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Biological weapons are microorganisms or toxins used with the intention of doing harm to the population or the environment. There are a number of global treaties and initiatives promoting measures and drafting legislation to minimize the risk of their being used maliciously.

In the EC, the export of dual-use and defence material is controlled and regulated by Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 and its subsequent addendums and amendments. The strains listed in Annex I of said Regulation shall only be exported from the EC in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Government of Spain.

In Spain, Law 53/2007, on the control of foreign trade in dual-use and defence materials, in its final provision, establishes that the Government, by means of a Royal Decree, will issue the regulations developed therein. Royal Decree 679/2014 dictates these standards and Annex III.3 lists dual-use products and technologies subject to control on importation and / or introduction into Spanish territory.

The following table shows the list of microorganisms subject to export controls outside the Union (Delegated Regulation (EU) No 2016/1969 Annex I) and those subject both to export outside the Union and their introduction into the Spanish territory (RD 679/2014, Annex III.3).

Delegated Regulation (EU) No 2016/1969 Annex I and R.D. 679/2014 Annex III.3
   Bacillus anthracis
   Brucella abortus
   Brucella melitensis
   Brucella suis
   Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei
   Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei
   Coxiella burnetti
   Francisella tularensis
   Vibrio cholerae   CECT 512, 513, 514, 552, 569, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 8265
   Yersinia pestis
Delegated Regulation (UE) nº 2016/1969 Annex I
   Chlamydophila psittaci (previously Chlamydia psittaci)
   Clostridium argentinense ( Clostridium botulinum type G)  CECT 4615
   Clostridium botulinum   CECT 551, 581, 4610, 4611, 4612
   Clostridium baratii (botulinum neurotoxin producing strains)
   Clostridium butyricum (botulinum neurotoxin producing strains)
   Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin producing strains  CECT 821, 822
   Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (small colonies)
   Rickettsia prowasecki
   Salmonella typhi (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi)   CECT 409, 4138, 4150
   Shigella dysenteriae   CECT 584
   Escherichia coli, Shiga toxin producing serotypes O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145 y O157 and other Shiga toxin producing serotypes  CECT 4076, 4267, 4782, 4783, 8294, 8295.



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