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  • Identifying critical incidents in naturalistic driving data: experiences from a promoting real life observation for gaining understanding of road user behaviour in Europe small-scale field trial

    Tontsch, A.; Valero-Mora, P.; Pareja, I.

    (2013). Article

    IET Intelligent Transport Systems.

    The methodology of naturalistic driving observation aspires to observe the driver and his environment while driving in natural driving settings. It is of great importance in research on road safety as this method of observing road users eliminates the disadvantages of traditional methods like simulator studies or interviews. However, it produces vast such amounts of data and challenges data reduction and data analysis. Therefore automatic methods for filtering critical incidents based on thresholds for numerical data are often applied to select the data to be analysed. This study reports a small-scale field trial in Valencia, Spain, which was conducted within the promoting real life...

    The methodology of naturalistic driving observation aspires to observe the driver and his environment while driving in natural driving settings. It is of great importance in research on road safety as this method of observing road users eliminates the disadvantages of traditional methods like simulator studies or interviews. However, it produces vast such amounts of data and challenges data reduction and data analysis. Therefore automatic methods for filtering critical incidents based on thresholds for numerical data are often applied to select the data to be analysed. This study reports a small-scale field trial in Valencia, Spain, which was conducted within the promoting real life observation for gaining understanding of road user behaviour in Europe project. The analysis of the numerical data using thresholds resulted in a great number of false alarms and did not identify safety-critical sequences. In contrast, video analysis revealed a number of critical events that had not been previously detected using the numerical parameters. The study conveyed the importance of continuous video recording in these kinds of studies and showed that the methodology of data reduction for naturalistic driving studies requires further development in order to be able to capture all the relevant incidents automatically.

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     Vol 7 nº2, pp. 198-202

    DOI: 0.1049/iet-its.2012.0148
    ISSN: ISSN 1751-956X
  • Geo-referencing naturalistic driving data using a novel method based on vehicle speed

    Balsa-Barreiro, J.; Valero-Mora, P.; Pareja, I.; Sánchez, M.

    (2013). Article

    IET Intelligent Transport Systems.

    Naturalistic driving is an experimentation model that allows us to recognise the driving modes observing the driver’s behaviour at the wheel of a set of people in natural conditions during long periods of observation. This research methodology aims at increasing the representativeness of the data collected in opposition to data stemming from highly controlled laboratory experiments. However, naturalistic driving research designs produce large volumes of data that are difficult to handle. Thus, it is very important to work with suitable methods for representing and interpreting data, allowing us to observe the variability of the results. The aim of this study is to implement a new...

    Naturalistic driving is an experimentation model that allows us to recognise the driving modes observing the driver’s behaviour at the wheel of a set of people in natural conditions during long periods of observation. This research methodology aims at increasing the representativeness of the data collected in opposition to data stemming from highly controlled laboratory experiments. However, naturalistic driving research designs produce large volumes of data that are difficult to handle. Thus, it is very important to work with suitable methods for representing and interpreting data, allowing us to observe the variability of the results. The aim of this study is to implement a new methodology adapted to the particularities of the naturalistic method that allows us to retrieve the positioning information through a georeferencing process of the available data. This method is the first step (preprocessing) to achieve a more clear and intuitive representation (cartographic representation) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

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     Vol 7 nº 2, pp. 190-197

    DOI: 10.1049/iet-its.2012.0152
    ISSN: ISSN 1751-956X
  • Serum nitrotyrosine and psychometric tests as indicators of impaired fitness to drive in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Felipo, V.; Urios, A.; Valero, P.; Sánchez, M.; Serra, M.A.; Pareja, I.; Rodríguez, F.; Giménez-Garzó, C.; Sanmartín, J.; Montoliu, C.

    (2013). Article

    Liver International.

    Background & Aims: Cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) show impaired driving ability and increased vehicle accidents. The neurological deficits contributing to impair driving and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Early detection of driving impairment would help to reduce traffic accidents in MHE patients. It would be therefore useful to have psychometric or biochemical parameters reflecting driving impairment. The aims of this work were as follows: (i) to shed light on the neurological deficits contributing to impair driving; (ii) to assess whether some psychometric test or biochemical parameter is a good indicator of driving impairment....

    Background & Aims: Cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) show impaired driving ability and increased vehicle accidents. The neurological deficits contributing to impair driving and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Early detection of driving impairment would help to reduce traffic accidents in MHE patients. It would be therefore useful to have psychometric or biochemical parameters reflecting driving impairment. The aims of this work were as follows: (i) to shed light on the neurological deficits contributing to impair driving; (ii) to assess whether some psychometric test or biochemical parameter is a good indicator of driving impairment. Methods: We assessed in 22 controls, 36 cirrhotic patients without and 15 with MHE, driving performance using a driving simulator (SIMUVEG) and Driver Test. MHE was diagnosed using the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES). Psychometric tests assessing different neurological functions (mental processing speed, attention, visuo-spatial and bimanual coordination) were performed. Blood ammonia and parameters related with nitric oxidecGMP metabolism, IL-6, IL-18 and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured. Results: Patients with MHE showed impaired driving ability correlating with MHE grade, with impaired vehicle lateral control in spite of reduced driving speed. Patients with MHE show psychomotor slowing, longer reaction times, impaired bimanual and visuo-spatial coordination and concentrated attention and slowed speed of anticipation and increased blood ammonia, cGMP, IL-6, IL-18 and 3-nitrotyrosine. Conclusions: Impaired mental processing speed, attention and alterations in visuo-spatial and motor coordination seem main contributors to impaired driving ability in patients with MHE. Increased serum 3-nitrotyrosine is associated with impaired driving ability.

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     Vol. 33 nº 10 pp. 1478-1489

    DOI: 10.1111/liv.12206
    ISSN: 1478-3223
  • Effects of manually entering navigator destinations while driving in a simulator

    Valero-Mora, P.; Ballestar, M.L.; Tontsch, A.; Pareja, I.; Sánchez, M.

    (2012). Article

    IET Intelligent Transport Systems.

    Distraction is regarded as one of the most important sources for traffic accidents, being a contributing factor in about 10–12% of accidents according to traditional crash studies. The use of electronic devices inside the car is a source of driver distraction that has generated a big concern in recent times. One major negative consequence of the in-vehicle use of these devices is a decrease of attention to stimuli in traffic. In order to study the consequences on driving performance, 43 subjects drove the driving simulator SIMUVEG while introducing directions in a navigator. Drivers’ capability of keeping longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle as well as awareness of the road...

    Distraction is regarded as one of the most important sources for traffic accidents, being a contributing factor in about 10–12% of accidents according to traditional crash studies. The use of electronic devices inside the car is a source of driver distraction that has generated a big concern in recent times. One major negative consequence of the in-vehicle use of these devices is a decrease of attention to stimuli in traffic. In order to study the consequences on driving performance, 43 subjects drove the driving simulator SIMUVEG while introducing directions in a navigator. Drivers’ capability of keeping longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle as well as awareness of the road scene was evaluated in this sample of drivers. Analysis of the measures revealed significant reduction of lateral and longitudinal control and of awareness of the visual environment, providing evidence of the negative consequences of interacting with electronic devices while driving.

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    Vol 6 nº2 pp. 397-403

    DOI: 10.1049/iet-its.2011.0085
    ISSN: 1751-956X
  • Using a highly instrumented car for naturalistic driving research. A small-scale study in Spain Deliverable D3.5. Promoting real life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road behaviour in Europe (PROLOGUE). FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1. SCP8-GA-2009-233597

    Valero-Mora, P.; Tontsch, A.; Pareja, I.; Sánchez, M.

    (2010). Inform

    Full article.

    The PROLOGUE project constitutes a first step for understanding the methodology in- volved in carrying out naturalistic driving (ND) research. ND is defined in Deliverable 1.1 as “...unobtrusively observing normal drivers in their normal driving context while driving their own vehicles.” In order to clarify this methodology, 5 different field trials set in different parts of Europe have been performed. These trials use different ap- proaches, instrumental, and portray different goals. The common goal is a picture of the possibilities, drawbacks and potential applications of ND research. This document reports the PROLOGUE Field Trial in Valencia, Spain. This trial uses a highly...

    The PROLOGUE project constitutes a first step for understanding the methodology in- volved in carrying out naturalistic driving (ND) research. ND is defined in Deliverable 1.1 as “...unobtrusively observing normal drivers in their normal driving context while driving their own vehicles.” In order to clarify this methodology, 5 different field trials set in different parts of Europe have been performed. These trials use different ap- proaches, instrumental, and portray different goals. The common goal is a picture of the possibilities, drawbacks and potential applications of ND research. This document reports the PROLOGUE Field Trial in Valencia, Spain. This trial uses a highly instrumented car named ARGOS for evaluating the on-road behaviour of a small sample of drivers using in-vehicle information systems. The report includes a descrip- tion of the capabilities and technology of the ARGOS car, a description of a field trial planned to evaluate the use of a navigator while driving, the logistic and technical chal- lenges of this field trial, and the lessons learnt for future studies using this methodology and equipment. We regard the experience gained running this field trial as very valuable. The ARGOS car has shown to be potentially useful in the context of naturalistic observation studies. However, we have also realized that without a deep knowledge of its characteristics, results may not be as satisfactory as would be desirable.

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  • Do not drive and touch: effects of a manual destination entry task in a navigator on driving performance

    Valero-Mora, P.; Pareja, I.; Sánchez, M.; Ballestar, M.L.; Sanmartín, J.

    (2010). Acta congrés

    European conference on Human Centred Design for Intelligent Transport Systems, Berlin, April 23-30.

    Manipulating an electronic device when driving is regarded as very unsafe. However, it is not unusual to see drivers interacting with all sorts of devices behind the wheel. In Spain, a new legislative initiative pursues punishing drivers with two points in the penalty point system if operating a navigator when driving. In order to illustrate the negative consequences of this behaviour, we set 43 subjects to drive in the driving simulator SIMUVEG while introducing directions in a navigator. Several performance measures were recorded for these subjects. Intrasubject comparisons revealed significant differences for many of these measures providing evidence of the negative...

    Manipulating an electronic device when driving is regarded as very unsafe. However, it is not unusual to see drivers interacting with all sorts of devices behind the wheel. In Spain, a new legislative initiative pursues punishing drivers with two points in the penalty point system if operating a navigator when driving. In order to illustrate the negative consequences of this behaviour, we set 43 subjects to drive in the driving simulator SIMUVEG while introducing directions in a navigator. Several performance measures were recorded for these subjects. Intrasubject comparisons revealed significant differences for many of these measures providing evidence of the negative consequences of such interactions.

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    {CN_066479}

  • Previsim: A transportable driving simulator with multiple posts for the training of professional drivers in road safety

    Valero-Mora, P.; Sánchez, M.; Pareja, I.

    (2009). Acta congrés

    2nd International TTD Conference 2009. Dresden (Alemania).

  • Modelling item banking: Analysis and design of a computerized system

    Molina, G.; Pareja, I.; Sanmartín, J.

    (2008). Article

    Revista Electrónica de Metodología Aplicada.

    Los tests adaptativos informatizados dependen de la existencia de bancos de ítems de los que seleccionar los ítems más adecuados a aplicar a lo largo de la administración del test. Ahora bien, la disponibilidad de bancos de ítems es bastante limitada y, por otra parte, el desarrollo de bancos de ítems suele representar un esfuerzo considerable en la práctica. Ello motivó el desarrollo de este trabajo, centrado en el análisis y diseño de un sistema orientado a dar soporte informatizado a todo el proceso de construcción y mantenimiento de bancos de ítems. Así, el modelo de desarrollo de bancos de ítems propuesto provee las bases para implementar un programa orientado a tal...

    Los tests adaptativos informatizados dependen de la existencia de bancos de ítems de los que seleccionar los ítems más adecuados a aplicar a lo largo de la administración del test. Ahora bien, la disponibilidad de bancos de ítems es bastante limitada y, por otra parte, el desarrollo de bancos de ítems suele representar un esfuerzo considerable en la práctica. Ello motivó el desarrollo de este trabajo, centrado en el análisis y diseño de un sistema orientado a dar soporte informatizado a todo el proceso de construcción y mantenimiento de bancos de ítems. Así, el modelo de desarrollo de bancos de ítems propuesto provee las bases para implementar un programa orientado a tal fin y, también, promover la discusión acerca del modelo más conveniente en el de sarrollo de tal programa. Es de esperar que la disponibilidad de software para desarrollar y trabajar con bancos de ítems ayude a extender la aplicación de los tests basados en bancos de ítems, como es el caso de los tests adaptativos informatizados.
    Computerized adaptive tests rely on item banks from which to select the more suited items to be applied along the test administration; however, the availability of item banks is rather limited and, on the other hand, the development of an item bank can involve a great deal of effort for test users. The aim of this work concerned the analysis and design of a computerized system aimed to support the whole process of developing and maintaining item banks. Resulting from it, an item banking mode l is proposed which provides the basis to implement such a computerized system and, also, to encourage the discussion about the more suitable model for this goal. It is to be exp ected that the availability of sound item banking software could help to extend the application of item-bank based tests, like computerized adaptive tests, beyond the boundaries of large-scale testing programs.

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    Vol. 13 nº 2, pp. 1-14, D.L.:AS-3210-96. {AR_046682}

    ISSN: 1135-6855
  • Imagen representativa de la publicación

    PREVISIM: Un simulador de conducción transportable de puestos múltiples y configurable para la formación en seguridad vial de conductores profesionales

    Valero-Mora, P.; Alonso, F.; Coma, I.; Fernández, M.; Gimeno, J.; Martínez, M.; Pareja, I.; Sánchez, M.; Aliaga, I.; Iranzo, M.

    (2007). Acta congrés

    VII Congreso sobre Sistemas Inteligentes de Transporte. Valencia.

    El uso de simuladores de conducción para el entrenamiento de conductores es una idea que ha adquirido progresivamente más viabilidad en años recientes. Centrándonos en el caso de conductores profesionales, un respaldo muy importante es el recibido como consecuencia de la publicación de la Directiva Europea sobre Entrenamiento de Conductores Profesionales (Commission2001), la cual admite la utilización de simuladores de conducción para “...diagnosticar el entrenamiento en conducción racional basada en regulaciones de seguridad”. Esta directiva allana el camino para el desarrollo de simuladores apropiados para entrenar a conductores profesionales en determinados...

    El uso de simuladores de conducción para el entrenamiento de conductores es una idea que ha adquirido progresivamente más viabilidad en años recientes. Centrándonos en el caso de conductores profesionales, un respaldo muy importante es el recibido como consecuencia de la publicación de la Directiva Europea sobre Entrenamiento de Conductores Profesionales (Commission2001), la cual admite la utilización de simuladores de conducción para “...diagnosticar el entrenamiento en conducción racional basada en regulaciones de seguridad”. Esta directiva allana el camino para el desarrollo de simuladores apropiados para entrenar a conductores profesionales en determinados aspectos. Previsim-Sicam se trata de un simulador de conducción desarrollado en la Universidad de València que está especialmente diseñado para el entrenamiento de conductores profesionales. Este simulador tiene como características más especiales que permite la conducción de hasta 10 conductores simultáneamente que circulan por el mismo recorrido, que es transportable ya que los diez puestos están sobre un camión-trailer, y que es configurable de modo que se pueden diseñar diferentes cursos o jornadas de formación adaptados a diferentes necesidades. Esta configuración hace al simulador Previsim-Sicam ideal para grupos de conductores profesionales que reciben formación acerca de aspectos específicos de seguridad vial y posterior o anteriormente pueden experimentar escenarios relacionados con los aspectos que se desea transmitir. Puesto que el comportamiento individual de los conductores puede analizarse y discutirse posteriormente en grupo, tanto de modo numérico (mediante información estadística acerca de variables de ejecución) como visual (mediante la repetición de las escenas grabadas correspondientes a cada uno de los conductores), el simulador ofrece una oportunidad excelente de contrastar los diversos estilos de conducción y ofrecer información comparativa a los sujetos en un curso. Otros elementos importantes del sistema son el software para construir nuevos escenarios y sesiones de conducción adaptados a las necesidades formativas específicas, el interfaz para el análisis de los resultados de la ejecución y selección de los escenarios más significativos, y el interfaz para el control de las sesiones durante la ejecución de la simulación.

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    Presentación

  • Modelling of Variable Message Signs for Driving Simulation

    Pareja, I.

    (2007). Acta congrés

    International Conference Road Safety and Simulation. 7,8,9 th November 2007 Rome, Italy.

    Variable Message Signs (VMS) are dynamic items for traffic signalling and information which started to be widely introduced in the last years in the road infrastructures of the Spanish territory and other European countries. Their main purpose is to control traffic and adjust it to changes or incidents.
    They are basically used to inform drivers about any event or incident interesting for road safety or traffic fluency like traffic density, nearby car accidents, closed roads or streets, adverse atmospheric conditions, etc. Furthermore, they are frequently used to remind drivers of important traffic rules in certain circumstances.
    The current paper expounds the...

    Variable Message Signs (VMS) are dynamic items for traffic signalling and information which started to be widely introduced in the last years in the road infrastructures of the Spanish territory and other European countries. Their main purpose is to control traffic and adjust it to changes or incidents.
    They are basically used to inform drivers about any event or incident interesting for road safety or traffic fluency like traffic density, nearby car accidents, closed roads or streets, adverse atmospheric conditions, etc. Furthermore, they are frequently used to remind drivers of important traffic rules in certain circumstances.
    The current paper expounds the development of an architecture to define and model the 3-D texts and graphs that are visualized on the VMS. The generated models have been included in a driving simulator that was developed by the Institute of Traffic and Road Safety of the University of Valencia after several years of collaboration among professionals from different areas.
    The use of simulation gives outstanding advantages compared with on-road experimentation ones. Those advantages may be summed up in the possibility to analyse the VMS features and their influence on driving in a quicker and more economic way.

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