cyberspace and
the Future of Memory
Vic
e-week 2006
Prof. Pierre Lévy
Canada Research Chair in Collective Intelligence
Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada
University of Ottawa

 

Evolution of Cultural Memory
Ubiquity, interconnection and activity of
signs. Semantic numbers.
Technical self-reproduction and
broadcasting of signs. Scientific notations.
Universal writing system using +/- 30
signs: phonograms. Positional notation, 0.
Technical memory of language: ideograms.
Numerals. Measurement units.
Myths, rites, oral transmission. Orality Icons.
Writing
Alphabet
Mass Media
Cyberspace
2000
1500
-1000
-3000
-300000

01 Digital Memory


DIGITAL MEMORY
documents
MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM FOR SEMANTIC ADRESSING
IEML
Information Economy Meta Language
RESEARCHERS COMMUNITIES
People - Applications
SYMBOLIC
WORK
OPEN
TOOLS
COMMON
WEALTH
INFORMATION
FLUX
WWW : URL - HTTP - HTML
Internet : TCP-IP
SEMANTIC WEB
RDF - SPARKL -
OWL - other norms -
XML - UNICODE

 

 

 

 

 

Human Language • Syntax – Combinations of elements – Multi-leveled articulation • Semantic – Potentially infinite # of distinct representations – Hierarchically organized in sets and subsets • Pragmatic – Ability to tie and untie a potentatially infinite # of human relationships, using syntax and semantic. • ==> Reflexive consciousness • ==> Culture (human collective intelligence)

02 Limits of the Contemporary Web


Limits of the Contemporary Web
• Linguistic, cultural and disciplinary fragmentation.
• Search engines look for characters strings instead
of looking for concepts or subjects (that are
independent from words in natural languages).
• No automatic hyperlink generation between
documents on same subjects.
• No automatic semantic distance calculus (even in
relatively homogeneous corpuses).
• No transverse automatic inferences (across
ontologies, terminologies or documentary
languages).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virtual Memory Architecture Computer Interconnection between transistors. Computer memory = bits addresses. Operating systems. Applications software Augmentation of logical and arithmetical processing. Internet Interconnection between computers. Internet Protocol = information servers addresses. Routers. Personal computing. Virtual communities.

03 Why Semantic Numbers ?


Why Semantic Numbers ?
• (1) Natural constraint: Natural languages (semantic
adressing systems of human memory) are designed by
biological evolution to be processed by brains, not by
computers.
• (2) Cultural opportunity: Interconnected automatic symbol
manipulators compose the global medium of human language
and cultural signs.
• (1) AND (2) => Problem: what semantic addressing for the
virtual memory of collective intelligence ?
• Response to the problem: A computable symbolic system
able to address any concept. IEML semantic numbers.
• Result: Fully automatable exploitation of the semantic content
of information across linguistic, cultural and disciplinary
barriers.

 

 

 

 

 

The Five Laws of Computational Semantics 1. No patent: Semantic numbers are public domain. 2. No exclusion: Semantic numbers address a virtually infinite variety of concepts. 3. No ontological hierarchy : Semantic numbers provide a peer to peer relation between concepts and ontologies. 4. No arbitrary authorithy: The IEML dictionary is built and discussed publicly by a multidisciplinary and multicultural community of ontology managers and metalaguage specialists. 5. No mystery: The IEML community develops a rational methodology to connect semantic numbers to concepts in natural languages.

 

04 Discursive Thought


Scholastic: Vox
Peirce: Foundation of sign
Husserl: Noeme
Linguistic: Referent
Scholastic: Res
Peirce: Object
Husserl: Object
Linguistic: Signified
Scholastic: Conceptus
Peirce: Interpretant
Husserl: Intentionnality
Sign
Being
Thing
Discursive

 

 

 

 

 

formal intelligence Practical intelligence inemteloltiigoennacle Religion, ethics, law, institutions, psychology relational thought pginohh, tiatilcrosts,,ophy, Haitnegucdrhniuctnsuitnirlctgyua,, rlfie sh hgaoiirunncgeghe, Culture

 

05 Computational Semantics


COMPUTATIONAL SEMANTICS
Scientific observation of collective intelligence
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

 

NUMBERS
Computers
Non-humans / Humans
Structures
Natures / Cultures
Computability
Notation
systems
CONCEPTS
Interpretants
Communities
Objects
Ontologies
Symbols
Cultures

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUMBERS Computers Non-humans / Humans Structures Natures / Cultures Computability Notation systems CONCEPTS Interpretants Communities Objects Ontologies Symbols Cultures SEMANTIC NUMBERS Mathematics, computer science, engineering Natural and social sciences, humanistic disciplines, ontologies management Addressing, measurement and calculus of conceptual dynamics in cyberspace Transmission and development of knowledge on concepts ecosystems COMPUTATIONAL SEMANTICS

 

 

06 SAA Hyperessay on Electronic Shakespearean Criticism


http://www.colby.edu/personal/l/leosborn/solutions.html


The shift in the balance of power between writer and reader in the hypertext essay demands several things which many literary critics are unaccustomed to considering. First, the hypercritic must cultivate an awareness of technological availability and utility and willingly ride the wave of an unending learning curve. Since coping with technological glitches and learning new software takes time and energy, the virtual scholar must balance the demands of research and argument against the requirements of actually reproducing those arguments on the Web.

More disturbingly, perhaps, we webbed critics must consider both the visual impact and spatial dimensions of our published work as we write it. Even with the helpful tool of an HTML editor, there are two layers to every webpage in progress--what you see and what you write. And your readers' responses--and willingness to follow from page to page--can depend as much on visual appeal as on developing content.

The different process of writing, with its components of programming, spatial relationships and artistic deign, yields a product which may defy easy evaluation. The intellectual usefulness of a web essay depends on how well the form fits the content; the evaluations of the work may rely on a combination of utility and currency or on an elaborate balance of hits and web citations.

But the more important question is what such a structure offers scholarship. Although web work may sacrifice the comforting historical record of a career's progress, piled up in a heap of offprints and books, it promises to offer an openendedness to ongoing scholarship which should be as satisfying to the literary critic as it is to the textual editors of Shakespeare. The problems may be many, but the rewards are potentially great. The conclusions we draw about this new form will likely depend on the examples we encounter.


breaking out of the text

 http://www.colby.edu/personal/l/leosborn/saa1.html
SAA Hyperessay on Electronic Shakespearean Criticism

 http://www.colby.edu/personal/l/leosborn/saalong.html

 

 

© VFL at UVPress, València 2007

 

 

00 INDICE_Módulo Multi MEDIA básico Público

a Wimpy Point Presentation owned by Vicente Fores Lopez .


<>Hola,
nos serviremos de este espacio para poder intercambiar opiniones, preguntas, sugerencias, dudas, etc.
Así animaros a hacer frecuente uso de este espacio compartido y veamos hasta dónde podemos llegar.


salut

vicente

02:01 PM, 19 Feb 2007 by Vicente Fores Lopez Permalink | Edit | Draft | Delete

presentación

First of all, I would like to introduce myself because, although this is going to be an online course, I still like to know my peer researchers. My name is Teresa and this year I will finish with the MMModules, and my objective is to present my "Trabajo de Investigación" and the "DEA" the following academic year. I am pretty much interested in translation studies in general, and in audiovisual translation in particular – be it dubbing, subtitling, or subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing. I studied a master degree on audiovisual translation last year, and nowadays I’m working as a freelance translator for some companies. My aim is to include translation studies into my PhD research. I’m also very much interested in gender issues and therefore my research will probable tackle these two aspects. I would like to know the other "doctorandos". I hope you all follow my initiative! Good luck to everyone. Teresa Agost

by Teresa Agost Porcar on 02/20/07 | Edit | Delete

Introduction and comments

Hi. My name is Stan McDaniel, and this will be my last year of academic classes also. I haven´t chosen a "linea de investigación" just yet, but I´m working on it. This type of course is new to me as I am used to breaking my neck trying to get to the classes. I have read the presentation "Cyberspace and the Future of Memory" and, although I am not a cyberspace geek by any means, I have tried to understand it and I can offer a few comments (which are a bit superficial, but I´ve tried). First of all, I am very pro internet and cyberspace. I didn´t used to feel comfortable with it, but it has made my life so easy and made everything so accessible that I have grown to depend on it almost on a daily basis. It has also made my life at work much easier. I appreciate that nothing is perfect and way out there in cyberspace there are loads of flaws and imperfections, but can anyone tell me another more efficient way of reaching so much knowledge in so little time? As I interpret from Prof. Lévy´s presentation, cyberspace has opened up a whole new world of lack of privacy, lack of ownership and, on the bright side, a wonderful world of an infinite variety of concepts. I found the part about Virtual Memory Architecture to be very interesting as well because, and even though I am not familiar with the terminology used by Prof. Lévy, it shows in a very clear manner how all data is linked together and how one piece of information leads to another, etc., etc. As I said at the beginning of my comment, I am no expert in this field, and I would like to hear more in-depth comments about it.

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 02/25/07 | Edit | Delete

Comments

I've tried twice to put this commentary in the weblogger, but after two attempts it seems no-one can see it - or at least I can't. So, I decided to post the comments here, as Stan has already done. To start with, I should say that my knowledge about computers and the internet is that of a user level. I use it every songle day for work, since it hs become an essential tool, but I am not an expert. That means that when I first read the “article” I, honestly, did not understand a word. After several times and searching for extra reading on the internet, I have realized what the text is about. Undoubtedly, the expansion of the internet has helped and facilitated the work of many people: researchers can now have more information at hand, and also expand their own study or research; it allows communication in real time among users; standard users have the widest information one could ever imagine, information can be sent and received fastest then ever, etc. However, it seems this useful tool can still be improved. As far as I have understood, the IEML Semantic Numbers is still a project, but it will facilitate even more the web search since it aims – among other things – to link concepts – what he calls Noosphere – instead of identifying words. However, I still have a question concerning how this “re-organization” of the resources available on the web is going to be carried out. Can anyone shed any light?

by Teresa Agost Porcar on 02/26/07 | Edit | Delete

Aclaración del profe

First of all, please let us know who you all are as soon as possible. Second, before the wrong idea starts growing, this course is an on-line course, but that does not mean I do not want to meet with you. As soon as possible, I would like to have the chance to say hello personally to everyone and all of you. Those who have already visited with me in my office do not need to come back, unless they need anything from me that I can not supply through e-mail, but all the others, please come and say at least hello on Tuessday or Thursday from either 10:00 to 11:00 or from 13:00 to 15:00. My office is located on the sixth floor of Filología and the office number is 074. Please send me an e-mail the day before, because I am in and out of my office a lot, because we have too many meetings and too many burocratic affairs to solve, so if you want to make sure to meet with me, just drop me a line. see you soon salut Dr. Forés

by Vicente Fores Lopez on 02/27/07 | Edit | Delete

Carlos Garcia Serra

First, I'd like to tell you that it's been quite a long time since this online course started. But I did not have so much time left to look at these readings Fores gave us. My name's Carlos Garcia, and I'm applying for a post of a TAship in the university of Georgia for next semester. I'll be studying a MA degree, as well. So I was quite busy doing some stuff for it. I'd like to do the Master's degree, and thinking of doing my phd there. I'm now very interested in the linguistic side every time I read something, and my improvement of the usage of the English language. I'm working by Cambridge School as an English teacher. I'd really like to know exactly what the interconnection between significations (IEML) is working at the moment, and if there will be any improvements with this new system of searching data. I'd also like to know to what extent we could keep all our worldwide data on the Net, like when you want to sell or rent an ancient book in a bookstore or library, trying to save all old information on a virtual library. Do you think we'll have space enough to save data? It's also very curious how the evolution of cultural memory has changed, when druids have been doing by heart all their act rituals by oral transmission, and how nowadays cyberspace, with virtual memory architecture: Noonshere, Web, Internet, Computers. It's crucial in our lives to have a computer to work on everyday because it has become an essential tool to what I'm doing, and Internet is even more important for our communication to the world, and a window of data which is important for our lives. Summing up, I'll be thinking of your suggestions and reply you as soon as possible, but before I'd like you to explain to me exactly what exactly this new system consists of, and why this noosphere is going to improve our lives.

by Carlos Garcia Serra on 04/09/07 | Edit | Delete

Comment to Carlos García

Hi, You seem to be more computer proficient than me, but your doubts are probably common to everyone. I can´t help you out on your first question, but I can give you an overall comment to your message. First of all, I can´t imagine old books and collector´s items vanishing from personal collections, bookshops and libraries. What will probably happen is that they will be worth a lot of money as the tendencies will be going toward virtual memory and downloading everything from the internet. Probably similar to what is happening to video films and DVD. As far as memory is concerned, you´ve got me on that one. I´m sure some geek or computer wizard will invent something to overcome this problem. What I don´t foresee is a physical teacher being substituted by a screen because this would trash all the motivation necessary in order to learn. Basically, I´m just "going with the flow" because if not, I´ll get left behind... Stan McDaniel

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 04/14/07 | Edit | Delete

Summary and comment on THE NECESSARY EVIL and THE GUTENBERG ELEGIES

The following are my comments and opinions about the articles number 2 (“Theory: The Necessary Evil”) and number 3 (“The Gutenberg Elegies”). Since I already commented about the first article at the beginning of the semster, “Cyberspace and the Future of Memory”, this article is not included. Again, my limited knowledge of cyberspace and internet will be noticeable in my comments, however, I have tried to at least understand the texts and follow up with a short analysis-opinion. I found the text “Theory: The Necessary Evil” to be interesting in that it presents the idea that educators are finding that the way knowledge is being presented nowadays is in a certain way “leaving them behind” and even perhaps proving that they may not hold all the answers or maybe mistaken. Even their research is being criticized for not being profound enough and maybe not producing what it should be in the beginning. According to the text, spending a lot of time on questions which do not hold an answer is a waste, and if the researcher knows what he is doing does not lead to an answer, then this is the “evil” of theory. On the other hand, it is understood and accepted that no research method is perfect and is “good enough” for the community it was meant for. Any flaw the method has will eventually be ignored by the people interested in its development and results. The funny thing is that, in the early stages of a research, people do not really care if the results are valid or not, but are mainly interested in the results are valid or not, but are mainly interested in the fact that they have something to read and talk about. Later on, however, people become a bit more demanding and are interested in seeing that all the time invested was worth it and there is a result. Many times, conclusions cannot be reached simply because they do not fit in the context of a particular community or does not meet the standards, making them totally impractical or even impossible. In the case of educational research, there needs to be a justification. This can be very difficult at times because it all depends on who is interested in the results, and what their particular objectives are at any given moment. In my opinion, this article shows how frustrating the whole research process can be and, many times, the amount of time and energy invested lead to nowhere for many people. From reading the article we can see that there are certain factors which control how the research is carried out or even control the results. One of these factors is how a particular person preceives the whole research process and its results and another factor is purely economics: the more funding received the better the research is. The second text to be commented on is “The Gutenberg Elegies”. In the fragment, “Into the Electronic Millenium”, we are given a peek into what reading will be like in the future. Screens replace pages, books become obsolete, and printed material no longer makes any sense. Electronic information moves along network, visual media, impression and image are more impotant than logic and concept. One important development is the commercially-sponsored education packages brought to the classroom by Whittle Communications. The idea is that it exploits the usage of TV in order to make it more attractive to younger students. Schools would receive free equipment under the condition that they participate and air the shows (using students as anchors who present a news-like program). Robert Zich, who is a projects expert in the Library of Congress, sees favorably the hand-held electronic book and even a miniature encyclopedia and is impressed by their portability. It is obvious that the transition from the culture of the book to the culture of electronic communication will alter in some way the language. Syntax, spelling, everything changes as it becomes abbreviated and molded to fit the new age of communication. Even the way we view our own selves is changing. For example, our lives are becoming much more transparent and we are always “connected” to something or someone. The next fragment, “Perseus Unbound”, deals with the innovation of interactive video technologies. This will make libraries all but disappear as students can consult any topic in color, three dimension, make comments, get answers, etc. without even having to search through dusty shelves. A potential danger of this magnificent invention: we will have to think less as everything will be practically given to us. In the fragment, “Close Listening”, we see where all we have to do is listen and receive information. The last fragment, “Hypertext: Of Mouse and Man”, explains the meaning of the term “hypertext”: it is a term which describes the writing done in the nonlinerar or nonsequential space made possible by the computer. Hypertext represents a type of technology which is divergent, interactive and plural, and lets the reader unchain himself from the author. It is not clear whether or not the hypertext is the response to peoples´ needs and desires or is simply the end product of the evolution of technology. The use of word processing makes writing and style practically uniform, unlike before where a person would create an original work. Navigating around cyberspace can sometimes be confusing, frustrating and even exhausting. As we navigate we see that the idea of “text” loses its original certainty in that it is expressed in so many different ways. If all these novelties overwhelm us, we have to accept the idea that technology is still in its infant stage and will change even more in the near future. In my opinion, these fragments of “The Gutenberg Elegies” are meant to make us sit up and reflect on the revolution of the internet and cyberspace and how it will afford a completely different notion of the media, texts, expression and even how we learn and view knowledge.

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 04/14/07 | Edit | Delete

Commentary of texts (II)

Here it is my commentary on the texts, from 2 to 9. In his Theory: The Necessary Evil, I agree with Becker in the necessity of getting along with the new technologies – although sometimes development occurs so quickly that it seems we, common users, are always running behind its back. All this development can be used as a tool so that students see and understand the connection between their studies and the real world. If in everyday life, computers are needed in the vast majority of jobs, why not using them to teach school subjects? However, the teacher in charge should consider beforehand how and why this usage will be done and what s/he aims to achieve. Stated in that way, this porcess is a similar to the research process. The researcher focuses on a topic and uses the tools considered appropriate in order to achieve his/her objective or aim. However, the results will be “relative” in the sense that they will never be objective. What can be considered an objective result? Reality can be seen from different angles and, even though, the research leads us to great conclusions, there will always be parameters that have not been considered in that determined research. Birkets in The Gutenberg Elegies foresees the disappearance of the libraries, as we understood them nowadays. Libraries are at risk of disappearing as the place to look for information and they will become museums where ancient books will be observed. More and more information can be “downloaded” from the internet and this, undoubtedly, facilitates the work of many researchers and specialists. However, a few questions rise in my mind at this point. As far as Birkets defends, reading from the screen is different from reading from the paper. He refers mainly to the relationship that the reader establishes with the “text”. Rather, I would say that the reader works differently since s/he is making use of different sources (therefore, the reader will take notes differently, for example). In any case, it is important to highlight the possibilities of hypertexts, understood as an “interactive” reading in which the reader takes an active role and decides which path to follow in his/her reading process. Bolter in his Degrees of Freedom opposes the virtual to the hypertextual similar to the opposition between visual and verbal. He defines the hypertext as a “text” that is open to the readers, that is subject to revision and therefore a “text” with multiple meanings and messages. This multiplicity characteristic of the hypertext is contrasted with the linearity of the “traditional book”. In the subsequent sections of his article, Bolter rises the well-known question: will the hypertexts completely replace written books? In my opinion, technology and hypertexts are useful in many senses, and facilitates the difficult task of finding research articles, or resources in general. However, the book will keep the magic of reading for pleasure, without the necessity of being in front of the screen. You might feel I am old-fashioned, but I still feel that way. Anyway, we don’t know what will happen in 10 or 20 years and how things will develop, but I think that printed books will still be used, and people will continue buying them. In his article, Kendall demonstrates the reality of hypertexts. He does not theorize about the terminology or the concepts but rather he puts real examples and explains his own experience with hypertexts. It seems that he – as well as other authors – has been successful using this new technique. His experience started by mixing his poetry with music and some images and from that, it has developed into more complex hypertexts which demand the reader a new attitude towards the piece of work. This technique is becoming more and more common among writers and it will surely develop in ways we had never thought before. In Comp(u/e)ting Editorial F(u/ea)tures, McGann exposes by a personal experience the future of texts and printed publications. In his own opinion, publishing on the web provides much more facilities than printing – besides of cost reduction. He foresees the increasing of on-line journals and the slow extinction of the printed publications. These ideas link with Moulthrop’s argument. For him, the books are dead – in his own words – and a new reality is taking their place. However, although he defends the publication on the web for several reasons – less expensive, less environmentally aggressive, more accessible... – he also seems a bit agnostic about the future of this medium. He compares it with the beginning of other media such as television and the radio; their actual state differs reasonably from the beginning. Therefore, Moulthrop's concerns are related with the future of the online publications, what will they be used for and how will they used for. To sum up, I see now that there are much more possibilities on the World Wide Web that I knew before. However, it seems that there is still a lot of work to be done. Many resources can be found on the internet, however, not everything is valuable and the reader/researcher should pay careful attention to the source of the information. I don’t intend to diminish the importance of the Internet as a research tool, which I consider very useful. But on the other hand, I am myself quite reluctant to accept the “death” of the books as some specialists defend.

by Teresa Agost Porcar on 04/20/07 | Edit | Delete

Texts 4-9

According to Bolter in “Degrees of Freedom”, and I fully agree, the written text is becoming less and less important, being substituted by TV and film, and to top everything off, now we have the hypertext which makes it even more appetizing. It is much “easier” to just sit back and let the information sink in, rather than hold a book and have to read. We are starting to learn, reason and live in an imaginary world where anything is possible and there are no limits. The term “virtual” is now part of our everyday jargon. Virtual representation is the logical counterpart to hypertextual representation. Computer graphics have become so perfected that the viewer can now imagine himself inside the virtual reality he is observing at a given moment. The old saying, “a picture is worth a thousand words”, seems to hold true to the new technology because even newspapers are turning into picture books. I have personally noticed this by reading the online versions of CNN and USA Today. All you have to do is to read the headlines, then gaze at the photographs – no reading required, and you still become informed about what is happening in the world today. In “Writing for the New Millenium”, Kendall highlights that the computer has turned into an indispensible tool for the writer who is becoming more and more proficient at taking full advantage of its wide range of possibilities. As a consequence, electronic publishing is flourishing. Even I have noticed that when attending a conference many participants have their laptap open and ready to type away or consult the internet on any doubt that may pop up during the session. Another thing is that nowadays everything is “interactive”,even literature. You can jump from chapter to chapter, episode to episode, depending on your needs and interests and you can participate in the plot. This is a great improvement over the hypertext. Just about every piece of literature you can imagine is now in electronic format. I resisted at first, but I now realize that this new technology is absolutely necessary for teaching and for motivating students to learn. We have to keep up with the times in order to keep up with the students. In McGann´s “Computing Editorial Features”, we see the problem faced by the author who was not satisfying the needs of certain readers. In the case of McGann, the choice to include or not full color images in the paper became a nightmare. Apparently, not everyone is ready for the electronic text age, because McGann´s article was not accepted for that reason: he wanted to upload it on the internet in order to make the images available to everyone and not have to spend a small fortune on including color pictures in the hard copy which was being revised. I can understand the problem here: we cannot just assume that 100% of the world´s population is ready for this electronic revolution. My own personal experience is quite frustrating: I still can´t convince international students to fill out the online version of the application form and send it to the university by internet. They prefer to print it out, complete it in longhand and mail it to me by regular post. And I´m talking young people, aged 19-22 years old who, theoretically, should be electronic-literate by now. In other words, we have a ways to go yet. In the article written by Stuart Moulthrop, “Hypertext and the Laws of Media”, I detect a certain degree of pessimism in the future of hypertext and the media. I can understand this because, as Moulthrop states in his article, we should stop for a minute and listen to the people in the street in order to see which direction we are headed. For example there clearly exist cultural and educational gaps among the population, and maybe we aren´t ready for or worse yet, don´t have the capability of coping with an “electronic revolution” so soon. After having read these articles and spending some time reflecting on their message, I think we need to find a balance between the traditional text and the electronic one. In my opinion, too much is at play to simply try to erase a system which has worked for centuries without considering all the consequences.

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 04/22/07 | Edit | Delete

Self Introduction

Hello, everyone! I feel a little bit awkward introducing myself at this point of the course, but this is the first time in my life I am participating in a Blog, and I have been playing with Aula Virtual for a long long time until I finally managed (by accident) to find the web address that would give me access to the Blog and therefore allow me to participate in it by adding my commentaries. Well, after (unsuccessfully) excused myself, let me introduce myself: My name is Jordi, and I have been living in Japan ever since I graduated in 1999. I am now on my second year of this PhD course, and hope to get all the modules done by the end of June, so that I can start with the investigation project. I have not decided yet what will be my "linea de investigacion", but I guess it will be something dealing with the comparative studies between Japanese and English Language on the grounds of modality. When I arrived to Japan I worked for 3 years as a Coordinator for International Relationships in the international division of a Japanese local authority. This was part of a world program organized by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs that aimed to promote the relations between Japan and the rest of the world. Now I am working as a Spanish language and literature teacher in a Japanese university near Osaka. And I guess this is about it. I also hope that this course turns into a fruitful experience for everyone, and that we can learn a lot from each other. I am a total amateur in this field (as you might have already noticed) so I am sure I will learn a great amount from all of you.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Pierre Levy's Article

For the last years we have been making use of the internet to the extent that it has become such a natural and a necessary tool for our daily lives that work and leisure time would be almost unthinkable without owning a computer connected to the web at home or at work. However, Lévy’s article on cyberspace and the future of memory makes us reconsider the vast possibilities of this powerful tool. I think it is a very sharp presentation that shows us with some real connections between both sides: us, humans, and the machines. Especially it is interesting the way Lévy depicts the cyberspace as the evolution of the cultural memory; how through the web we can take advantage of its ubiquity and interconnection, how it allows users from their homes to create a cultural network were thoughts and intelligence can be shared crossing every barrier. In other words: it is a way to delete de line between the active writer and the passive reader, where this last one, is enabled to take a role and make the relationship go both ways and become interactive. Machines, so far cannot think for themselves, and just follow the parameters that have previously been programmed and designed by humans. A clear example can be seen in the failure of the automatic translating devices, or the lack of precision of the web search engines, which are having trouble in distinguishing typed strings from real concepts. In addition to this, the IEML theory is very interesting, as a proposal to make the most of the semantic possibilities, go beyond linguistic limitations and build up a communication system. Again the idea of connecting the terms of hardware, software and conceptware is very worth mentioning, as well as the rational methodology to relate semantic numbers to natural languages. However, these IEML and semantic numbers projects, despite of how appealing they may look, still sound as a utopia to me, and I think it will still take decades until it becomes a feasible enterprise. Nevertheless, it is a good starting point for the construction of a universal system of communication.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Howard S. Becker's Article

I was really thrilled by Becker’s text, and it kept me reading until the end. However, in spite of the clearness of the article and the fact that it was written in a very plain and direct style, I had some difficulty in comprehending all the ideas, especially because I was not fully acquainted with terms and disciplines such as epistemology, quality and quantity research. After some quick research, I could sum some of the terms up. Thus, epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification. It also deals with the questions of what knowledge is, how it is acquired and what do people know. In other words, it is the study of the difference between practical and theoretical reason. That is to say, becoming acquainted with the differentiation between the idea of knowing how something works and the idea of just knowing that something is or should be a certain way. The other important definition is, the qualitative research, as the main method of approach in social science, and therefore, the study of human behavior (it focuses at the “why” and “how”). It will therefore, give importance to detail and context, rather than gathering large random samples as the scientific or quantitative research would do (it focuses at the “what”, “where” and “when”). Surprisingly, these definitions could summarize quite well the whole article, since the bottom line deals with the justification for the social studies as an answer to the attacks from the other disciplines (scientific studies). While scientist, among others, argue that social research does not have a stable basis, Becker states that after all, we sooner or later have to rely on social conventions and organizational facts (conform with a data or a evidence that is “good enough” although not 100% accurate). Even scientists have to keep going on in spite of knowing the data might not be completely correct, in the same way social science has to work upon the convention that a result from a poll is accurate and has no errors. The author is open-minded and honest, by admitting the philosophy of social science also has its flaws, and that we need to listen and learn from the critiques from the others. After all, reality is something no one can fully define or grasp form an objective point of view, and that everything can be questioned. Furthermore, since no reality is fully demonstrable, there must be a certain point in which we need to agree on something and “what we agree on becomes the fact”. Moreover, we have to investigate on the premise that for any sort of research, a theory is necessary, even if we are talking about the implicit theory of knowledge.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Sven Birkerts' Article

With only a few exceptions, we could state that every change produces certain fears. Changes scare us because they imply we will have to deal with something different from what we are used to, and therefore, it means we will have to start a process of learning a new system in order to still be competent. Society evolves, and the human being, based on experience and research offers us new options that supposedly improve the way we did things before, saving us time and effort; in other words, making us more productive. Changes can, obviously, be for better or for worse. And even the good ones have a negative counter effect. Take for instance the car: it surely saves time as a transportation method if we compare it to the horse, but it causes more ecological damage and it has a higher risk of accident. Furthermore, if we look back in history, we can easily find inventions that should never have been brought to light, like for instance, the nuclear weapons; in spite of the fact that many people claim that the fear of the devastating effect of these new weapons, might stop humanity from going into a III World War. Having all these factors in mind Birkerts position and point of view towards the switch from the printed text to the hypertext is understandable. He looks at the imminent fading out of the book culture with melancholy and he is afraid of the consequences of the coming new era, even though, not only at the time of the writing of the article (1994) but even now we still seem to be victims trapped in the middle of a “period of overlap”, and therefore, we are not fully enabled to foresee the future of the next decades. As the author of the text puts it, we are in a “proto-electronic” moment. While the reading of a printed text is a linear action, and it is defined by Birkerts as a private engagement, the text on the screen, it is not linear any more, or at least the electronic order stops it from potentially being so. On the other hand the screen text is interactive, and therefore, we should talk about a public engagement. All in all, it is hard for us to decide which one is better, and if the advantages of the hypertext outrun its disadvantages. Birkerts states that the print medium exalts the word and brings permanence, against the data on a computer or on the net. This is an arguable statement, since books also deteriorate with time, and a properly saved computer data could last for decades without suffering the unavoidable effects of erosion. However, it is true that all these new CD-ROM Media sets with all this new ways to approach Shakespeare, or other historical characters or facts, overflows the reader with explanatory footnotes (links) and information, and makes more difficult the direct encounter and experience with the raw text of, for instance, an Old English play of sonnet. This could become an obstacle for the development of thinking, the forging of new ideas and the way a reader struggles to understand and build up new theories as the natural reaction or impulse that a difficult to understand verse or line could cause on us. The other clear issue is the new relationship that is being created between the person and the web. There is a tendency to get hooked on the web, and although this can bee seen as a development of the interactivity, and therefore, as a promotion of the output of the ideas that otherwise might remain in our mind, it can also delude the private self, and the capacity to be comfortable with ourselves. Quoting the author: The expansion of electronic options is always at the cost of contractions in the private sphere. We will soon be navigating with ease among cataracts of organized pulsations, putting out and taking in signals. We will bring our terminals, our modems, and menus further and further into our former privacies; we will implicate ourselves by degrees in the unitary life, and there may come a day when we no longer remember that there was any other life. We could say that this argument collides against Lévy’s theory on the advantage of the transition from natural language to semantic numbers as a positive shift. On the other hand, Birkerts thoughts of research on natural science and science of cultures complement Becker’s idea of the science of culture as an individual act that needs a context, and needs understanding the opaque. Media substitutes this opacity for transparency, but it actually just gives us an illusion of understanding, that can be misunderstood with the illusion of access, and is at the same time with the "anticontextual". This new media can also atrophy our minds, and shorten our memory capacity, since the mastering of the new technology will provide us with a know-how of how to access the information but not helping us to retain it. And this could be bad if we think that possessing information is the base of intelligence, because it allows us to interrelate and link the new information with the one we already knew. The final issue that remains unsolved is whether the change in relationship between the skilled writer and the trained reader will be a positive thing or not. The canonical “domination of the author” is dethroned when the relationship becomes more interactive, and the reader can add thoughts to the original text. As Birkerts states, we will not be reading anymore, but “texting” or “word-piloting”. In conclusion, we could say that all the author ideas are well reasoned and based, but we could argue that it all depends on the extent of things, and on the level to which we bring things. There are types of text that are meant to be read in an unidirectional way, like, for instance a famous novel, and texts that are put on the web to provoke thought and discussions. It will depend on what we are looking for and on what we have in front of us.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Jay David Bolter's Article

Bolter’s review on freedom through the world of hypertext and virtual reality is really enriching since it perfectly finds a balance between the modern modes of representation and the most traditional conception of the self. As a starting point, the writer presents the different ways of prose, and how it has switched from oral to printed text, and finally how it has been affected with the introduction of photography, films and computer graphics. The traditional definition of self can enter into crisis when we think of the cyberspace culture, and the self cannot be constructed as an authorial and autonomous voice any longer, becoming instead a wondering eye, that shifts from one perspective to another. In hypertext, the elements are not linear, and they only happen when the reader wants them to happen. Therefore, we could state, that in opposition to the traditional book, each reader will give the hypertext a new point of view, depending on the path he/she follows through the maze of links. In other words, the writer of the hypertext loses control on the reader in comparison to the writer of the printed book, since he can organize the structure of links, but he cannot decide how the reader will navigate through them. The other concern is what would become of literature, in society, were visual is preferred over linguistic representations. In the World Wide Web, we can still find lots of text, in spite of the huge amount of graphics, pictures, sounds and colors. We switch from one page to another with just one click, so each page has just a few seconds to attract and make us feel to want to keep reading the page. In other words, the first impression will be determined by the images as a threshold to the text (hypertext). Although on a second level, the text will still have its place. However, as Bolter emphasizes it, virtual reality, is an attempt to recreate a new world, similar to the reality we live in, and therefore, where we accept this graphic world as our reality. In this definition, the text has almost no place, and it is almost inexistent. All we might get, apart from images, are sounds, some voices, and maybe some words as a definition to some of the icons on the screen, like the ones on walkman or car. As the author will later conclude, this could be the real enemy to the book, and not the hypertext, which is after all, another mode of representation, a continuation of the prose or written text. In fact, there is a common point between books and hypertext: the design of the typography as a graphic symbol is not important, for the “typographer’s goal is to make the typeface as transparent as possible. The reader is not supposed to notice the shapes of the letters.” This is why it is still early to decide the fate of the book, because, even though we might narrow the role of the book in the future to the literature area (the scientific text might be more linked to computerized technology), books will keep existing as long as they are easier to read than the computer screen. The real problem is whether people will keep wanting to read literature or not. The book calls up images on the reader’s mind, and a whole world can be depicted and look as real as the real world (as long as the writer’s’ narrative skills and the reader imagination allow it). Nevertheless, it is difficult to beat the world that a movie or the virtual reality provides us, where this world is already manufactured, and therefore requires a smaller effort for the viewer’s mind. The opposition between virtual reality and hypertext could be compared to the one between painting and poetry. Or to put in other words: it is the difference between looking at an object (book or painting) and looking through it, as it can easily happen with virtual reality, where we are created an illusion, where the graphic environment is so real that we do not feel we are looking at an object anymore in order to enjoy a new reality. We do not need the word to capture the real world (ekphrasis), since with the graphic image the reality is already offering us an alternative word. Then, after accepting that the text is absent in virtual reality (virtual silence), and that the viewer controls the point of view, since it is not looking at the object through a painting but he/she finds him/herself in the same visual space as the objects, Bolter makes an interesting approach at virtual reality from the Cartesian point of view. One interpretation of Descartes’ thoughts would be that the only acceptable reality is our own mind and not what our senses tell us. Therefore, experiencing the world as others do would be unthinkable. But, on the other hand, forgetting about the body and see ourselves as thinking agents, as Descartes would suggest, could be the first step into the fusion with virtual reality or the cyberspace. Finally, as another approach to the hypertext, we could think of it as a new definition of the writer, who works in collaboration of the readers, and implies that the ego is always in a process of definition. Going back to the virtual world, the writer argues that there is a virtual knowing, and that the best way to know is through empathy, that is, we learn by experiencing how does it feel to be like someone or something. But to practice this empathy, we need to have free access to as many points of view as possible, to have access to information. This also raises a controversial issue, since there are also marginalized groups who lack this freedom of access, who cannot enter into this community or network.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Robert Kendall's Article

After reading some of the articles or hypertext, it was a pleasant surprise to discover Kendall’s text, for it is by far the author with the most optimistic and positive view on the topic. The main stream of argument for the other experts of the hypertext topic was mainly focused on the confrontation between the printed book and the text on the web, which are, almost all of them, expressing in one way or another, his or her concern of the future of literature or the role of printed text. When we read Kendall’s definition of the computer as “that remarkable melting pot of all communications (…) another medium for expressing the incomparable beauty and power of the word”, there is no doubt that he is not against the new electronic device. Furthermore, he sees the “cyberpage” as a flexible form that can offer possibilities that the paper cannot. His definition of the hypertext, as a breaking of the linearity of text, and as a way for the author to give a shaping role to the readers is still the same, but it adds the fact that the reader cannot only alter the order throughout the various links but also affect the contents. He even considers it a genre and calls it “interactive literature” or “electronic literature”. Kendall talks about the possibilities of publishing on disks or on the web, as a way to add more to the original text, through music, images, videos, and even animation of the text. It can become a sensual experience, and it can make genres like poetry more accessible to the reader by making it more understandable, and dcloser to the human sensorial world. Electronic literature should not be a threat to the books, since it is aiming for a new type of public, and in fact, it could attract people who were originally not attracted by poetry or literature in general. As others writers on hypertext also pointed out, making use of the era we are now, and thus making the use of the visual impact that images produce, a virtual space can be produced, creating a bond between the reader and the text. However, Kendall is realistic, and admits that the screen cannot offer the feeling and comfort of the book page, and that it is still painful to face a computer screen for hours. Technology will need to improve a lot to change this reality. Nevertheless, what is clear is that the two types of electronic literature (the hypertext and the electronic version of originally printed works) can be considered as a flourishing new genre that is inexpensive, reachable, and easy to be spread. A proof of this is that more and more authors are interested in publishing directly on the web and experiencing with its now possibilities. Furthermore, the publishers are also encouraging this movement. An interesting point is the one in which, in a way with these electronic devices, we are going back to oral poetry, where the storyteller could improvise and change his repertory based on the audience reactions. This is unthinkable for a printed anthology of poems, but for instance, the poetry on the web, that can be read and listened at the same time, and that offers at the same time a change to the reader to interact, play and create a path, gets very close to the oral world previews to the printed literature. Finally, Kendall claims that the hypertext author should always have a sense of responsibility and make sure that his/her work does not lose its coherence, no matter what path the reader should take. This is an interesting approach regarding the possible loss of authorial claim that other writers on hypertext theorist were mentioning. In conclusion, I really enjoyed the bright and positive approach of this text, and the way it sheds new light to the future of the literature, and gives a real shape to this new genre that will keep it alive within the future of the technology were almost everything will be taking place: the cyberspace.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Jerome McGann's Article

I found McGann’s article interesting because it was based on a personal experience, and he leads us through the process of how to find a solution and how to decide which is our real goal. This essay could also be seen as an interesting mixture of the eternal debate between printed text and computerized data text, as well as a practical guide of the techniques of how to organize the writing of an article or of a paper based on the rejection of one of his essays from a magazine and an skilled reader’s critique, respectively. The article starts with the dilemma of what to do with the pictures that illustrate the paper. The printing of these images on the paper based medium will cost a considerable amount of money, and since they were initially created with the computer, they will lose quality on the printed page. Moreover, the reader will not be able to appreciate the process so clearly. The solution seems clear if we think or the article as a web publication or electronic text: adding the images will not suppose any extra cost, the quality will not suffer, and the graphic features that the computer offers will help make the replaying and recreation of the process of the experiment more understanding to the readers. However, this is connected with another problem: the difficulty of indexing and the searching of image-based data and alphanumeric-based data. The image-based data enriches considerably the texts since it provides visual evidence, but it is much more difficult (impossible) to search or to index than the alphanumeric data, or at least it is with the present technology. Some claim that alphanumeric based editions are the most significant future trend in electronic edition, but this assertion can depend on what we mean by it. With today’s technology might be difficult, but a research focused on finding new techniques that allow a proper managing of the image-based data could be the first step. As McGann pointed it out, it is all a matter of point of view, and not mistaking “the future we think we know” for “the future we know we need”. Through experience and the mistakes we do when researching we can realize what we really need and use this hints to redirect our path of investigation. Realizing what we do not have and what we need is the first step to the achievement of our final goal. On the other hand, there is the issue of the readership. A paper based text, for instance a scientific magazine, tends to have a reduced number of readers or a narrow span compared to the web, but at the same time it targets and focuses on a more precise network of specialized readers who will really be interested on the subject. An article on the web can be missed much more easily. Furthermore, the creation of the electronic form version of the printed magazines is a very slow process. Nevertheless, we can advocate that the computerized text can offer a high quality data, offering both the critical and the facsimile edition, which would be impossible on the paper edition. Furthermore, if we think that the humanities scholars are interested in non hierarchical models or forms, we will have another reason to bet for the computerized versions. As a conclusion, I think this is a very thought provoking essay, with a very interesting philosophy: we might by “chance” or by mistake bump into a problem when undertaking our research, which can be understood as a hint from fate to open our eyes and see our real goal or the means to reach it. At the same time, it objectively shows us the strong and weak points of the computerized version of a text or article and its possibilities without discredit the printed world.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

On Stuart Moulthrop's Article

Moulthrop’s essay is more like a treaty on political philosophy than an article on hypertext, so it offers a very deep and innovative insight on the theme, using Nelson’s Xanadu as a concrete example. The comparison with Coleridge’s original unreal world of dreams is a very clever way to connect it at the same time with the literacy world and the multi parallel world. This reminds us of the cyberspace as conceived in the movies like “The Matrix”, which presents us a world that is a simulation, a sort of virtual reality. But Moulthrop adds a sharp remark that takes away any fantasy of revolution we might be incubating in our heads: if we are part of a simulated world, then we are also simulated objects that lay at the same level as we would lay in a real society, therefore any idea of radical action is impossible, or at least as unthinkable as it would be in the world we are living in. Furthermore, he goes beyond the hypertext, and introduces the concept of hyperreality. At the same time, its definition as a “writing practice” links the term with the original idea of hypertext, where the reader can also be a potential writer, editor or even publisher. Again here, the reader is not just presented as a navigator that creates a path through his/her link options but he can also be a creator. In other words, Moulthrop is suggesting what other authors have already mentioned in their works: that we can have the power to destabilize the social hierarchies and “promote broader definitions of authority”. Nevertheless, he goes again beyond that hypothetical idea, and asks how will “such a reconstruction of order and authority take place”, and who or how will redefine it. Xanadu is an attempt to reconfigure literature culture, and to reconstruct text as a variable-access database. Xanadu will be a textual universe, like an alternative reality, with its own “hypertextual Library of Babel”. It will be like the paradise of the writer and reader, a place were they can commerce ideas at almost the same level. This can also be seen as a sort of utopia, that is described by Nelson as “populitism”, where the popular and the elite will find themselves at the same ground level, without feeling the verticality of the hierarchies; a sort of anarchy. Xanadu will also have copyright and protection systems, so that the customer will need to pay to enjoy the services. However, when we deal with intangible items such as the ones found in the cyberspace, we have to be aware so some obvious problems, such as the difficulty of defining what belongs to who, and the potential perils of piracy and illegal access to break the system. On the second half of the article, Moulthrop mentions the McLuhan’s four “Laws of Media” and applies them to the hypertext, trying to define what does the hypertext enhance, what does it displace, what obsolete item does it retrieve and what does it produce when taken to its limit. It could be said that in a sort of paranoid way it enhances the text, in a world where everything is connected. Nevertheless, Moulthrop argues that hypertext is, after all not so different from the traditional idea of literature, “a temporally extended network of relations which successive generations or readers and writers perpetually make and unmake”. What is more, the fact that we do not posses the physical book in our hands, against the idea of many other experts on hypertext, makes us much more concern and conscious of the authority and design. For instance, when we find a remarkable writing on the net, or an incredible well designed web page, we wonder and want to know who the person responsible was. Furthermore, the author of this essay makes us aware that the interactivity of the hypertext is not unlimited, and that no matter how many paths and options we might be offered through the various links we will always be working with already-made texts, where while some options will be available, others will not, because the author decided so. As for the displacement that hypertext might cause, Moulthrop reminds us that the answer is not the book because the book is already dead in the sense that it is not an essential item in the commerce of ideas. Moreover, thinking in ecological terms, the web texts are not paper consuming and therefore are not limited by the availability of trees or other materials to produce more text material. The point is, whether literature will become obsolete or not. We should remember that other authors have claimed that, on the contrary, the web will be a guarantee that literature will remain alive. Although, again, it will still depend on what we consider as literature (many of the possibilities might end by just being amateur literature). What might become obsolete, according to Moulthrop is “post-literacy”, and that should be our main concern. As the third law states, hypertext might be a way to retrieve literacy, and therefore, be its future. But rather than speaking of retrieval, Moulthrop claims that we should be talking about “recursion”, that is “self-reference with the possibility of self-modification”, which is, after all, the original meaning and purpose of hypertext, which at the same time contains the two domains of literacy: literature (in its most strict meaning) and “writing space”. A secondary literacy might be thinkable if we accept the idea that it might be born within a system of chaos. This Neo-Chaos, however, as Moulthrop states it, can just mean an absence of order, where “new arrangements spontaneously assemble themselves”. Finally, taking hypertext to its limits, might as any other concept, reverse its characteristics. In the case of hypertext, rather than a reversal we should be thinking about a “recursion to a new cultural space”. The fact that even in hypertext there is a “genuine, negotiated consensus”, and that it is constructed by users for users, implies that Xanadu, will always be controlled, at least, to a certain extent. Moreover, if we think that technological development is managed by the companies (who will act as limit stoppers) and that is does not happen in the cyberspace, the worries of where might hypertext go if we take to its limit, should disappear.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 04/27/07 | Edit | Delete

My comments/opinions for Jordi and Teresa

I have a few comments to Jordi´s impressions of the texts. The first one, on Pierre Lévy´s article, Jordi thinks that it will probably take decades before the IEML and semantic numbers probjects take shape and become commonplace. I don´t agree because cyberspace technology moves so fast nowadays that before you know it, there is a new application, a new discovery, a new everything. Instead of decades, I´d say a few years at the most. I agree with Teresa´s comment that the death of the book is not forthcoming. I don´t believe that because of electronic texts and cyberspace that the printed version of books will die out, but, just like the video tape cartridges, will become fewer and fewer and be replaced by a different form. Just like Jordi summed up: “There are types of text that are meant to be read in an unidirectional way, like, for instance a famous novel, and texts that are put on the web to provoke thought and discussions. It will depend on what we are looking for and on what we have in front of us.” On Bolter´s article, Jordi says that we need to have free access to as much information as possible in order to practice the empathy mentioned by the author and that there are many groups which do not have this access. I fully agree, but I also know that in time there will be fewer and fewer people who do not have the possibility of accessing this information. I´m under the impression that since the world is shrinking more and more every day, technology and information spread like wildfire. I agree with what Jordi concluded from McGann´s text, that we the computerized version of texts can flourish while the printed version will also, but to a reduced number of people. I even think that we will live to see the day when printed texts/books will belong to an “elite” group of people and the computerized versions will be very commonplace.

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 04/28/07 | Edit | Delete

On Howard S. Becker's article

I really enjoyed reading this article, and it seems obviously that we should start having a solid theory before doing any practice. But the problem is to deal with sciences that are not as accurate as the "pure" science, and require a process in which we just think doing research because we're turning the topic into something interesting to talk about. Therefore, as paraphrasing Latour and what Jordi said, exactly on what we agree becomes the fact. But this reality we construct in our field, it is transformed every time researchers stablish new dicta. In other words, reality is more likely changeable and more flexible than other studies. So, that's why, in the world of social science, there's a social organization or a social convention which makes these studies improve, when inhancing their own situation to try to solve the problems raised by other disciplines. There are some epistemological worries about it though, we should claim that there's evidence of a progressive practical and theoretical reason, the qualitative research, and its own justification to prevent the attacks from the scientific studies. Statistics will always have some flaws in order to evaluate reality, but we need to take into account that social science will never be a precise study. We must think of enhancing these technical flaws based on hidden philosophical fallacies. Finally, although the empirical researchers should listen carefully to those messages from other disciplines, not a large amount of careful reasoning or thoughtful analysis will make the difficulties go away, "Nobody's perfect!" afterall. Social sciences are intrinsically imperfect.

by Carlos Garcia Serra on 05/05/07 | Edit | Delete

Our deadline is running out??

Hi everyone! I don´t know about everyone else, but I´m getting a little hyper thinking about what has to be done next. If I´m not mistaken, by the end of this month (!) we have to have our webpage up and running. According to Dr. Forés, we should present any doubts or problems here on the blog, so here I am. Does anyone know how to start?? There are only two weeks left and I don´t know where to begin. There is plenty of information about Shakespeare in Spanish and Cervantes in English, but I need suggestions on how to structure it. Besides, I´ve never created a webpage before. I look forward to hearing from someone.

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 05/13/07 | Edit | Delete

Marta Gutierrez

Hello everyone! My name is Marta and I have lived in London for over two years, working as a typist and a proofreader for TES (Times Educational Supplement). This is my last year as well as my last module before I go on with the "research work". In the personal aspect, this is being the happiest time of my life, as I´m enjoying motherhood since last November. Looking after Sivali is a hard job, since dedicating all your time and attention to a little one seems never enough, but it gives plenty of joy in exchange. To conclude, I want to wish good luck to everyone this year and hope we all get the best results with regard to this course. Nice to meet you all!

by Marta Gutierrez Campos on 05/14/07 | Edit | Delete

The Necessary Evil, by Howard Becker

I have followed with interest Becker´s text about the research process. In it, the writer defines the qualitative research as the main method of approach in social science. Qualitative research is not systematic in any impersonal way, accepts individual judgement, takes account of historical, situated detail and context, but research of this kind is faulted for not being able to produce "scientific", objective, reliable knowledge that will support prediction and control. Quantitative research, as oppossed to qualitative research, tries to be systematic and impersonal, precise, "scientific", but is also faulted for not including aspects of human behaviour and social life. As a result, we could conclude that no research method is good enough for all purposes and all people at all times.

by Marta Gutierrez Campos on 05/14/07 | Edit | Delete

The Gutenberg Elegies, by Sven Birkerts

In the first fragment, "Into the Electronic Millenium", we are presented a "proto-electronic" world, where we are captive by the expansion of electronic options, such as answering machines, banking by phone, shop via television, etc. The author foresees a future in which, for example, reading books or newspapers in printed pages will be replaced by reading on the screen of computers. As for education, one important development to enhance learning is the commercially sponsored education packages brought into the classroom by Whittle Communications. The schools would be given a satellite dish and classroom video monitors in order to air the show, which would resemble a network news program. This would include a report on a UN Security Council meeting on terrorism, a U2 music video tribute to Martin Luther King, a feature on the environment, a two-minute commercial, etc. As Robert Calabrese says, "we have to remember that children of today have grown up with the visual media". Educators will find that this way of learning captures students enthusiasm. Going back to reading, Robert Zich maintains that people will be able to get the information they want directly off their terminals and defends the use of the hand-held electronic book and a miniature encyclopedia. But Birkerts states three differences between reading from a printed page from reading on a screen. First, there is a tendency to simplify language. Second, our perception of history will inevitable alter, and as all information is equally accessible, we may lose this sense of chronology. And third, we increasingly accept to live within a set of systems, to be always potentially on-line. This leads to us living a less private life, a unitary life. The next fragment, "Perseus Unbound", deals with how interactive video technologies are being used more and more in all fields of study. To give an example, in the classics world we have Perseus 1.0. This innovative teaching tool published on CD-Rom and video disc offers a wide range of options, from being an interactive database, the equivalent of 25 volumes of ancient Greek literature by ten authors, to also including 6,000 images, and a short video with narration. The package is affordable, too. Nevertheless, the author´s attitude towards the use of these new technologies is quite skeptic. He thinks they represent an obstacle in the development of thinking and shorten our memory capacity, as we´ll have to think less and computers will give us all the information we need with the stroke of a key. Books, therefore, will become obsolete, as they are not the axis of our intellectual culture, and libraries will disappear. The last fragment, "Hypertext: Of Mouse and Man", refers to the writing done in the nonlinear or nonsequential space made possible by the computer. Its main characteristics are that it provides multiple paths between text segments, alternate routes. As Coover states, with a radically divergent technology, interactive and polyvocal, it favours a plurality of discourses and frees the reader from domination by the author, which was the point of writing and reading. Hypertext reader and writer become co-writers. Reading becomes more something like "texting" or "word-piloting".

by Marta Gutierrez Campos on 05/14/07 | Edit | Delete

Writing for the New Millenium, by Robert Kendall

Kendall´s attitude towards the use of computer in literature could not be more optimistic. He refers to it as an emerging genre, calling it "interactive literature". A growing number of writers and writing departments at many colleges, as well as publishers, are among its followers. A "cyberpage", or a page in digital form, can offer numerous possibilities to the readers that printed pages cannot, letting them choose, for example, which narrative thread to follow, which new situation or character to explore, in short, letting them to alter the content of what is being read. Interactive literature results very attractive since it not only contains text but also has the possibility to include graphics, sound and video.

by Marta Gutierrez Campos on 05/14/07 | Edit | Delete

Computing Editorial Features, by Jerome McGann

McGann´s text is based on a personal experience. He wrote an essay meant to be published in the journal Computer and the Humanities, but he noticed that illustrating the final section of the paper would cost him a fortune, besides those images, originally digital files created in Adobe Photoshop, would lack quality on the printed page. For this reason, he decided to publish his work in electronic media on his webpage. This process would result, in two words, simple and inexpensive. However, the author points out, first, that the transition of scholarly journals from print to electronic form is not happening so quickly and, second, materials put up on the internet escape notice, engagement, citation. There is then the debate about whether scholarly editions should be alphanumeric or image-based. There is not one better than the other for the author and both have a "future trend" but, in my opinion, image-based editions look far more attractive since the visual media has a role which is to enrich and support the text in order to make the subject more understanding and accessible to its readers.

by Marta Gutierrez Campos on 05/14/07 | Edit | Delete

About the final work

First of all, congratulations to Marta for her motherhood! and welcome to the forum. Now, in response to Stan's question: I think you have to chose a topic concerning Cervantes in English or Shakespeare in Spanish and work on that. I'm going to tell my idea for my paper and maybe you understand it better. I've chosen the film "Hamlet" (one of the versions in VOS) and I am going to work on the subtitles in Spanish (checking the language and contrasting with a written version in Spanish). Besides, we have to include in the paper-webpage our research process, that means, we have to include all the "strings or words" we have "gloogled" (if I'm allowed to invent words) and explain what kind of webpages appear and which ones are useful and which ones are NOT useful. I hope this explanation help you all, if anyone can tell about "how to make the web-page" part, that would be very helpful. thanks very much teresa.

by Teresa Agost Porcar on 05/15/07 | Edit | Delete

Related to Jay Bolter's Degrees of Freedom

It's nowadays very remarkable that images are more significant or powerful than texts, and we live in a world where image is reaffirmed by texts. But image dominates the verbal text, what W.J.T Michel has called the "imagetext". As we can observe this phenomenon every single day on the radio, TV, newspapers, books, electronic books, new mp4s, the Internet, DVDs, etc. While I was thinking of other modes of representation in our society, a new thing arose. There's a new system called the Spectator, which consists of a virtual eye controlled by satellite. This system enables you to follow the America's Cup match races in Valencia on the TV screen in the exact real position that vessels are located. In addition, you can observe each movements' competitors, so it's also useful the images to be analysed by every team to improve their flights, and the audience can have a dimensional ideal of their movements from the point of view of an eyebird observation. I'd like also to add that Google on the Net is scanning library books for basically Harvard, NYPub,Michigan, or Standford, and there's a Google academic site. There's a US Card Catalog where there's a search of finding something you didn't expect. An electronic format enhances our way of conceiving things, modes of representation such: short versions, alternative languages, an abridged version, apendix (setting detail), sanitized (the puritan edition), interaction(vote for the best plot, best ending, character changing situations), or even our own way of interaction (the weblog on the Net). Imagine that if you have a closed story (in a book) and you try to do an additional electronic settings or situations. Well, that is possible now. There are two ways of searching: in old libraries, or on the Internet. But there's a significant drawback that this electronic library has got. When you're surfing on the Net, you go directly to the place, and you cannot waste a minute, or lose on the way to that search. It's like when you're going on a journey, and you only see the road and farmvilles. But if you travel to it having more places (like in old libraries), it's another different aspect and vision.It's like a plane trip, you miss what's in the middle of it.

by Carlos Garcia Serra on 05/15/07 | Edit | Delete

Something about the final project

I'm likely to do this research paper thinking first of the best-known example in our literature rhetoric figure in Hamlet's "To be or not to be" soliloquy. It's an Aporia "a pathless path", it denotes real or pretended doubt about an issue, uncertainty as to how to proceed in a discourse. I'll try to find out evidence of this kind of technique in Cervantes, as well. If this favourite device of narrators to arouse curiosity in their audience or to emphasize the extraordinary nature of the story they are telling, is combined with another figure of rhetoric.If there are any stylistic simililarities between them, when both of them deal with this exact aspect, or some other stylistic techniques you can think of.

by Carlos Garcia Serra on 05/15/07 | Edit | Delete

Now it´s clear.

Your ideas (yours and Teresa´s) sound very interesting for the project. I have a better understanding now of what it is we are supposed to do. If I´m not mistaken, Dr. Forés is to give us some guidelines on how to structure the website. Thanks for the info!

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 05/15/07 | Edit | Delete

Final paper and webpage

Hola a tod@s, siento que se haya producido una cierta ansiedad o angustia entre vosotros por no saber qué o cómo hay que hacer el último paper. Temáticamente podeis decidir sobre qué quereis trabajar de forma libre y personalmente (la extensión la que considereis oportuna y necesaria). En un principio siempre propongo que se relacione con Shakespeae en castellano o Cervantes en inglés por que son dos autores de quien tenemos suficiente material disponible en internet para realizar un trabajo interesante y de calidad. Las dos fases ahí consisten en por un lado averiguar lo que existe sobre el tema elegido y por otro poder describir el propio proceso de investigación, explicitando tanto el método como los criterios de calidad aplicados para incorporar o descartar páginas que luego incluiremos en nuestra página web. Estaba convencido que ya había dicho dónde podéis encontrar la información pertienente para la parte técnica del proyecto que consiste en publicar vuestra propia página web, por un lado tenéis mi página: http://www.uv.es/~fores/P&R/p&r.html con los apartados: 6.- ¿Cómo puedo activar mi página web? 7.- ¿Dónde está mi página web y cómo puedo acceder a ella? 8.- ¿Qué es el First Paper, dónde puedo encontrarlo y cómo se hace? 9.- ¿Cómo puedo hacer mi página web? y que, sin embargo, hay que actualizar. Ahora es muchísimo más sencillo todo el proceso, pero os resultará útil leer las instrucciones, pues entendereis en qué consiste y cómo se hacía. Ahora lo único que tenéis que hacer es conectar con vuestra cuenta de correo electrónico de la uni: correo.uv.es introducir vuestro usuario y password y seleccionar: Explorador de Ficheros. Si todo va bien os encontrareis ante un entorno auto-comprensivo. Hay un documento por defecto llamado index.html que si es la primera vez que entrais será el único documento publicado y que tendreis que sustituir por el documento que llamo FirstPaper. Los documentos que genereis deben tener formato "html" o si os gusta Bill Gates o trabajais con Explorar "htm". Como siempre hay un montón de problemas de compatibilidades entre los diferentes navegadores y programas de edición de páginas web. Recomiendo dos sistemas: o trabajais con word y haceis "guardar como" para traducir vuestros textos en formato .doc a formato html o htm o usais cualquier editor de páginas web que puede ser más costoso y un poco más complicado, dependiendo del software. Una vez generados los documentos "web" (formato htm/l)sólo teneis que "cargar" el documento mediante vuestro Explorador de Ficheros. Si teneis cualquier problema, lo más sencillo será que vengais a verme pues normalemente en 15 o 20 minutos aprendereis el procedimiento a seguir y luego ya solo es cuestion de repetirlo una y otra vez. Tambien hay muchos websites que explican de forma muy simplificada y con buenas ilustraciones cómo se hacen y publican páginas web. Suerte y al toro vicente P.S. por cierto el verbo "to google" ya lo encontraréis de forma oficial incluido como nuevo verbo en, por ejemplo, Websters Dictionary of the English Language.

by Vicente Fores Lopez on 05/17/07 | Edit | Delete

Post Data

La fecha tope de realización del trabajo es: 20.6.2006, pues quiero poder firmar las actas antes de irme a EE.UU, aunque si no es posible buscaremos alguna alternativa.

by Vicente Fores Lopez on 05/19/07 | Edit | Delete

One last doubt

Thanks for the valuable info! I don´t want to be a pest, but is there a suggested number of words/pages for the paper? Thanks !

by Stanley Mcdaniel Mann on 05/20/07 | Edit | Delete

Pages and number of words

Never do I establish before-hand how long a paper can or should be. Not more words than needed nor less pages than necessary to make it into a well written paper. More than quantity we try to look for quality, don't we? Feel free to decide what lenghth your paper should be, vale? salut vicente

by Vicente Fores Lopez on 05/20/07 | Edit | Delete

Introduction, apologies and excuses.

First of all, I would like to apologize to every person on this course for joining you so late. I realize that now my opinion will not be of much use, and thus, I will try to sum up the opinions on every paper and add my own while I do that. I hope that in doing so, I can contribute in some way. Now, let me explain that I just thought that the course had not started (partly because of technical difficulties, but partly my own fault) yet and it was not until recently that I met with Dr. Forés and we had a talk regarding the situation. So after saying “mea culpa”, I will introduce myself. My name is Nunila Martínez, I have previously met with some of you (Carlos Garcia and Stanley Mcdaniel) in other courses. this is my first year of courses, so I have not decided what my thesis / trabajo de investigación will be about, although I do have some ideas that I am considering (mostly related to literature and gender, but there is something about education and multiculturality that I would like to add). I will try to go though your posts and add mine as soon as possible, thank you for the support. Nunila.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 05/28/07 | Edit | Delete

On Prof. Lévy's Article

The general impression about the internet has been, as Stanley Mcdaniel Mann pointed out how the internet is spreading great amounts of information before us. And how this information is linked together and thus, expanding. Closely related to this, Teresa Agost added the idea of the Noosphere, the "sphere of human thought", an idea that the ISML Semantic Numbers is trying to materialize through its project. That is, the IEML Semantic Numbers project tries to like concepts together (instead of mere words) to depict the Noosphere. Carlos Garcia then pointed at the difficulty of physically storing that data. I guess that I could take this question even further asking which data is stored. This links with his idea of the evolution of cultural memory. I believe that this technological "advantages" are indeed a tool for globalization and as a necessary the resource for development, marginalize those without access to them. Furthermore, I think that those cultures/countries more dominant on the internet are imposing on the rest, so what we have is not a multicultural internet, in the sense that it is a culture made up by pieces of every culture, like patchwork, but rather we have the same dominant (white Anglo-Saxon and male) values and the rest, although present, remain "dissident voices". Stanley Mcdaniel also pointed to the necessity of the physical teacher. I can not agree more with him, since I think that the physical teacher can not be replaced, at least, not yet. I think that a teacher that can be switched off by the student would never work. As for the books becoming obsolete, have you seen the new www.osoft.com e-books? They look like the typical PALM agenda/computer, but are designed to read downloaded books. It's like you have just one physical book and the letters kept in another (smaller=easier to store) format. This will probably take over the old books. Can you imagine being able to look for a specific word or phrase in a book? Can you imagine how much easier would that make our research?. Jordi Tordera Juan pointed at another interesting point: the connections between human and computers. Actually, the best software is concerned with that relation: it has to be intuitive and facilitate communication among the human user and the computer. So, shall we apply this idea with the former idea of books, we are undoubtedly driven to think about a change in literature. Maybe (and only maybe) we are to see a new change in literature, that literature in which a person will not be the patient reader any more, but will be able to take action in the reading. And here lots of possibilities arise: anything from take decisions as a character -imagine escaping from a Stephen King novel?- to adapting to the reader's personal preferences -so the hero's lover becomes brunette or blonde, silly or intelligent, a man or a woman, depending on the reader- or literary preferences -so descriptions are minimal or longer depending on the kind of literature he/she likes best.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/17/07 | Edit | Delete

The Necessary... "Evil?"

n my opinion, this article deals with the idea of effectiveness in research". That is, how qualitative analyses have been criticised by other "pure scientists" from the natural sciences. In their opinion, or better yet, in their understanding, quite a lot of the research carried out in the humanities field, or in the social sciences, has been fallacious (based on "fallacious philosophical arguments") and fruitless. But the problem would be, as Stanley pointed out, "how a particular person perceives the whole research process and its results". That is, social sciences do not function as natural sciences just for the very nature of them. As Teresa wrote "The researcher focuses on a topic and uses the tools considered appropriate in order to achieve his/her objective or aim. However, the results will be “relative” in the sense that they will never be objective". Of course not, and that is the reason why (or/and the result of) we often use qualitative analysis. As Teresa said, reality can be seen from different angles and I believe that that is the beauty and the Leit Motiv of social sciences. To study their objects from different perspectives and show the connections and complexity (and indeed, relativity) of our knowledge. For this reason, certain parameters will be excluded from our research and someone could point at it and claim "this research method has a flaw". For instance, imagine that we study "multiculturalism in children's literature" we would need to study so many fields of knowledge (biology, ethnology, conversational analysis, pragmatics, children literature, globalization, exclusion, history, etc.) that obviously we could only present one point of view (ours). But that doesn't mean that our study is fruitless, we added a little piece of knowledge. The so-called problem lies, in my opinion, the nature of subject of study. It is a easier to write a paper on "the molecular oxygenation process in the mitochondria" and explain every little process one by one leaving nothing out. We would have to describe the whole world and the whole human nature in order to speak about communication in that way. I do not think that is possible (and indeed, I do not think that is too attractive either). So, quoting Carlos when he said that "Social sciences are intrinsically imperfect" I would have said that social sciences are intrinsically complex. So when we study something, we rather focus on one aspect, taking "universal truths" for granted and assuming "what we agree on as true". Just as we do in class when we are teaching, we aim at an objective and, as Teresa wrote "use the tools considered appropriate in order to achieve his/her objective or aim" which might not be the same kind of objective that natural sciences are accustomed to. Summing up, as Marta said "we could conclude that no research method is good enough for all purposes and all people at all times".

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/17/07 | Edit | Delete

The Gutenberg Elegies

“The Gutenberg Elegies” These series of texts deal with the possibilities of the internet on the future. It seems that one of the most problematic issues has been whether to have all of this information available at all times will cause that, as Stanley pointed for us “we will have to think less as everything will be practically given to us.” It is just my personal opinion, but I think it is really meaningful because now we won't be able to measure knowledge as a quantitative cumulative knowledge, it wouldn't make sense anymore. I think that the change is for good, since now we will have to aim at different objectives, as Jordi said “this could be bad if we think that possessing information is the base of intelligence, because it allows us to interrelate and link the new information with the one we already knew”. Somehow this change is very close to that change in the means that Bologna praises: the important issue now is not to have stored data but to have the tools needed to access it. In other words, the spark that links idea A to idea B. It is not important to know when exactly took place the Irish Famine, but to know how to critically obtain information about it. And obviously the internet brings a new way of communication which will be unavoidably attached to new means of education. Screens will be placed on classrooms (actually, some English Schools already have them) and since we will be having a connection to the Internet, it is quite likely that textbooks won't be sold as they are now, but just a license either to the school or to the pupil, to access it. As Stanley commented, this adds the gift of portability (I am one of many that suffer from chronic pains in my back due to the textbooks I had to carry at school), since one can have an e-book reader at school and another at home connected via satellite to the software that has the “textbooks”. As for altering the language, it probably will, but then again, what doesn't? It is not a problem that it will happen, it is a need, for a language is alive and needs developing. Going back to the disappearance of books, as we said before, e-books offer some advantages, but so do CD's and some people still buy vinyls. It is not the same to read a textbook where you might find a link useful in order to know, let's say, who Noam Chomsky is, but that interactivity that Teresa talked about might be quite bothering when one is only trying to read W. Blake's poems. So, as long as we still but beautiful artistic editions of Pinocchio or Peter Pan, I think books will remain among us. Jordi also pointed out how the text becomes a public engagement. I find this quite disturbing, although I do agree with him, I cannot avoid thinking that (as Teresa said): “Society evolves, and the human being, based on experience: in other words, making us more productive”. But what is productive? I think that society evolves due to economic reasons, and that public engagement will be biased, so we have to be very careful if we don't want coca-cola to start sponsoring (and thus controlling) our educational system, and since I think that nowadays we are witnessing a huge battle to gain control over the internet, I think that at the end the internet will be (and already is) guided by the same principles than the rest of our lives. One can say the the Internet is an open space the belongs to all for us, and thus justify the publicity and polyphony of it, but I think that is an illusion. Shouldn't water belong to all of us? Beaches? And if water should belong to all of us, why not petrol?. Going back to the text, Birkerts states three differences between reading from a printed page from reading on a screen. So shall we go through them. First, there is a tendency to simplify language. I think this is absolutely subjective. There is great literature available on some blogs on the internet. Obviously, more “mundane” pages are also available. Second, our perception of history will inevitable alter, and as all information is equally accessible, we may lose this sense of chronology. Well, that shouldn't be a problem, which perception of history is right?. I would say that my grandmother and me have a very different perception of history and time already. And third, we increasingly accept to live within a set of systems, to be always potentially on-line. This leads to us living a less private life, a unitary life. The internet does not oblige, it just offers potentialities. I, for instance, have an agenda on line that is accessible to my friends, but I can choose what can they see and what do I write. In short, I think these elegies are possibilities “futurabilities” that might or might not occur in a near future, but the author tends to be subjective and one doesn't have to necessarily agree with his predictions or the underlying beliefs and ideology.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/18/07 | Edit | Delete

Degrees of Freedom

Bolter in his Degrees of Freedom asks the same question about hypertexts replacing old books. I will not goover this again, as I think I have already said everything, so I will just skip the point. As for the relation between the image and the written text, I do agree with Stanley when he states that “the written text is becoming less and less important, being substituted by TV and film, and to top everything off, now we have the hypertext which makes it even more appetizing. It is much “easier” to just sit back and let the information sink in, rather than hold a book and have to read”. But while this holds true for a great part of our daily lives, for instance we can sit down, have dinner watching the news (instead of reading the newspaper) and do it in an interactive way with those that surround us (making comments on the TV programs). But while it might hold true that it is “easier” that doesn't mean that it is “better”. For instance, it is “easier” (if easier means “effortless”) to take a nap than to go running. Still people jog. And that is valid for every person that does any sport, and reading is a lot like that, you do it in spite of the effort because the pleasure is worth it. And the same pleasure (that of READING in a wide sense) is not the same pleasure than that of watching things happen. Reading and watching “The Lord of The Rings” might both be very pleasurable experiences, but they are intrinsically different. Nobody seems worried that listening to music takes children away from books because music and reading belong to different spheres just like TV and books do. Jordi asked whether people will keep wanting to read literature or not, we have been reading and singing for a long time, there is not a single known society that exists without its literature (oral or written) and music. “The traditional definition of self can enter into crisis when we think of the cyberspace culture, and the self cannot be constructed as an authorial and autonomous voice any longer, becoming instead a wondering eye, that shifts from one perspective to another”. I would rather say that the collective voices are facing the personal voices. That is, collectivities are being heard, which takes away some power from institutions or particular people. Is that “endangering the self” or “empowering the self?”. It depends on where you are at. I believe that it is indeed, a threat because everything everyone says can be judged and contrasted. “One interpretation of Descartes’ thoughts would be that the only acceptable reality is our own mind and not what our senses tell us. Therefore, experiencing the world as others do would be unthinkable”. But, the fact that we both are placed on the same (virtual) space doesn't mean that we experience it the same, and that is Descartes' point exactly.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/19/07 | Edit | Delete

On Kendall's article.

I really enjoyed Kendall's text. Re-reading my posts I have noticed that it seems that I am very anti-internet, and truth is, I am not. It's just that I believe that different media need different ways of expressing oneself. Here, Kendall proposes a kind of literature that is born and developed (born and raised) on the cyberspace, and it works great. I think it maximizes the possibilities and exploits the potentialities that the Noosphere offers. And I think it's absolutely great, because what makes non-sense is having the Don Quixote trying to survive as a hypertext, it might work, but it wasn't designed for that. Now, this literature is designed for the cyberspace, and it is emerging (has emerged) as a new genre, and every time a new genre arises that's something positive for the whole community. As some of us have insinuated, it can attract more people towards written literature and it can be useful in class. As for the interactivity, I think it's the most important advantage this media is offering, and the degree of success new genres related to the cyberspace will be obtain might be directly proportional to its exploitation. But this is just my opinion and I know it is just a guess and a quite daring one, maybe.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/20/07 | Edit | Delete

On McGann's article.

I think a lot has been said about the advantages of on-line publications, so I would like to add a few comments of my own, that maybe another part of the article, not so visible, but still important. I think this article is an example of what is happening at this proto-electronic moment. Some people are being left behind that will have serious problems soon. I personally know people on their twenties that barely know hoe to use a computer, and they can still manage, but soon they won't be able to deal with the world and will be marginalized. In the same sense, some cultures and countries will be (are being) marginalized for the same reason. I think we should keep an eye on this issue, I think it is very important for the future development or the potential development of many countries that won't stand a chance if they are left behind regarding this cyber-era. Software is extremely important, I wonder why McGann doesn't mention that. Special software for certain books (imagine you could only access Penguin books if you had installed their program) or private companies coping the market (there is no need to imagine, we all know Microsoft) and controlling what is visible and what is not visible, what is doable and what isn't. Potentially being able to include filters that will hide information or contents. Furthermore, to the majority of people Photoshop is THE program to work with photographs, Windows THE operating system, and Explorer THE Internet navigator. So, to go back to the article, computerized versions should take this into account being accessible to every navigator, otherwise they will be making a pact with the devil. I just did a quick search for the FCC (http://www.fcc.gov/) and it came as no surprise that they use Microsoft software and formats. For them a .pdf is an Adobe and a .doc a Microsoft. Can you imagine that Microsoft adopted the FCC normative and Microsoft Word would refuse to write – or read certain words?. Did you know that Microsoft dictionaries do recognize Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini but don't recognize Mahatma Gandhi or Karl Marx?

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/20/07 | Edit | Delete

Hello to everybody

I would like to introduce myself, I am Maribel Molero Galdón. I live in Xàtiva, Valencia. During this course I work as a teacher for Adult Education in Castelló de Rugat. Now, I am the director of the school, and I will finish this month. This is my second year of doctorate degree courses. I hope I will finish the MMModules this course to continue my ongoing searching investigation. My work is about how to teach English pronunciation to children through the use of English traditional tales and rhymes. My first experience with Internet was as an Erasmus student in England in 1998. But my knowledge about the subject is 'user level'. Sorry for the delay. Greetings to Carlos, Rebeca and Vicent. Hello to everybody.

by Maria Isabel Molero Galdon on 06/21/07 | Edit | Delete

How to submit my webpage

Hello there! I hope you're all doing well with your work. Now that I've completed mine, which I've called 'An Exploration of the Influences of Don Miguel de Cervantes', I don't know how to submit it so that everyone has access to it. I tried first by going to the Listserv (mural.uv.es) but once there I got lost as I don't know which course I have to click on in order to download my webpage. It does appear in my Explorador de Ficheros. If there is anybody willing to guide me with this, I'd really appreciate. Thanks. Marta Gutierrez

by Marta Gutierrez Campos on 06/21/07 | Edit | Delete

to Marta.

Hello, Marta. I think the easiest way to do this is go straight to your mail at correo.uv.es, then click on "cuentas de usuario" in order to make sure that you have the web account activated. Then, just go back to your mail and in the "explorador de ficheros" you will find a folder called "web". Whatever you upload there will show as your webpage. I hope this helps.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/24/07 | Edit | Delete

to Marta (part 2)

Hello Marta. You might already know it, but just in case and as an additional remark to Nunila’s instructions, I just wanted to remind you that as a general rule to making web pages, the main page, that is the initial page in the link tree from where all the others will start, should always be called “index.html”. If you want to design your own main page, remember to first to delete the “index.html” that is already within the “web” folder by default and substitute it with your own home made “index.html” page./or simply rename the old and name yours “index.html” I hope this remark was not too late. Good luck.

by Jordi Tordera Juan on 06/26/07

On Moulthrop's article

For Moulthrop, the internet site is the place where a new genre is arising. For him, on-line publications offer many advantages, economical, ecological and those related to “other possibilities” (i.e. the peculiarities of the hypertext). But he also questions whether we are ready for it or not. Furthermore, he also doubts about the final results of all of those possibilities, and reminds us of the beginnings of the TV and the radio where a lot was expected, but looking back, it most predictions didn't occur. Evidently, those inventions have changed our lives, but not as much as we expected them to. In my opinion, Moulthrop is also making us consider the many possibilities of the hyper-reality and how it can defy the current status quo if we are careful and thoughtful on how we use it.

by Nunila Martinez Hernandez on 06/26/07
Weblog http://aulavirtual.uv.es/dotlrn/classes/c062/28034/c07c062a28034gSG/lars-blogger/one-entry?entry%5fid=19362090

© VFL at UVPress, València 2007


 

 

FIRST PAPER

Subject : # 28034 Internet: herramienta de investigación literaria Grupo A

 Using Films to Teach Shakespeare

by Teresa Agost Porcar

 

© Teresa Agost Porcar. 2007.

teapor@alumni.uv.es

 Main parts:

1. Introduction 2

2. The importance of Subtitling 3

3. Analysis of the film: Hamlet, directed by Kozintsev 5

4. Final Remarks 9

5. Interesting Sites

 9


1. Introduction

 It is the aim of this study to analyse the possibilities of using films based on Shakespeare’s work in order to teach English literature, and more precisely Shakespeare’s work. This paper will focus on students whose mother tongue is Spanish and are willing to learn English literature as well as English as a second language.

A considerable amount of Shakespeare’s work has been adapted for the cinema. Well-known tragedies such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, or King Lear can be found in several cinematographic versions or have inspired other Hollywood millionaire blockbusters (Shakespeare in Love, for instance). There can be found over twenty-five films having “Hamlet” as the title; they might not be faithful reproductions of Shakespeare’s tragedy, but somehow the title sets expectancy at the potential viewers.

Many universities (Colorado College, Denison University or Kenion College, just to mention some) are doing research in how to teach Shakespeare through films, and putting it into practice with actual courses. The attempt here presented is similar although not as ambitious. Had it been chosen a version of Hamlet with an English soundtrack the teaching process might have comprised two parts: on the one hand, the learning of literature; and on the other, learning lexis and pronunciation. This twofold objective might have been fulfilled by using the subtitles in Spanish for beginner and intermediate students, or in English for advanced students. Despite this interesting proposal, this paper will concentrate on the acquisition of some notions of Shakespeare’s work through the film version.

This study will take Kozintsev’s version of Hamlet (1964) and it will focus on the relevance of the Spanish subtitles, although it will also take into account the other issues mentioned above. It is important to mention the fact that the film has not been dubbed; therefore this version can only be found in Russian with Spanish subtitles.

2. The importance of Subtitling

 

It is important, first of all, to define what is understood by subtitling. "Subtitling can be defined as the linguistic practice which consists of offering – generally in the lower part of the screen – a written text that tries to report the actors' dialogues, as well as those discursive elements that conform the scenery or soundtrack."[1] (Jorge Díaz-Cintas, Teoría y práctica de la subtitulación Inglés - Español, 2003: 32)

 

Subtitles usually consist of a maximum of two lines of written text synchronised with the actors' dialogues. Thus, they must reflect the actors’ conversations, although sometimes not every nuisance can be conveyed in only two lines. In order to express the whole meaning of the conversations, the translator needs – in some occasions – to summarize the dialogues yet keeping all the nuances. This is a difficult task that sometimes includes play on words or puns, which difficult even more the translation process.

 

The final product might be of interest for language learners – provided that subtitles and soundtrack are in the same language – since students can acquire:

1) A wide range of passive vocabulary, this is, the vocabulary which is understood although it is hardly performed.

2) Pronunciation and accent.

3) Collocations, idioms, and idiomatic expressions.

4) Understanding of pragmatic expressions such as sarcasm or irony.

 

All these features might be learned with the aid of subtitles; using subtitles in order to understand an audiovisual product. However, there is an innovative project that also includes subtitles in order to help the learning process, yet in a different way.

 

Despite the difficulties that subtitling entails, some universities have developed a project that includes creating subtitles as part of the process of language learning. The project is called Learning via Subtitling (LeviS: http://levis.cti.gr/index.php?option=com_frontpage) and the project team is formed by: Hellenic Open University (Greece), Research Academic Computer Technology Institute (Greece), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain), Transilvania University of Brasov (Romania), University of the Algarve (Portugal), Roehampton Unversity (United Kingdom), University of Pécs (Hungary).

 

This project is committed to use subtitling as an activity in order to learn foreign languages. It is not a method per se, but rather it proposes several activities that can be carried out to complement a given methodology. It combines the audiovisual field, so attractive to the students, with the handling of language in order to adequate the conversations into the two-line sequences.

 

The present study focuses on the use of produced subtitling for language learning and not on the creation of subtitles. However, the latter is an interesting and innovative project that I would like to experience with students at some point in the near future.

 


[1] My own translation

 

3. Analysis of the film: Hamlet, directed by Kozintsev

 

The main reason that led me to use this film for this study was basically its prestige and good consideration by the critics. I could have taken Laurence Olivier’s version, which won four Oscar prizes, but Kozintsev’s film is said to be the best adaptation of Hamlet. Therefore, as the aim of the paper is to teach Shakespeare through film, I have concentrated on searching for a good version of the tragedy and the languages used were put aside. It could be surprising for some people to teach Shakespeare without the soundtrack being English, but in this case the subtitles become even more important and meaningful.

 

Kozintsev version of Hamlet (1964) has been highly valued by the critics. It was awarded with the Special Jury Price in Venice Film Festival (1964); and it has been nominated for the BAFTA Awards in 1966, the Golden Globe in 1967, and the Golden Lion in 1964.

 

The film is divided into two parts, as if they were the two acts of a theatrical representation. The visual image is treated with great mastery and the characteristics of the location are set right from the beginning: the importance of the sea, the consideration of Elsinor as a prison, the powerful characters and their influence over the powerless.  The music composed by the Russian musician Shostakovich creates an atmosphere of mystery and secrecy that contributes to the development of the plot.

 

This film is also referred to as the Soviet Hamlet since the director aims to highlight the possibilities of subverting power. Kozintsev compares Claudius’s exertion of power to Stalin’s government of terror; and other characteristics of Stalin’s government – corruption, the impossibility of individual thoughts – are also present in the film. Kozintsev makes a great adaptation of Shakespeare’s work and, at the same time, he tries to open his audience’s eyes – Russian population – by reflecting their recent past.

 

One aspect worth mentioning – although it does not affect the subtitles – is the treatment of the monologues. The renowned soliloquies are presented as interior monologues in the film and therefore the inner thoughts can be heard as a voice over. This way of representation minimizes the dramatization but maximizes the realism of the moment.

 

After doing some research, I have realized that the translator and subtitler into Spanish – Pablo Enrique López Rodríguez – has translated more than one film based on Shakespeare’s texts. For example, he has also translated Kozintev’s version of King Lear (http://www.dschjournal.com/reviews/dvd22op137.htm). It would be interesting to compare both translations and check the faithfulness to the original text; however, that wide purpose may entail another study, completely different from the one here presented.

 

In general, the language of the subtitles conveys the elegant language Shakespeare used in his texts. Shakespeare’s dialogues were full of contradictions, coordinated sentences and combinations of Latinisms and Anglo-Saxon terms. The translator tries all along the play to recreate this characteristic of the language. Therefore, reading the subtitles, the audience realizes it is not a contemporary play. For instance, the Ghost reveals the King’s murder to Hamlet as follows:

            Sí, el más cruel de los asesinatos,

 

            por más injustos y más aleves

            que sean los homicidios.

 

            Se esparció la voz de que estando

            en mi jardín dormido,

 

            me mordió una serpiente.

           

Todos los daneses fueron groseramente

engañados con esta fabulosa invención.

 

Pero debes saber, mancebo generoso

 

que la serpiente, que mató a tu padre,

 

hoy ciñe su corona.

 

These sequences correspond to the Ghost’ words. As it can be seen, the tone of the speech is adequate for the moment and the words recreate the dramatic moment. However, the distribution of the sentences within the subtitles could have been done much clearer and without breaking units of meaning, in order to facilitate the flow of reading.

 

Despite the appropriate tone of the language, there are some aspects I would like to argue against, related to the translation:

 

1)     Translation of proper names.

2)     Translation of the popular monologue “To be or nor to be”.

3)     Translation of specific expressions or sayings.

 

In the whole film there seems to be a tendency to translate the proper names. From the beginning – in the initial credits – it is easily noticed that the author of the tragedy is presented as Guillermo Shakespeare instead of William Shakespeare. Everybody will probably identify that Guillermo means William, it does not pose a problem. However, it can raise some doubts to young learners since the name of the writers can rarely be seen translated – Miguel Cervantes is not Michael Cervantes, nor Karl Marx is Carlos nor Charles Marx.

 

Therefore, the problem does not lie in a bad translation but rather, I would say, in a confusing or inappropriate translation. The term used in Spanish is the equivalent, yet the translation is unnecessary since it does not reveal any hidden information.

 

The same line of argument might be used to comment on the translation of the characters’ names. In the film, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are presented as Ricardo and Guillermo respectively. From my point of view, this translation implies an excessive localization, which can hardly be seen in any other translation of Shakespeare’s work in texts translated in the Contemporary Era. The names of the rest of the characters have been kept similar to the original, despite some recognizable variations, which are carried out in nearly all the translations. It is true, though, that these two names – Rosencrantz and Guildenstern – present more difficulties for the Spanish audience in order to read them, since the way the word is written does not seem to match any Spanish words. Another argument that may defend the translator’s choice is that the words “Ricardo” and “Guillermo” are much shorter than their equivalent words in English, and therefore using these words allows more space in the subtitles to include important information the dialogues may contain.

 

Despite these arguments in favour of the translator’s option, the localization carried out in the translation of these names is excessive and it might distract the audience’s attention from other meaningful features on the film.

 

The second item to highlight is the translation of the well-known monologue “To be or not to be”. Contrary to any expectation, the so famous first verse “Ser o no ser”, has been translated as “Existir o no existir”. It seems that the translator pretended to break with any previous topic or demystify the so often recalled verse. Again, this is not a case of bad translation, but rather it is a matter of breaking the audience’s expectations.  The reasons for this choice are unknown to us. Maybe it was the translator’s aim to break with what was expected; or maybe he considered that to be a most appropriate translation.

 

Finally, it is worth mentioning the translation of one particular sentence. After Ophelia’s funeral, Hamlet has a discussion with Laertes, Ophelia’s brother, telling him how much he loved Ophelia and that noone else could have ever loved her as much as he did. This discussion is held in a courtly language yet Hamlet lets his feelings show and his discourse combines passion, grief and yearning for revenge. However, Shakespeare is in the habit of mixing the tone in his dialogues and he is able to insert a common saying in between a courtly language. This practice keeps the translator’s in alert, since the original tone should be maintained. An example of this common practice can be found in the scene describe above. Hamlet – concluding his speech act – can be read to say “la cabra siempre tira al monte”. At a first glance, this translation caught my attention and I decided to investigate the reason for such a surprise. The original version in English says: “The cat will mew and dog will have his day”, meaning that “any given person's moment of glory is inevitable”

(http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=973515). However, the use of a very common saying in Spanish changes the original meaning. It might have been better not using a saying but keeping the meaning, yet it could also be arguable, then that the versatility of Shakespeare’s language is not conveyed.

 

4. Final Remarks

 

From the analysis carried out, some conclusions should be drawn. Firstly, it is important to highlight the usefulness of the subtitles. They help to understand what has been considered the best adaptation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet; however, from my point of view, the translation has not been paid the consideration it deserves.

 

Many pages on Shakespeare can be found containing very useful information. It is not just spending time searching and researching in order to find the kind of information one is interested in.

5. Interesting Sites

 

v     Main webpages used as bibliographical references:

http://www.artmargins.com/content/cineview/semenenko.htm

Interesting analysis and personal opinion about the film.

http://www.filmint.nu/?q=node/18  

Commentary on several adaptation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Contrast between the different versions.

http://shakespeare.mit.edu/hamlet/  Original written text of Hamlet.

http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=973515

Commentary on one of Hamlet’s sayings.

http://levis.cti.gr/index.php?option=com_frontpage

Information about the LeviS project.

http://www.dschjournal.com/reviews/dvd22op137.htm

Information on King Lear, directed by Kozintsev and translated by Pablo Enrique López Rodríguez.

http://www.imdb.com/find?s=tt&q=hamlet

List of films released having Hamlet as the title.

 

v     Other interesting webpages:

http://vccslitonline.cc.va.us/TheHamletSite/films.htm  

Productions of an about Hamlet.

http://pages.unibas.ch/shine/linkstraghamletwf.html  

All kind of material on Hamlet.

http://www.teachwithmovies.org/  

Interesting website that offers Movie Lessons Plans and Learning Guides, taking as reference a wide range of films.

http://www.ethicsineducation.com/HenryV.pdf  

Article that explains how to use Shakespeare’s Henry V in order to teach War Principles.

 

All these are just some examples there are infinite websites that offer information on Shakespeare’s works and how to use it. I have only googled words and/or sentences such as: Hamlet; Hamlet directed by Kozintsev; Hamlet on Film; Hamlet en español; hamlet con subtítulos en español; traducir hamlet al español; shakespeare subtitulado; hamlet’s language; films to teach shakespeare; studying hamlet on film.

 

These searches also showed other websites that have been ruled out. They were informative about the plot and the characters and therefore more appropriate for beginner students. These websites were, for instance:

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamlet,

http://www.enotes.com/hamlet/,

http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/hamlet/

 


 

FIRST PAPER

 

Subject : # 28034 Internet: herramienta de investigación literaria Grupo A 
Student´s name : García Serra, Carlos

Title of the paper : "Similarities: Madness in Don Quijote and Hamlet"

Author or topic : Cervantes, Miguel de. Don Quijote de La Mancha                  Shakespeare, William. Hamlet

Abstract : I am going to point out some similarities that prove both works of art are very close regarding to the theme of madness. I also remark their main differences between them, and  I give some examples from the varied corpus examples given on the Net. I think there is sufficient illustration for each similarity or difference. I did not consider to translate all my quotations from both literary works. I considered that there was a significant difference between the way madness is conceived in each character: Hamlet (mad), Don Quijote (folly, fool). Appart from these elements, I explained in detailed examples which ways both characters in their stories can have in common or in contact: they both are wise madmen, they both are taking part in a theatre play or pretending to be mad for one reason (revenge in Hamlet, for instance) like playing in a game. It is a game for them. I also add some sort of different madness, other characters’ roles, and some conclusions at the end of the essay.

Auto-evaluation:
  Although today is Friday, June 22, 2007. I hope you can signed the actas considering my work. Sorry for the delay.
  I will be able to go to the US. for the following year to work as a Taship and do a master’s degree, and I would like to talk to you more about it.

Regards,

Carlos
 


 

Introduction

 

Both Don Quijote and Hamlet have some points which are common. They are among the most well-known world literary works.Both of them were conceived almost at the same time, Don Quijote (1605) and Hamlet (between 1603 and 1605). Both literary works make their writers famous. On the one hand, though Don Quijote is a novel, it has a lot of drama of theatre plays. Don Quijote’s battles are very dynamic, active, and the characters speak a lot, and action moves them to their own circumstances. On the other hand, Hamlet is a theatre play, and there are many estatic moments, psychological analysis of characters, which is found more often in the genre of a novel. One of the functions of this King Hamlet is that he is like the narrator of the story, and that technique is more frequent in novels, as well. It is also remarkable that both Cervantes and Shakespeare pay a lot of attention to madness, and the aim of this essay is to get an approach to some similarities regarding madness in both main characters.

 

Similarities: Madness in Don Quijote and Hamlet

 

After searching on the Net, I can observe that madness is different between Don Quixote and Hamlet. Even more difficult to explain the Don Quijote suffers from “enloquecimiento” (folly), and he is an “enloquecido” (fool), while Hamlet pretends to be crazy (mad), and suffers from madness, besides Ophelia was totally insane indeed at the end of the play. The different kinds of madness can be seen on many aspects, but there are similarities, which are worthwhile to mention here.

 

Madness is fluid and is not insanity in both characters. Both tragic heroes wage a fatal and inflexible inner war. They are both wise madmen. Hamlet is torn whether to take action (the outraged prince) or to avoid action (the madman), and Quijote similarly debates between being inactive (the passionate reader) and the one who wants to take action tirelessly (the madman). 

 

Quijote gets folly after having read too many cavalry novels. The protagonist adopts a new name, and he is determined to see his lover, Dulcinea de Toboso, who is really in love with her. He has never seen her before. That is why, Don Quijote travels around in search of new adventures with his squire Sancho Panza to improve the world: “¡Dichosa edad y siglo dichoso aquel adonde saldran a luz las famosas hazañas mias, dignas de entallarse en bronzes, para memoria en el futuro!”. The protagonist is considered an errant knight, following the model of King Arthur in England and the Round Table, Amadis de Gaula, among others. Cavalry is more than a religion in Don Quijote, it is a cult in his life, a way of life. He is making war battles on many occasions which are not necessary at all, he turned up totally wounded. He even sees reality in a other ways, as though he was enchanted. He does not see reality, but fantasy. He sees things and situations which do not exist. He is a noble, because he does not like the world he is living in, so he is determined to struggle for a better world and decides to enhance it, though his battles’ results are always negative. Sancho says: “Era un pobre caballero encantado, que no había hecho mal a nadie en todos los días de su vida”.

 

 

 

 

But Don Quijote gets also mad because he is sad due to his absence of his dear Dulcinea: he is insane of love. He is called “El caballero de la Triste Figura” which related with melancholy, and tells us his kind of madness, too. It is an innocent not dangerous madness, except for his own self. Don Quijote is a tragic-comic character, who makes readers and other characters of the novel laugh. The ones that make fun of him are, indeed, cruel. Don Quijote is introduced in the novel more heroic than Hamlet, but he can be close to a theatre play. Don Quijote is folly and because of that he is not scared. Otherwise, Hamlet is not really folly, and owing to this issue he lacks of courage to carry on things.

 

Both of them make long speeches which is a manner of set them free, and cry their afflictions. Hamlet says: “But break, my heart, for I must told my tongue.”. They both suffer from nightmares, which was a sympton of being psychologically insane at that period: “I have bad dreams” “Pero, estos sueños terribles me hacen infeliz.” Both of them have one closed friend who accept them, even with their evident craziness. None of them can put up with this cruel reality, and so they both die. Death is inevitable for their destiny. They both have periods of complete madness and lucidity. The reader sometimes does not know whether Don Quijote is sane or isn’t in his right mind “Es un entreverado loco lleno de lucidos momentos, pues ya supiera el genero de su locura; pero, como no la sabia, ya le tenia por cuerdo y ya por loco, porque lo que hablaba era concertado, elegante y bien dicho, y lo que hacia, disparatado, temerario y tonto.” Both heroes, as we can see, have a favourite identification: the madman, in addition to the other self which is not so obvious.

 

In Hamlet the protagonist is more hesitating before having a determined action. On the contrary, Don Quijote is taking action in any circumstance, regardless of the consequences. For both character, these fundamental features covers the protecting camouflage of madness. The tragical heroe is the one who looks in the mirror and finds out another self in him. These double personity is to make readers look in the mirror, as well. But even the first image, the madmen are the photographic negative of the readers’ conscience. This revolutionary mission that madness takes part in the readers’ conscience is declarative and a statement in itself. The madman is the militant of a missing world (fiction), and the madman Hamlet causes a virtual ideal world, the world of justice. The madness of Don Quijote is not clinical but a well-known construction of imitation, like a game, being in Sierra Morena, he just imitates what the love-mad knights do. He does exactly what he knew they do. We can observe that Quijote has a ‘settled’ madness, controlled by a mental pattern and by this similarly conscious and assumed, as that of Hamlet and similarly wisely procreated ( he is “el ingenioso hidalgo” “esa es la fineza de mi negocio; que volverse loco un caballero andante con causa, ni grado ni gracias: el toque esta desatinar sin occasion.” If someones gets mad for a reason, then you are truly mad. But this is not the case of Don Quijote. Likewise, Hamlet is the wise madman who knows how to be mad. Quijote tells Sancho if he wants to be given any credit to those he pretends he saw in heaven, he also must believe all the quijotesque happenings from Montesinos cave. Here, Quijote reveals that all is a game. He allows himself to tell the duchess that it is not known if Dulcinea exists or is only imagined. She takes part in his madness, that is all. She is just only an element of it.

 

In both cases there is a pragmatic function, whether they are insane or sane. A crazy person tries to consider things that others would not think of or even look at. It is said that children and madmen always tell the truth.

Polonius talks about Hamlet: “How pregnant sometimes his replies are! A happiness that often madness hits on, which reason and sanity could not so prosperously be delivered of…”.

 

Someone who is insane, people forgive their insults, all kinds of words, and even reactions or actions. They would not be forgiven, if the character was not insane. Thus, madness in literature is used to show with freedom all sort of critiques or opinions withour fear of censorship. Cervantes, Shakespeare, Don Quijote and Hamlet do that very well.

 

Another similarity is that both characters practise a lot reflexion about themselves. Hamlet in this sense is getting closer to novel practice using monologues, especially when he is planning his revenge. Hamlet pretends to be mad after talking to his father’s ghost: “But come- Here, as before, so help you mercy, How strange or odd soe’er I bear myself, As I perchance hereafter shall think meet. To put an antic disposition on, That you, at such times seeing me, never shall, With arms encumbered thus, or this headshake, or by pronouncing of some doubtful phrase.” Hamlet admits his madness acts on certain occasions: “Make you to ravel all this matter out, That I essentially am not in madness, But mad in craft. ‘Twere good you let him know.” Hamlet also says: “I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw.” It is clear that his madness is pretended, and as a tool he uses that technique to hide his main goal which is revenge. Madness is used as a tool, and with that he thinks he will be able to influence people around him, which is only achieved when Claudio is shown guilty. It is only moment of the play when Hamlet is able to do something, to cause an action, or reaction. In the rest of the story, he is incapable of  doing something else, but he makes long monologues, and he is manipulated without knowing him. Like Hamlet, Don Quijote is handled: people are trying to convince him to go home and cure his injuries, etc. The whole travel itself is a way of a cure to his own ill mind. Hamlet is a tragic character who is destined to end up with a tragedy: Polonius: Mad for thy love?

Ophelia: My lord, I do not know,  But I truly do fear it.

Claudius: It shall be so. Madness in great ones must not unwatched go.

Hamlet does not want to improve the world, but he wants to take his revenge due to his father’s murder. Likewise, Hamlet is the only one that plays without pretending, while around him are only treacherous, participants to the same fraud: the king and the queen, Polonius, Laertes, Rosencrantz, Guilderstern, even Ophelia. For Hamlet and Quijote madness is a theatre, it is a game, but not for children.

Marcello: Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.

Hamlet: How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable

              Seem to me all the uses of this world!

            Fie on’t, ah fie! ‘Tis an unweeded garden

 

Unlike Don Quijote, Hamlet is a coward, because he is afraid of everything, except two things: Death and freedom of speech. It is worth of mention that the characters living around Hamlet do not exactly know neither the cause of his madness nor the reason why Ophelia is mad, too. It is also not known Don Quijote’s coming back from his sane mind. After winning in his adventures, he comes back home. He needs cure his injuries and he accepts another different conception of madness: from a knight turning into a shepherd. After that, he will detest all cavalry books, recovering his normal state of mind. Thus, he arranges all his last will, among other things, and then he confess and dies setting his madness aside: “Loco soy, loco he de ser hasta tanto que tú vuelvas con la respuesta de una carta que contigo pienso enviar a mi señora Dulcinea; y si fuere tal cual a mi fe se le debe, acabarse a mi sandez y mi penitencia; y si fuere al contrario, seré loco de veras, y siéndolo, no sentiré nada. Así que, de cualquiera manera que responda, saldré del conflicto y trabajo en que me dejares, gozando el bien que me trujeres, por cuerdo, o no sintiendo el mal que me aportares, por loco.”  At the same time, Ophelia is happy for her madness, because she does not feel sad, although that was the cause of her craziness. On the contrary, Hamlet feels desperation, but he maybe is not  really insane.

 

Death cures their consciences and sufferings of this world. After death comes paradise for believers. Passion has to be stopped in both cases. In Don Quijote are reflected remedies to cure passion: “¿Quién mejorará mi suerte? La muerte. Y el bien de amor, ¿quién le alcanza? Mudanza. Y sus males, ¿quién los cura? Locura. De este modo, no es cordura Querer curar la pasión Cuando los remedios son Muerte, mudanza y locura.

 

  

  Conclusión

 

We could sum up explaining that Don Quijote turns mad when he copes with reality. On the other side of the coin, Hamlet cannot handle reality, so that he pretends to get mad and so he has to die because of this. Don Quijote needs to die, as well, because he lost his madness, lost the reason to be mad or folly. Madness is represented in both literary works, although Hamlet’s madness and Don Quijote’s foolishness seem different, a closer examination of its facts and monologues has revealed that there are a lot of similarities.

 

The message of Shakespeare and Cervantes is , indeed, that the only one who is insane is the world itself, their characters are not out of their minds. The period they are living in is disastrous, with a lot of poor people living in the streets, people who steal, people who lie, people who kills for money, etc, a world of chaos, a period of craziness. Both writers use the technique of madness in their protagonists to criticise their contemporary reality they both are living in their corresponding countries (one in England and the other one in Spain). They both were living in a separated Europe filled with wars and administrative disorders.

 

Madness will be a tool to judge others’ madness, craziness, or foolishness. As Don Quijote says: “a otro le parecerá otra cosa”, but it is also true that madness is used strategically perfect in both works of art.


 

References used:

 

http://www.litterae.net/Hamlet.htm

 

http://www.cuadernoscervantes.com/art_58_locuraquijote.htm

 

http://descargas.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01715529104585000770035/014544_11.pdf

 

http://www.h-net.org/~cervantes/csa/artics85/johnson.htm

 

http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/models/pdf/joshuatan.pdf

 

http://www.stanford.edu/~asphodyn/writing/SLEQ2E2.htm

Academic year 2005/2006
© a.r.e.a./Dr.Vicente Forés Lópe
z
© aquí tu nombre
usuario@alumni.uv.es
Universitat de València Press


FIRST PAPER

 

Subject : Internet: ferramenta d'investigació lite Gr.SG (28034) 2006-07

 

Student´s name : Gutierrez Campos, Marta Maria

Title of the paper : "An Exploration of the Influences of Don Miguel de Cervantes "

Author or topic : Cervantes, Miguel de 

Abstract : Don Quixote, by poet, playwright and novelist Don Miguel de Cervantes’ is oft-cited as one of the best novels ever written and a major influence on Western writers, including William Shakespeare. While his influence on Western Literature is often commented upon, this website will explore ways in which Cervantes himself was influenced, by other writers as well as by the time in which he lived, preceded by an overview of Cervantes in order to give some idea of his life.

 

Criteria and Search Methods

 My criteria for selecting which web pages to include in my website include:

The date of publication. Earlier postings will not include the latest figures and research. While this is a consideration, it is not necessarily a problem as some comments on Cervantes will hold true regardless of whether it was made in the last ten years or not.

The purpose of the webpage is also an important consideration ie whether or not it matches my intention to explore, persuade or define. It was also important to understand whether the webpage was intended for students or for the general public and for the most part I have included such pages that were intended for study as opposed to general sites and sites that gave biographies of Cervantes, as this was not appropriate for my website. One of the difficulties encountered in this respect, was that many otherwise appropriate sites on Cervantes, which delved into topics in some depth, were written in Spanish, thus making them inappropriate for this webpage. Still more websites required the user to make a purchase in order to acquire full texts on the subjects.

I have included pages that list their sources, as this gives some idea as to the accuracy of the webpage, marking the difference between comment or opinion and researched hypotheses.

I discounted message boards and forums, such as http://mobydicks.com/lecture/Cervanteshall/wwwboard.html as the qualifications of the authors were unclear, there was a lack of quoted sources and posts were often off topic.

 

Each page was assessed with regard to the implied/intended audience. Although many search techniques were used, looking through directories and following indirect links, the pages selected were found using direct links from search engines Alta Vista, Yahoo and Google, within the first 7 pages of search results.  

Although the purpose of each page was seldom explicit, I found it possible to infer a purpose from the way in which the text was presented, for example whether the text was dense and accompanied by annotations and notes, which suggests serious research and criticism, as opposed to sites that sported many bright colours and pictures, which suggest (but does not mean entirely) a site intended for information and perhaps topics explored in less depth. The web address also gave clues as to the nature of the page, for example an address featuring  the ‘.edu’ domain immediately suggests a school, college, university of other educational facility. Similarly, ‘.org’ implies a not-for-profit organisation or charity that may be presenting information for its own sake, and ‘.com’ implies (but again does not  mean) a there may be a commercial aspect to the site and that the user may be asked to part with funds at some point whilst viewing the website.

 

Auto-evaluation:
 
 

 

Academic year 2006/2007
© a.r.e.a./Dr.Vicente Forés López
© Marta Maria Gutierrez Campos
margucam@alumni.uv.es
Universitat de València Press

 


 

An Exploration of the Influences of Don Miguel de Cervantes

 

 

 

Marta Gutierrez

 

Introduction

 

Don Quixote, by poet, playwright and novelist Don Miguel de Cervantes’ is oft-cited as one of the best novels ever written and a major influence on Western writers, including William Shakespeare. While his influence on Western Literature is often commented upon, this website will explore ways in which Cervantes himself was influenced, by other writers as well as by the time in which he lived, preceded by an overview of Cervantes in order to give some idea of his life.

 

Contents

 

1.      Overview of Cervantes

2.      Chronology of Cervantes

3.      Cervantes in England

4.      Cervantes in Relation to Aristotlelian-Thomist Epistimological Theories

5.      Cervantes and Tasso Re-examined

6.      Did Cervantes have a Library?

7.      Cervantes and Aesop

8.      Criteria and Search Methods

 

Next [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

 

 

Back to top

 

 

Overview of Cervantes

 

This page provides a biography of Cervantes, before the web site goes on to explore in more detail influences upon his writing.

 

 

Miguel de Cervantes 1547-1616 - surname in full CERVANTES SAAVEDRA - nickname: Cripple of Lepanto

 

http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/cervante.htm

 

 

Chronology of Cervantes

 

This chronology of Cervantes is for the purpose of illustrating how historical events may have influenced his life and thus his writing.

  

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/cervantes/english/ctxt/cec/chron.html

 

 

Cervantes in England

 

This is the first of a number of pages that will explore not only the impact of Cervantes writing on the Western World, but the influences upon Cervantes himself.

 

http://www.ems.kcl.ac.uk/content/pub/b023.html

 

 

Cervantes in Relation to Aristotlelian-Thomist Epistemological Theories

 

This article, from the Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America explores Cervantes influence by Aristotelian-Thomist theories on epistemology., finding evidence to support the theories from Don Quixote.

Américo Castro has proven that Cervantes was influenced by the Neoplatonist theories of Bembo, Erasmus, and Castiglione (pp. 85-90). What evidence is there that Cervantes was familiar with Aristotelian-Thomist epistemological theories distinguishing between sense-experience and intelligibility and could have had them in mind when he elaborated Don Quijote's ideas on the subject of enchantment? In general, the premises of the present study are consistent with Forcione's thesis that through the figure of Don Quijote (his ideas and actions), Cervantes sought «the liberation of art from the mimetic theories that dominated the mainstream of literary theorizing of the sixteenth century» (p. 121) and that were based on a misreading of Aristotle's

    

Cervantes [Publicaciones periódicas] : Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America. Volume XII, Number 1, Spring 1992

 

http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/12937642021296061865624/not0001.htm

 

 

Cervantes and Tasso Re-examined

 

The following hyperlink links to a PDF by Daniel Eisenberg that explores the relationship between Cervantes and Tasso.

 

Cervantes and Tasso Re-examined

 

Please click the back button in the PDF window to return to this page and continue.

 

 

 

Did Cervantes Have a Library?

 

The following hyperlink links to a PDF by Daniel Eisenberg that explores whether or not Cervantes read extensively, and if so, what he may have read and what evidence there is to support this.

 

Did Cervantes Have a Library?

 

Please click the back button in the PDF window to return to this page and continue.

 

 

 

Cervantes and Aesop

 

This is an essay that ties Cervantes’ creations, Cipion and Berganza, to work by Aesop.

 

 

Cipion, Berganza, and the Aesopic tradition.
Publication Date: 22-MAR-03
Publication Title: Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America
Format: Online
Author: Carranza, Paul
 

http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0199-3049436_ITM

 

 

Criteria and Search Methods

 

My criteria for selecting which web pages to include in my website include:

 

1)     1)      The date of publication. Earlier postings will not include the latest figures and research. While this is a consideration, it is not necessarily a problem as some comments on Cervantes will hold true regardless of whether it was made in the last ten years or not.

2)     2)      The purpose of the webpage is also an important consideration ie whether or not it matches my intention to explore, persuade or define. It was also important to understand whether the webpage was intended for students or for the general public and for the most part I have included such pages that were intended for study as opposed to general sites and sites that gave biographies of Cervantes, as this was not appropriate for my website. One of the difficulties encountered in this respect, was that many otherwise appropriate sites on Cervantes, which delved into topics in some depth, were written in Spanish, thus making them inappropriate for this webpage. Still more websites required the user to make a purchase in order to acquire full texts on the subjects.

3)     3)      I have included pages that list their sources, as this gives some idea as to the accuracy of the webpage, marking the difference between comment or opinion and researched hypotheses.

4)     4)      I discounted message boards and forums, such as http://mobydicks.com/lecture/Cervanteshall/wwwboard.html as the qualifications of the authors were unclear, there was a lack of quoted sources and posts were often off topic.

 

Each page was assessed with regard to the implied/intended audience. Although many search techniques were used, looking through directories and following indirect links, the pages selected were found using direct links from search engines Alta Vista, Yahoo and Google, within the first 7 pages of search results.

 

Although the purpose of each page was seldom explicit, I found it possible to infer a purpose from the way in which the text was presented, for example whether the text was dense and accompanied by annotations and notes, which suggests serious research and criticism, as opposed to sites that sported many bright colours and pictures, which suggest (but does not mean entirely) a site intended for information and perhaps topics explored in less depth. The web address also gave clues as to the nature of the page, for example an address featuring  the ‘.edu’ domain immediately suggests a school, college, university of other educational facility. Similarly, ‘.org’ implies a not-for-profit organisation or charity that may be presenting information for its own sake, and ‘.com’ implies (but again does not  mean) a there may be a commercial aspect to the site and that the user may be asked to part with funds at some point whilst viewing the website.


Sexualities on Shakespeare

<EN CONSTRUCCIÓ>

First Paper by Nunila Martínez on Vicente Forés' “Internet com a ferramenta d'investigació literària”

 

 

 

Aquest és el meu First Paper per la assignatura “Internet: ferramenta d'investigació literària”

 

La pàgina consta de dos estudis diferents: per un costat podeu consultar les conclusions i per un altre, podeu consultar el procés d'investigació.

El procés

<EN CONSTRUCCIÓ>

Per al procés d'investigació hem considerat oportú limitar-nos a recursos disponibles per Internet, és a dir, no hem utilitzat cap llibre que no pugam llegir on-line. Ha sigut, per així dir-ho, un procés que qualsevol persona podria haver fet des de casa.

Per a trobar articles sobre Shakespeare i la sexualitat ens hem referit a: http://scholar.google.com un motor de recerca en bases de dades acadèmiques, però que dóna molts resultats que no ens serveixen, ja que ens remet a llibres o a articles no accessibles dels que únicament podem llegir el resum (abstract).

http://muse.jhu.edu

http://www.jstor.org

http://www.eric.ed.gov/

Per tal d'accedir a la informació d'aquestos motors de recerca, hem utilitzat les sales d'informàtica del la Universitat de València, que es troba subscrita a aquestos projectes.

També ens hauria agradat poder utilitzar quotesXXXXX, però la Universitat de València no en té la subscripció.

Per altra banda, hem descartat totes les entrades trobades bé pel www.google.com sense extensió .edu o que no vingueren avalades per alguna universitat o revista literària. Material procedent de blogs i pàgines personals ha sigut descartat, ja que més enllà de la curiositat que pugam sentir, no ens aportaría una font fiable d'informació.

En aquest sentit, podríem citar moltes pàgines, però per esmentar alguna, hem descartat la wikipèdia (per que hem considerat que el caràcter de les contribucions no garanteix la fiabilitat).

No obstant, no hem descartat pàgines d'associacions, o membres d'associacions amb una visió “diferent” de la sexualitat, com ara l'article de ______________, ja que trobem que la seua visión és una més en l'ampli mosaic de possibilitats que la lectura de l'obra de Shakespeare ens ofereix i que sovint ha sigut simplificada per motius socials o polítics.


 

FIRST PAPER

 

Subject : Internet as a Literary Research Tool


Student´s name : McDaniel Mann Stanley

Title of the paper : The Role of Women in Miguel de Cervantes and William Shakespeare´s Works

Author or topic :

Abstract : The aim of the information presented in the website is to discuss the women characters created by Miguel de Cervantes and William Shakespeare in their works.  Shakespeare´s women characters are perhaps the most famous characters made by any other playwright, and he goes to every detail to give them a fresh look.  Many times these women are portrayed as rebellious feminists, but in reality they are merely reacting against an unjust society which casts them aside as third-class citizens.  Shakespeare´s women have strong feminine influences and unique personalites which affect the plot and outcome of the play.  Similarily, we can take a close look at the women in Cervantes´ works, and we can see that he thinks highly of his strong, righteous female characters.  It even appears that Cervantes invoked great sympathy for women in his works by turning whores into socially helpless women who have entered such a profession due to their degraded situation.  Both writers treated women and feminism in a unique way, even to the point of invoking great sympathy for women, unlike the bulk of their generation.

 

Auto-evaluation:  This type of project has been completely new to me, and, as a result, I have learned quite a bit about both writers and how English speaking countries view Cervantes´s works and Spanish speaking countries view Shakespeare´s.  In addition, I have learned to create a webpage.  Given the amount of time which I have spent on this project and what I have learned from it, I feel I deserve a minimum grade of “notable”.
 



 - ENTER –

 

The Role of Women in Miguel de CervantesAndWilliam Shakespeare´s Works

The way Cervantes handled women characters revealed his sympathy for women who wished to take their own decisions and argue for their rights.  Such sensitive themes as religion, social class and prostitution were handled by Cervantes with grace as his women characters juggled all the injustices of the times with their own situations, making desperate attempts to live their own lives and cry out for recognition.  Similarily, Shakespeare´s women characters are perhaps the most famous characters made by any playwright, often characterized as “rebellious feminists”.  Shakespeare´s audiences were surely scandalized by feminine protrayals which not only went against all logic of the times but also challenged theater goers to change their mind frames and break taboos of the times.

 A first look will be taken at two of Cervantes´s women characters,   Marcela (the countess who abandons her fortunate living opting to live as a shepherdess) and Dulcinea (the plain peasant women romanticized by Don Quixote) surely hints at the author’s feeling for women in quest of their identity.  Critics have  explored the roles played by women, leading to further feminist and gender studies to Cervantes for his sensitive method of depicting the women of 17th-century Spain. “Unlike the bulk of his generation, Cervantes invoked great sympathy for women. Although falling short of a “feminist” view, many female characters such as Marcela and Dorotea in Don Quixote speak powerfully arguing for their rights.”[1][1] Proof of this is how Cervantes  turns whores into socially helpless women coerced in to such degrading profession driven by poverty.  Maritornes, the whore (of the tavern Don Quixote thought to be a citadel) altered by the innocent stare of Don Quixote, with whom she mistakenly gets into bed after making a date with a mule skinner. Maritornes is the mule skinner’s whore and the tavern warden,  but is capable of the sweetest and most tender conversation to "the Ragged Knight of the Sorry Countenance”.[2][2]   Maritornes, the hideous, but caring whore, the mournful, stunning Dorotea married to Don Fernando before he left for Luscinda, and who feigned as Princess Micomicona to get Don Quixote to depart the from the mountains, the rich orphan Marcela who lives in the woods dressed as a shepherdess and rejecting suitors Marcela and beautiful Lela Zoraida who helps the prisoner of war from Leon to escape and marries this man renouncing her father, her religion, and her country getting baptized in Spain – all of them seek a different kind identity mark.  

In Don Quixote there may exist an association between marriage and prostitution in the option the women adopt in order to socially authorize their lives, either for the deference to authority, (as in the case of Lucinda who marries Cardenio's friend Don Fernando, son of a duke, to soothe her parents, even if truly caring for Cardenio with whom she is united again in the end) or for seeking refuge in Christianity, as in the case of Zoraida. Marcela renounces marriage or courtship living in harmony with nature and keeping away from the advances of suitors. Dorotea who has been betrayed by Don Fernando when he married Lucinda instead felt dishonored so as to go away from her village in cross dressing. She feigns to be the Princess Micomicona, to con Don Quixote. Yet, she basically wants to get married.  “Medea's utter hate and detestation for her husband pushed her to truly harm her husband by killing her own children conveying her internal conflict as Medea's motherly makeup made her ask whether or not she should go to such an extent.  Eventually her anger prevailed over her calm and forced her into a crazy state to execute one of the most brutal acts a mother could do.”[3][3] In Don Quixote, Dorotea disguises herself quite a few times—from a man to a woman and ultimately to a princess. Zoraida also undergoes a cultural duality, leaving her familiar world, for the quest of a new identity. Cervantes’s female characters live with the Christian notions of hope showing them the way. Zoraida’s defies patriarchal authority because of a Christian religious quest and not for physical lust. Behind Dorotea’s revenge plan, there is allusion of a woman’s attempt to regain lost honor.

The distance that Cervantes created between his female characters and the classical ones whose influence can be traced in Don Quixote, was deliberately made so, in order to make a sense of the present.   Don Quixote, albeit apparently giving the impression of an insane, schizophrenic, torn between illusion and reality, according to modern studies, is a character who sticks to his reasons, however convoluted. Expressing his idea of the peasant girl (Aldonza Lorenzo) whom he refers to as Dulcinea of El Toboso, he says to Sancho: 

“For what I want of Dulcinea del Toboso she is as good as the greatest princess in the land. For not all those poets who praise ladies under names which they choose so freely, really have such mistresses. . . .I am quite satisfied. . . to imagine and believe that the good Aldonza Lorenzo is so lovely and virtuous.”[4][4]

This indicates that for Don Quixote it is of lesser significance whether the girl is really Dulcinea of El Toboso or not. This suggests an idea of love that is pragmatic. The expression “For what I want of (her)”  generates a sense of frankness, a precise point to make, sort of a professional deal stressing love’s terms and conditions, a kind of love that blends with Don Quixote’s  poetic love, a love that stresses on usefulness.   Dulcinea seems to satisfy Don Quixote’s own ideal of love, and his love for her is a way of attaining his gallant actions needed for a Knight Errant.  Despite the fact that the love projected here is a purpose-driven emotion, the novel depicts it as exclusive and outstanding. Thus Don Quixote’s sense of exactitude is well admired.  But Don Quixote, from a modern feminist view appears as a male, macho. Especially when he says,  

“It is impossible that there could be a knight-errant without a lady, because it is as proper and natural for them to be in love as for the sky to have stars. I can warrant that there has never been a knight-errant without amours in any history written, for the mere fact of being without them would prove that he was not a legitimate knight”. [5][5]

          Shakespeare, one of the most famous and well read playwrights  in English literature, has created several different women characters—Cleopatra, Juliet, Beatrice, Viola and others – who are still remembered. These women characters have different qualities that actually give us a peep in the choice of the characterization that Shakespeare creates.  Shakespeare’s women characters are perhaps the most famous characters made by any other playwright. They are called by several different terms by the critics such as, “unruly women” “the female wild” and the “outlaws”.  Shakespeare goes to every other detail to give his women characters a fresh look. They hold a special place in his plays and without them perhaps the work may not be considered complete.

The critics have often called the women characters unruly, who believe in living life on their own terms. Some of them also believe that Shakespeare’s characters are rebellious feminists. “Shakespeare’s heroines rebelled against the men and the society in their attempt to rule or being broke down by a social arrangement mostly involving men.”[6][6] There is another point to note about Shakespeare’s women characters that were in his plays when Elizabeth I was on the throne. Critics believe that during the reign of Queen Victoria, the plays of Shakespeare were framed particularly by keeping in mind the female audience or readers. There was no single passage in the play which could violate feminine sensibilities. 

Lady Macbeth, Macbeth’s wife in Shakespeare’s most popular play Macbeth, is the most famous and fearsome female character. She is not a feminine symbol in the play but a masculine one. She is an immensely ambitious woman. She is an unruly woman, lusty for power and greedy for position. The character of Lady Macbeth as framed by Shakespeare is actually the most difficult for the Victorian age to take in.   In the beginning itself, the audiences find her making the plot of Duncan’s murder. She has no weaknesses in her character and is strong and ruthless about her thoughts. She understands the situations around her completely and knows that she has to force her husband Macbeth to commit murder.   Lady Macbeth is so adamant abut her plans that at a point she even wants to shed her feminism to so that she can execute the murder herself. In the words of Lady macbeth’s husband--she has a masculine soul living in a female body that associates masculinity with violence and lust for power.  She has the ability to control her husband with noteworthy efficiency, and she can overrule all his doubts, protests and hesitations about committing the murder. She even questions his manhood again and again to make him feel that he has to kill to prove himself. After the murder, Lady Macbeth uses her will and strength to pacify her husband’s nervousness. She portrays a more tragic role than Macbeth as ambition causes her slow slide into madness more stoutly.[7][7] Therefore, he feels the guilt of the crime even stronger.  In the end of the play, once the guilt takes her over completely, the sensibility of Lady Macbeth becomes her weakness, which drags her into the darks of life, unable to cope with the siutation. As she kills herself ostensibly, this indicates how she was completely unable to deal with the guilt of the crime. 

Cleopatra is the most popular character created by Shakespeare in the plays Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra. She was the ruler of Egypt who  succeeded in solidifying her grip on the throne by consummating a link with Julius Caesar. Caesar was charmed by Cleopatra and she became his mistress, despite the thirty years age difference between them. She gave birth to a son, named Caesarion, about whom Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father. She wanted Caesarion to become his heir, but Caesar refused. It is believed that when Caesar was assassinated, Cleopatra was present along with Caesarion.  After Caesar’s assassination, Cleopatra got involved with Mark Anthony, who spent a great time with her in Alexandria, upsetting the people back home in Rome. She gave birth to his twin children and Antony married her in 37 BC. In the battle of Actium in 31 BC, Antony's forces had to face the Romans in a naval battle fought off the coast of Actium. According to a popular story about the war, Cleopatra was also present there along with her fleet and when she saw that the fleet of Antony is not well equipped to be able to face the far superior forces of the Romans, she fled from there. Antony too left the battle in between to follow her. This, indicates that Cleopatra used her tremendous beauty and charm to control her reign and to protect it from the Romans.   Cleopatra is one of the controversial heroines of Shakespeare’s historical plays. Cleopatra is considered the most beautiful of women, who bewitched several men rulers with her physical beauty and attraction. She is a “gypsy” and has immense beauty and open sexuality.

Ophelia is a confused female character created by Shakespeare. She is completely controlled by the influences of people around her. This affects her ability to express her deep feelings about anything. She has to hold back her emotions time and again and this results in her going mad. Ophelia is a major influence on Hamlet and also affects his return to sanity. Moreover, she also molds Laertes.[8][8]

Ophelia is not one of the Shakespeare’s strongest women characters as her madness and death are caused due to the pressure exerted by her father and the king on her. When her father dies she looses both her identity and her sanity.  Ophelia cannot give up without torturing herself. Her craziness holds base on the mental torture that she develops due to the constraint on her. Her madness and eventual suicide holds a great influence on all other characters in the play.   Laertes’s grief at Ophelia’s death makes him plan out the murder of Hamlet. When Gertrude learns about Ophelia’s death, she goes into a state of utter perplexity at the loss of such a nice and innocent person.

Beatrice is the witty heroine of the play Much Ado About Nothing. Her character is memorable and is in the original style of Shakespeare. We notice her opposing marriage firmly. She makes her first comment to the messenger about Benedick’s welfare. She asks many questions about him which indicate her growing interest in him which perhaps she did not know about herself. Then, after Benedick and other soldiers arrive, we see her having strong verbal duels with Benedick. The way in which she makes comments about him indicates that they knew each other before.   Like Ophelia, Beatrice is also influenced by other characters which can be seen by her emotional engagements with Hero and Claudio.

It is quite common for women to have leading roles in the plays of Shakespeare. In romantic comedy plays like Much Ado About Nothing and some tragic plays like Macbeth and Antony and Cleopatra, we find Shakespeare’s women characters taking on the other male characters. The women characters of Shakespeare have strong feminine influences and unique personalities which affect the plot and outcome of the play. Even though the plots of the plays are distinct, we find lots of similarities between the women characters.

In conclusion, it is interesting to note that Miguel de Cervantes and William Shakespeare, were ahead of their time and used their feminine characters to make an “informal” protest against the adverse situation suffered by women of the period.    In the case of William Shakespeare, not only did some of the women characters take on masculine attitudes, but they also orchestrated plans and plots in order to highlight this shocking distinction.   As far as Miguel de Cervantes is concerned, he dared to show sympathy for the plight of women in Spain during the 16th century, and through his writings, hinted that not only needed but deserved their own identity.

 

 

Bibliography

 

Book Project on an Ancient Greek Drama Medea by Euripides, retrieved from

http://www.tqnyc.org/NYC 040522/Medea/medanindex.htm (accessed June 5, 2007)

 

Brittanica, Importance and Influence of Cervantes, retrieved from

http://www.britannica.com/shakespeare/article-215817a (accessed June 5, 2007)

 

Godayol, Pilar.  Germanes de Shakespeare.  Retrieved from

http://www.ub.es/cdona/Lectora_09/23%5B1%5D.%20Ressenya%20       Shakespeare.pdf (accessed June 12, 2007)

 

Hamlet.  Retrieved from

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamlet  (accessed June 14, 2007)

 

Wilipedia.  Retrieved from

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth (accessed June 14, 2007)

 

Wirfs-Brock, Jordan.  The Duality of Don Quixote´s Characater as Shown Through his Attitutde Towards Dulcinea of El Toboso,  retrieved from

http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Literature/21L-002-3Spring-2004/BD65867A-5653.4DA4-AE81-B3E1639EE86C/0/donquixote_rewri.pdf

Academic year 2006/2007
© a.r.e.a./Dr.Vicente Forés López
© Stan McDaniel
smcmann@alumni.uv.es
Universitat de València Press


 

Correo electrónico: tausiet@tausiet.com

Shakespeare

Por Harold Bloom

   La idea del carácter occidental, del ser interior como agente moral, tiene muchas fuentes. Homero y Platón, Aristóteles y Sófocles, la Biblia y San Agustín, Dante y Kant, y todo lo que quieran añadir. La personalidad, en nuestro sentido, es una invención shakespeareana, y no es sólo la más grande originalidad de Shakespeare, sino también la auténtica causa de su perpetua presencia. En la medida en que nosotros mismos valoramos y deploramos nuestras propias personalidades, somos los herederos de Falstaff y de Hamlet, y de todas las otras personas que atiborran el teatro de Shakespeare con lo que podemos llamar los colores del espíritu.

* * *

   El extraño poder de Shakespeare para transmitir la personalidad está quizá más allá de toda explicación. ¿Cómo es que sus personajes nos parecen tan reales y cómo pudo lograr esa ilusión de manera tan convincente? Las consideraciones históricas (e historizadas) no han ayudado mucho a responder a estas cuestiones. Los ideales, tanto sociales como individuales, eran tal vez más prevalentes en el mundo de Shakespeare que lo que son al parecer en el nuestro. Leeds Barroll señala que los ideales del Renacimiento, ya sean cristianos, filosóficos u ocultos, tendían a subrayar nuestra necesidad de adherir a algo personal que sin embargo era más grande que nosotros. Dios o un espíritu. De ello se seguía cierta tensión o angustia, y Shakespeare se convirtió en el más alto maestro en la explotación de ese vacío entre las personas y el ideal personal. ¿Se deduce de esta explicación su invención de lo que reconocemos como "personalidad"? Percibimos sin duda la influencia de Shakespeare en su discípulo John Webster cuando el Flaminio de Webster exclama, al morir, en El demonio blanco:
Cuando miramos hacia el cielo confundimos
   Conocimiento con conocimiento. En Webster, incluso en sus mejores momentos, escuchamos las paradojas de Shakespeare hábilmente repetidas, pero los hablantes no tienen ninguna individualidad. ¿Quién puede decirnos las diferencias de personalidad, en El demonio blanco, entre Flaminio y Lodovico? Mirar hacia el cielo y confundir el Conocimiento con el conocimiento no salva a Flaminio y a Lodovico de ser nombres en una página. Hamlet, perpetuamente discutiendo consigo mismo, no parece deber su abrumadora personalidad a una confusión del conocimiento personal y el ideal. Más bien Shakespeare nos da un Hamlet que es agente, más que efecto, de resonantes revelaciones. Quedamos convencidos de la realidad superior de Hamlet porque Shakespeare ha hecho a Hamlet más libre haciendo que sepa la verdad, una verdad demasiado intolerable para que la soportemos. Un público shakespeareano es como los dioses en Homero: observamos y escuchamos y no tenemos la tentación de intervenir. Pero también somos diferentes de la audiencia que constituyen los dioses de Homero; siendo mortales, también nosotros confundimos el Conocimiento con el conocimiento. No podemos sacar, ni de la época de Shakespeare ni de la nuestra, información que nos explique su capacidad de crear "formas más reales que los hombres vivos", como dijo Shelley. Los dramaturgos rivales de Shakespeare estaban sujetos a las mismas discrepancias entre ideales de amor, orden y eternidad que él, pero nos dieron cuando mucho elocuentes criaturas más que hombres y mujeres.
    Leyendo a Shakespeare y viéndolo representado, no podemos saber si tenía tales o cuales creencias extrapoéticas. G. K. Chesterton, maravilloso crítico literario, insistía en que Shakespeare fue un dramaturgo católico y en que Hamlet es más ortodoxo que escéptico. Ambas afirmaciones me parecen muy improbables, pero no lo sé, ni lo sabía tampoco Chesterton. Christopher Marlowe tenía sus ambigüedades y Ben Jonson sus ambivalencias, pero a veces podemos aventurar conjeturas sobre sus posturas personales. Leyendo a Shakespeare puedo sacar en claro que no le gustaban los abogados, que prefería beber a comer, y evidentemente que le atraían ambos sexos. Pero sin duda no tengo ningún indicio sobre si favorecía al protestantismo o al catolicismo o a ninguno de los dos, y no sé si creía o descreía en Dios o en la resurrección. Su política, como su religión, se me escapa, pero creo que era demasiado cauteloso para tener la una o la otra. Le asustaban, sensatamente, las muchedumbres y los levantamientos, pero también le asustaba la autoridad. Aspiraba a la nobleza, se arrepentía de haber sido actor y puede parecer que valoraba El rapto de Lucrecia por encima de El rey Lear, juicio en el que sigue siendo escandalosamente único (con la excepción, tal vez, de Tolstoi).
   Chesterton y Anthony Burgess subrayan ambos la vitalidad de Shakespeare, y yo iría un poco más allá y llamaría a Shakespeare vitalista, como su propio Falstaff. El vitalismo, que William Hazlitt llama "gusto", es quizá la última clave de la capacidad sobrenatural de Shakespeare de dotar a sus personajes de personalidades y de estilos de habla fuertemente personalizados. Me cuesta trabajo creer que Shakespeare prefiriera al Príncipe Hal sobre Falstaff, como opina la mayoría de los críticos. Hal es un Maquiavelo; Falstaff, como el propio Ben Jonson (¿y como Shakespeare?), está reventando de vida. Lo están también, por supuesto, los villanos asesinos de Shakespeare: Aarón el Moro, Ricardo III, Iago, Edmundo, Macbeth. Lo están también los villanos cómicos: Shylock, Malvolio y Calibán. La exuberancia, casi apocalíptica en su fervor, es tan marcada en Shakespeare como en Rabelais, Blake y Joyce.
El hombre Shakespeare, afable y astuto, no era más Falstaff que Hamlet, y sin embargo algo en sus lectores y espectadores asocia perpetuamente al dramaturgo con ambas figuras. Sólo Cleopatra y los más robustos de los villanos -Iago, Edmundo, Macbeth- quedan en nuestras memorias con la fuerza perdurable de la desfachatez de Falstaff y la intensidad intelectual de Hamlet.
    Para leer las obras de Shakespeare, y hasta cierto punto para asistir a sus representaciones, el procedimiento simplemente sensato es sumergirse en el texto y en sus hablantes, y permitir que la comprensión se expanda desde lo que uno lee, oye y ve hacia cualquier contexto que se presente como pertinente. Tal fue el procedimiento desde los tiempos del doctor Johnson y David Garrick, de William Hazlitt y Edmund Kean, a través de la época de A. C. Bradley y Henry Irving, de G. Wilson Knight y John Gielgud. Desgraciadamente, por sensata y hasta "natural" que fuera esta manera, hoy está fuera de moda y ha sido sustituida por una contextualización impuesta arbitraria e ideológicamente. En el "Shakespeare francés" (como lo llamaré de ahora en adelante), el procedimiento consiste en empezar con una postura política completamente propia, bien alejada de las obras de Shakespeare, y localizar luego algún trocito marginal de la historia social del Renacimiento inglés que parezca apoyar esa postura. Con ese fragmento social en la mano, se abalanza uno desde afuera sobre la pobre comedia, y se encuentran algunas conexiones, establecidas como sea, entre ese supuesto hecho social y las obras de Shakespeare. Me alegraría persuadirme de que estoy parodiando las operaciones de los profesores y directores de lo que yo llamo "Resentimiento" -esos críticos que valoran la teoría más que la propia literatura-, pero he hecho una simple reseña de lo que sucede, en el aula o en el escenario.
   Sustituyendo el nombre de "Jesús" por el de "Shakespeare", se me ocurre citar a William Blake:
Seguro estoy de que ese Shakespeare no es mío
Sea yo inglés o sea yo judío

    Lo inadecuado del "Shakespeare francés" no es precisamente que no sea el "Shakespeare inglés", no digamos ya el Shakespeare judío, cristiano o islámico: más simplemente es que no es Shakespeare, el cual no encaja fácilmente en los "archivos" de Foucault y cuyas energías no eran primariamente "sociales". Puede uno meter absolutamente cualquier cosa en Shakespeare y las obras lo iluminarán mucho más de lo que quedarán iluminadas por lo que uno ha metido. Sin embargo los resentidos profesionales insisten en que la actitud estética es ella misma una ideología. No estoy muy de acuerdo, y en este libro yo sólo meto la estética (en el lenguaje de Walter Pater y de Oscar Wilde) en Shakespeare. O más bien él la trae a mí, puesto que Shakespeare educó a Pater, a Wilde, y a todos nosotros en estética, que, como observó Pater, es un asunto de percepciones y sensaciones. Shakespeare nos enseña qué percibir y cómo percibirlo, y nos instruye también sobre cómo y qué sentir y después experimentarlo como sensación. Buscando como buscaba ensancharnos, no en cuanto ciudadanos o en cuanto cristianos sino en cuanto conciencias, Shakespeare superó a todos sus preceptores como hombre de espectáculo. Nuestros resentidos, que pueden describirse también (sin maldad) como chalados del género-y-el-poder, no se sienten muy conmovidos por las obras de teatro como espectáculo.
    Aunque a G. K. Chesterton le gustaba pensar que Shakespeare fue un católico, por lo menos en espíritu, era demasiado buen crítico para localizar en la cristiandad el universalismo de Shakespeare. Podemos aprender de eso a no configurar a Shakespeare según nuestra política cultural. Comparando a Shakespeare con Dante, Chesterton subraya la amplitud de Dante cuando trata del amor cristiano y la libertad cristiana, mientras que Shakespeare "era un pagano, en la medida en que está en su punto más alto cuando describe grandes espíritus encadenados". Esas "cadenas" manifiestamente no son políticas. Nos devuelven al universalismo, ante todo a Hamlet, el más grande de todos los espíritus, pensando en su camino hacia la verdad, por la cual perece. El uso final de Shakespeare es dejar que nos enseñe a pensar demasiado bien en cualquier verdad que podamos soportar sin perecer.

 


 

 

 http://mural.uv.es/jortor/

Brief Biography

    I was born in Portsmouth, England, 1976, but I soon moved to Valencia, where I grew up. I graduated from Valencia University in 1999, where I majored in English Philology. 

    Ever since I was a high school student I had a strong interest in Japan. That interest first started through the world of Japanese comics and cartoons, and that later on evolved towards a fascination on the Japanese culture and society in general. For that reason I tried to combine my studies in high school and university with the study of the Japanese language. I felt that knowing the language could be the key that might open many of the doors of the world that years ago attracted my attention.

    I was not mistaken, for in 1999, just a month after my graduation, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs chose me to join the Japanese Exchange and Teaching Program (JET) thanks to which I would be working for three years in a Japanese local authority office as a Coordinator for International Relations between Spain and Japan.

    After the contract with the JET Program ended, I had a 2 years contract at the Tokyo branch of the Valencian porcelain company “Lladró”.

 Since 2005 I have been working as a Spanish culture and language teacher at the Spanish department of the Himeji Dokkyo University, near Osaka and in the Kobe area.


 

Commentaries: Texts on the Future Role of the Cyberspace and Hypertext

Views on Texts Dealing with the Future Role of Cyberspace and Hypertext

 

* On Pierre Levy's Cyberspace and the Future of Memory

* On Howard S. Becker's Theory: The Necessary Evil

* On Sven Birkerts' The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age

 * On Jay David Bolter's Degrees of Freedom

* On Robert Kendall's Writing for the New Millennium. The Birth of Electronic Literature.

* On Jerome McGann's Comp[u/e]ting Editorial F[u/ea]tures

* On Stuart Moulthrop's You Say You Want a Revolution? Hypertext and the Laws of Media

@

Paper: An Insight into the Presence of Shakespeare and Cervantes in Japanese Cyberspace

 

An Insight into the Presence of Shakespeare and Cervantes

in Japanese Cyberspace

 

INTRODUCTION

 

PART ONE: On William Shakespeare in the Japanese Cyberspace

In this section, we will try to describe each one of the websites that were found to be valuable for our purpose to illustrate the different areas in which we find the presence of Shakespeare. At the same time, will try to order the pages by the themes or topics they can be grouped by. In most of the cases the homepages will not have an English version, so the title of each site will always be a tentative one, since it will be based in our homemade and modest translation. And finally, by the end of this section a general summary will be made as a commentary of the whole corpus of pages selected.

 

      Shakespeare in the Japanese Web

 

Shakespeare in the Japanese Web

@

 

* Japanese Wikipedia: William Shakespeare

 

*  Shakespeare’s Forest

 

* Shakespeare’s Window

 

* The Bard of Avon: Shakespeare in Stratford-upon-Avon 

  

* Todokoro’s Study Room on Shakespeare

 

* The Shakespeare Theater and Plays

   

* The Shakespeare Society of Japan

@

* A Theatrical Company: Shakespeare Theatre

  

* The Shakespeare Company of Japan

  

* Academic Shakespeare Company (ASC)

   

* The Shakespeare Company for Children

@

* Other Websites of Interest

 

 

 

   Final Thoughts on the Shakespeare Section

Final Thoughts on the Shakespeare Section

 

    As we mentioned before, the material on the Japanese web was too large to include all of it. The number of pages we chose was so little compared to the existing ones that it was difficult to consider them as a representative corpus. Nevertheless we have struggled to give a vision as complete as possible about the webscape of Shakespeare in Japan. We can conclude that there is a real interest in the playwright as shown by the numerous theater companies dedicated to his plays. A lot of research is probably going on too, but somehow it is difficult to spot on the Internet, or it is not easy to find them by using the conventional search methods. There is a great number of websites created by amateurs who have interest in Shakespeare, and on a more academic level only a few were found. We felt a lack of more articles, books, texts, essays and dissertations about Shakespeare published on the Internet. However, as we said before, there must be many more out there. The main question is: how to find them.

 

 


    PART TWO: On Miguel de Cervantes in the Japanese Cyberspace

    Even though there is a clear difference in the quantity of websites on Cervantes found on the Internet compared to Shakespeare, the presence of Cervantes was quite astonishing. Another point that we have to take into account is that on the one hand, Shakespeare has a long list of plays to be well known for, and, as we saw, there are many companies trying to represent all the 37 of them as their personal goal. On the other hand, Cervantes is basically known for his famous novel Don Quixote. Furthermore, we could say that while many people have heard of the novel and even about its contents or about the mythical scene with the windmills, very few of them know even the name of its writer. Thus, the title Don Quixote has found its place within the Japanese people, but unfortunately the name of Cervantes still does not ring a bell for the majority of them. For that reason, and due to the poor search results for the word Cervantes in Japanese with Google, we allowed ourselves an additional second round with the word Don Quixote too in Japanese.

 

            Cervantes in the Japanese Web

 Cervantes on the Japanese Web

 

* Japanese Wikipedia: Miguel de Cervantes

 

* Cervantesf Famous Quotes

 

* Puentefuente: The Life of Miguel de Cervantes

 

* On Cervantesf gDon Quixoteh

 

* Seigow Matsuokafs Review on gDon Quixoteh

 

* On Cervantes

 

* TURESPAÑA: The House of Cervantes (Spanish Tourist Board of Japan)

 

* About Don Quixote and his insanity

 

 

            Don Quixote in the Japanese Web

  Don Quixote on the Japanese Web

 

* Japanese Wikipedia: Don Quixote

 

* Sanchofs gDon Quixoteh Traveler Guide

 

* From Someone Who Read gDon Quixoteh

 

* Don Quixote Ballet

 

* Don Quixote: The TV Series

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* The Don Quijote Organization

 

* Other Websites of Interest

 

            Final Thoughts on the Cervantes Section

 

    As we mentioned before, the number of relevant pages obtained when looking for the terms Cervantes or Don Quixote was clearly smaller than the one about when we searched for Shakespeare. Nevertheless, in this section we found a greater variety of areas. Whereas with Shakespeare we got very few articles or essays actually written on Shakespeare or any of his plays, there were so many pages with essays on Cervantes or on Don Quixote h that we had to narrow down the number. Here we even found some articles written by university professors, or professional writers. We could argue that compared to Shakespeare it is sad that Cervantes is basically known just for his famous novel, but we will agree that this one work has captivated the attention of many Japanese minds. Cervantes was trying to represent a very true image of Spain and the Spanish people through his novel. The story or at least the image that it created for those who did not read the novel was true enough to be able to make them associate the image of Don Quixote with the Spanish culture and Spanish reality in general. According to the pages we visited, this association between a work of fiction and the culture of a whole country did not seem to be happening to the same extent with the concepts of Shakespeare and Britain.

 

Academic year 2006/2007
© a.r.e.a./Dr.Vicente Forés López
© jortor@alumni.uv.es
Universitat de València Press

 


 

 

Módulo 01

Concordances

To see a World in a Grain of Sand

And Heaven in a Wild Flower

Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand

And Eternity in an hour

William Blake

(from Auguries of Innocence c.1800)

http://www.languid.org/cgi-bin/shakespeare?st=search&keywords=Time&operation=Submit

458 veces

 

KING HENRY IV, PART I : Act 4, scene 1
...
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 4, scene 4

Time in
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 1, scene 2
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 2, scene 1
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 2, scene 2
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 3, scene 1
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 3, scene 2
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 4, scene 4
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 4, scene 1
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 4, scene 2
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS : Act 5, scene 1
http://www.it.usyd.edu.au/~matty/Shakespeare/test.html

Search results
Your search time resulted in 970 hits
The following words appeared in your search: time:1123
Act 1, Scene 2

http://www.leoyan.com/djvu-editions.com/SHAKESPEARE/COMPLETE/search.html

Concordance Search for 'time'
Printing matching lines from 1 to 25 of 26.
  1: Shakespeare  Comedy of Errors      l, sir ? I never saw her till this  time.  1 .. S. Villain, thou liest;

http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/
Shakespeare concordance:
all instances of "time"

•    time occurs 1,100 times in 966 lines within 42 works.
•    Possibly related words: times, time's, timely, timed
•    Look up "time" in the Merriam-Webster dictionary
(offsite link; may not be found)
•    The links below will show time in each listed work,
or you may want to see all the instances at once.


http://www-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/
and search by play

http://www.shkspr.uni-muenster.de/queries.php
The Shakespeare Database Project

 

Módulo 03

Seguimos con tecnicismos

Hola,
Para cuando tengais que redactar algún trabajo académico quiero recordaros que la forma de citar fuentes usadas y evitar plagios es conociendo el MLA Style Sheet. Podéis encontrar ejemplos, explicaciones y cómo funciona en las siguientes páginas, sobre todo:

El Purdue University Online Writing Lab y en particular:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/research/r_mla.html

MLA STYLE SHEET
By Dr. Abel Scribe PhD
http://www.docstyles.com/mlacrib.htm

Style Sheets for Citing Resources (Print & Electronic):
Examples & General Rules for MLA, APA, & Chicago & Turabian Styles
UC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Style.html

Adopted by CCSN Library & CCSN Writing Lab Spring 1997

http://www.ccsn.nevada.edu/english/mlastyle.htm

Elegid la guía que mejor os vaya y de ahora en adelante todos los 'papers' usarán este método de citar fuentes y de referir la bibliografía. Cualquier duda, etc. en el blog del curso, please!

 

 

Módulos Multi Media
 e-mail: fores@uv.es

MMM

© Copyright 1995-2007 by Dr. Vicente Forés
Valencia_Austin 10/05/2004_07/23/2--7