En uno de sus apartados permite el acceso a los sumarios de las principales revistas de la especialidad.
En el otro, se enlaza con Medline en una serie de búsquedas seleccionadas sobre diversos aspectos de la Medicina Legal y Forense
Aquí he reunido una selección de normas, tanto legales como del ámbito de la Ética y Deontología médica
Contiene los programas de algunas asignaturas y cursos, con esquemas de algunas de ellas y presentaciones de los seminarios
LEGAL Y FORENSE
Selección de recursos propios y enlaces sobre Medicina Forense y Criminalística, Leyes nacionales e internacionales y Ética y Deontología Médica
Zeno's Forensic Page
Hank's forensic page (Taiwan)
Reddy's Forensic Page
Forensic Medicine Homepage of Prof. Dr. Barend A.J. Cohen
Cecil Greek's Criminal Justice Page
Dean Fetterolf's Home page/Law Enforcement
Página de F. Verdú Pascual
Profesor titular de Medicina Legal de la Universidad de Valencia. Tiene múltiples enlaces y utilidades; a destacar, la versión on-line de su libro ¿Qué dice el forense?.
Página de Medicina Forense de María Leonor de Souza
Esta página contiene un interesante atlas on-line de medicina forense. Muestra fotos de lesiones contusas, incisas, inciso-contusas, punzantes, lesiones por agentes físicos, químicas, asfixias, imágenes de sexología forense, lesiones postmortales, signos de muerte y fenómenos cadavéricos.
Hiroshi Matsumoto's Home Page
Página Forense del Dr. Jorge Herbstein
Institutos y Departamentos de Medicina Legal/Forense
Freie Universität Berlin Rechtsmedizin Humboldt-Universität Berlin Rechtsmedizin Charité Berlin
Med.Fakultät - Dresden
Rechtsmedizin - Universität Düsseldorf
Rechtsmedizin - Universität Essen
Zentrum Rechtsmedizin - Frankfurt
Rechtsmedizin - Gießen
Inst. für Rechtsmedizin Hannover
Göttingen - Institut für Rechtsmedizin der Universität Rechtsmedizin - Greifswald
Rechtsmedizin - Halle
Rechtsmedizin - Hamburg
Rechtsmedizin - Hannover
Universität Heidelberg Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena. Institut für Rechtsmedizin
Institut für Rechtsmedizin Köln
Institut für Rechtsmedizin Lübeck
Universität Magdeburg Institute für Forensic Medicine in Mainz
Institut für Rechtsmedizin Würzburg
Dpto. de Medicina Legal y Toxicología de la Univ. de Buenos Aires
Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Científica - Argentina
Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, Australia
Institute of Forensic Medicine - Sydney
Institut für Rechtsmedizin Wien
Instituto Médico-Legal Afranio Peixoto Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Dpto. de Anatomía Patológica y Medicina LegalFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Dpto. de Psiquiatría e Medicina LegalUniversidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul.
Czech Forensic Medicine Page
Dep. de Medicina Legal da Universidade do Chile
Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses
Medicina Legal - Desastres
Instituto Vasco de Medicina Legal (España)
La primera página de un Instituto de Medicina Legal con información útil, tanto para los profesionales de Justicia como para los ciudadanos.
Instituto Universitario de Medicina Legal de Santiago de Compostela (España)
Junta de Andalucía: Institutos de Medicina Legal.
Instituto Universitario de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Sevilla (España).
Dpto. de Medicina Legal y Toxicología. Univ. Complutense (Madrid)
Area de Conocimiento de Medicina Legal y Forense de la Facultad de Medicina y Odontología de la Universidad del País Vasco
Dpto. de Medicina Legal y Toxicología de a Universidad de Granada (algunas páginas no están actualizadas)
Departament de Psiquiatria i de Medicina Legal de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (algunas páginas no están actualizadas)
Area de Medicina Legal y Forense. Univ. de Valladolid
Baylor University, Forensic Science Department
National Association of Medical Examiners
Virginia Institute of Forensic Science and Medicine
WV Office of the Chief Medical Examiner
Broward County Medical Examiner, Florida
Iowa State Medical Examiner
Massachusetts Medical Examiner
Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (University North Carolina)
Orange County Coroner's Office
Washington, Pierce County Medical Examiner
Institute of Forensic Medicin - Budapest
Department of Forensic Medicine - Pecs
Department of Forensic Medicine - Yamagata (Japón)
The Medico-Legal Society of Japan
National Research Institute of Police Science (Japón)
Forensic Pathology - University or Glasgow
Institute of Science and Forensic Medicine (ISFM) Singapore
Institute of Legal Medicine Berna
Institut für Rechtsmedizin Zürich
Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science of the Istanbul University
Departamento de Medicina Legal. Facultad de Medicina- Universidad de la República
Asociación Nacional de Médicos Forenses
Sociedad Española de Medicina Legal y Forense
Asociación Andaluza de Médicos Forenses
Asociación Aragonesa de Médicos Forenses
Asociación de Médicos Forenses de la República de Argentina
Asociación de Peritos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)
National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC)
National Institute of Forensic Science
International Institute of Forensic Science
American Board of Forensic Odontology
American College of Forensic Examiners
The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verkehrsmedizin e.V.
Infoservice der Ärztekammer Nordrhein (Deutschland)
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften "Prävention, Standards und zukünftige Entwicklungen in den medizinischen Spezialgebieten" - Rechtsmedizin
Revista Española de Medicina Legal
En esta web encontrará la versión electrónica de la publicación española más antigua de Medicina Forense (Revista Española de Medicina Legal) editada por la Asociación Nacional de Médicos Forenses.
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense
Encontrará la versión electrónica de la publicación trimestral de la Asociación Andaluza de Médicos Forenses.
Revista de Psiquiatría Forense, Sexología y Praxis. Argentina.
Medicina Legal de Costa Rica
Revista Brasileira de Medicina Legal Revista brasileña on-line de Medicina Legal. En fase de construcción.
Revista Española de Patología Órgano de las Sociedades de Anatomía Patológica y de Citología.
British Medical Journal
American Journal of Pathology
Forensic Science International
Forensic Science Communications
The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Journal of Canadian Society of Forensic Science
Amedeo: The Medical Literature Guide
The Free Medical Journals Site
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología.. Publica estudios y artículos científicos sobre materias penales y criminológicas.
Asociación de Abogados Especializados en Responsabilidad Civil y Seguro/.
Derecho.com/. E-mail: email@example.com
Todalaley.com. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Lexur - Legislación y BOE gratis. Web desde la que puede descargar la legislación española básica y recibir gratis el Boletín Oficial del Estado por email diariamente.
Sociedad Iberoamericana de Derecho Médico (SIDEME). Tiene la finalidad de favorecer la promoción y difusión de los estudios relativos al derecho médico y a la salud.
Derecho y Sanidad. Página de Julio Cesar Galán Cortés (Licenciado en Derecho. Doctor en Medicina).
Página de Derecho Médico de Prof. Genival Veloso (Brasil)
Derecho Médico. Página del Prof. Genival Veloso (Catedrático de Medicina Legal y Deontología Médica. Universidad Federal de Paraíba - Brasil). Sobre: derecho médico, bioética, deontología, medicina legal e legislación sanitaria.
La Página de los Links de Derecho. Con más de 240 links en castellano y más de 600 en inglés, también hay links en italiano, francés, alemán y portugués.
Derecho y Sanidad
Asociación Española de Derecho Sanitario
Revista latinoamericana de derecho medico y medicina legal
Revista Electrónica de la Autopsia
Protocolos del Grupo de Trabajo para el Estudio y Prevención de la Muerte Súbita del Lactante de la Asociación Española de Pediatría.
Club de Autopsias de la Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica
Forense.org "Se trata de un proyecto científico que llevamos a cabo un grupo de forenses catalanes, interesados en la investigación y divulgación de la medicina forense, así como de algunas de sus especialidades como la psiquiatría forense, tanatología forense, traumatología forense, o la antropología forense".
Academia Internacional de Patologia
Comunidad Virtual de Anatomía Patológica
American Society of Investigative Pathology (gopher) Department of Pathology - Florida
Forensic Web Page at USFWS
University of Alberta - Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Pittsburgh - Dept. of Pathology
Universidad de Navarra - Servicio de Anatomía Patológica - Interpat
Yale University - Department of Pathology
Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP)
Virginia Division of Forensic Science Home page The Virtual Autopsy (departamento de Anatomía Patológica de Leicester -Gran Bretaña-)
Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section.
Instituto Nacional de Toxicología.
Lab Tests Online
The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT)
Spectra of drugs, polymers, toners, organic compounds and minerals
WWW Drug Information Server
Forensic Toxicology The European DNA profiling group (EDNAP)
Use of DNA in Identification
Forensic psychiatry (gopher-service)
Search of forensic psychiatry and files (gopher-service) Hooper´s Forensic Psychiatry
Forensic Odontology/dentistry- European page
Forensic Odontology in the UK
International Organization for Forensic Odonto-Stomatology (IOFOS)
American Society of Forensic Odontology
Ortho-ID/Ident-ID. Identification Network.
Laboratorio de Antropopología Forense (Instituto Anatómico Forense de Madrid)
Introducció,n a la Antropología Forense. Análisis e identificación de restos óseos humanos. (JV Rodríguez Cuenca, Ph.D.)
Cálculo de talla mediante longitud de huesos largos (Dra. M.C. De Mendonça)
Forensic Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University
Forensic Anthropology Bibliography
Forensic Anthropology course for pathologists
Search for forensic Anthropology at KOVACS
Entomología Forense en Argentina.
Página de Mark Benecke
The Forensic Entomology Pages, International (Morten Starkeby
Directorio de Entomología Forense (Legal and Social Medicine)
Entomology Index of Internet Resources
Entomología Forense (Poder Judicial - Costa Rica)
FPpda.com Página de Timothy Allen que muestra distintas herramientas, programas y utilidades médicas para PDAs.
snapDates 1.0 Aplicación para PDA (Palm OS) que permite calcular, entre otros, días entre fechas.
Forensic Image Processing
Mid-Atlantic Association of Forensic Scientists
International Association for Craniofacial Identification
Servicio de listas/Directorio
Lista Psi-Forense. La lista tiene una vocación interdisciplinar y convoca a psicólogos, psiquiatras, juristas, médicos, trabajadores sociales, educadores y otros profesionales o profesores universitarios interesados en la aplicación de la psicología al ámbito legal.
FORENS-L Mailing list : The mailing list on forensic science and medicine
VDC-L: Página web de la Lista de Valoración del Daño Corporal
Es la primera lista, sobre el tema, que existe en toda la red. Dirigida a hispanohablantes.
World Directory of Criminological Institutes
Finding email addresses in forensics
Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas
Fundación de Ayuda contra la Drogadicción
Jurisprudencia del TC
Ministerio de Justicia
Consejo General del Poder Judicial
CESID (Centro Superior de Información de la Defensa)
Hong Kong Government Forensic Laboratory
Gerichtsmedizin Interesantes artículos, con entrevistas y reportajes sobre la Medicina Forense en la ZDF - segundo canal de TV alemana - (en alemán).
Extracto del Certificado de Defunción del Papa Juan Pablo II archivo en pdf.
Forensic Medicine for Medical Students con enlaces y artículos relacionados con las ciencias forenses.
The Forensic Panel Letter Contiene múltiples artículos relacionados con las ciencias forenses.
Lex Salud Página de información coordinada por el Dr. JC Galán Cortés.
www.hispamed.org Nuevo portal sanitario.
MEDLINE Acceso a PubMed
Buscar en MEDLINE con PubMed Completa guía de uso de fisterra.com
MEDLINE en Internet. Tutorial sobre Medline.
Visita Guiada a Medline/PubMed
La Página de los Buscadores en Castellano
The Kennedy Assassination
The US Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory, in Ashland, Oregon
Gunshot Wound to the Right Chest
Gunshot Wound to the Abdomen
Wann wurde die erste Obduktion vorgenommen und welche Fälle haben dazu geführt, dass noch heute Menschen Nachforschungen über mögliche Todesursachen anstellen? Welche Analysemethoden sind die effektivsten? Wie arbeiten die Ermittler heute? Fragen, die vor allem die Gerichtsmedizin beantworten muss ...
Wettlauf mit dem Verbrechen
Hightech und Gentechnik helfen, dem Verbrechen auf die Spur zu kommen
Kriminalbiologie (2): Wie Pflanzenreste die Täter überführen
Stumme Zeugen: Wie Insekten den Todeszeitpunkt preisgeben
Unverwechselbar: Wie ein Täter eindeutig identifiziert werden kann
Lesenswert: Literaturtipps und Internetlinks zum Thema
Bilder zum Thema: Die Fliegen-Uhr der Kriminologen
Seit den Terroranschlägen in den letzten Jahren gewinnt das Thema Überwachung als Terrorismus-Prävention auch in Deutschland an Bedeutung. Anhand wahrer Fälle aus den Fahndungsakten deutscher Polizeipräsidien demonstriert Abenteuer Wissen, was bereits heute durch Video- oder Stimmanalysen, Internet-Spurensuche oder chemische Nachweisverfahren möglich ist.
Sendung vom 19.05.2004 um 22.15 Uhr
Im Jahr 1953 veröffentlichten der Brite Francis Crick und der US-Amerikaner James Watson eine bahnbrechende wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis: die Doppelhelix des menschlichen Erbgutes, die Struktur der DNA. Sie glaubten, das Rätsel der Vererbung gelöst zu haben. Zu dieser Zeit dachte noch niemand an eine kriminalistische Nutzung von Erbinformationen. Doch die Arbeiten von Crick und Watson lieferten die Grundlage für die Entwicklungen der Gentechnik und für den genetischen Fingerabdruck, der heute zum Standardrepertoire eines jeden Kriminalisten gehört.
In dem Städtchen Enderby werden zwei Schülerinnen ermordet
Zwei Morde - ein Täter
1986 wurde die 15-jährige Dawn Ashford in der Nähe des Örtchens Enderby vergewaltigt und erschlagen. Bereits zwei Jahre zuvor war die gleichaltrige Schülerin Lynda Mann auf dieselbe schreckliche Art ermordet worden. Damals stellten die Ermittler zwar eine Spermaspur sicher, konnten aber lediglich die Blutgruppe des Täters feststellen. Trotz intensiver Ermittlungen der Polizei blieb die Suche nach dem Täter ohne Ergebnis.
Die DNA-Analyse - einer der größte Fortschritte in der Kriminalistik
Sir Alec Jeffreys
In den 80er Jahren arbeitete Sir Alec Jeffreys an der Universität von Leicester an molekularbiologischen Methoden zur Identifizierung von Personen. Dem englischen Professor gelang es, aus menschlichen Zellen ein typisches Gen-Muster herauszulesen, das nicht für bestimmte Merkmale verantwortlich ist und trotzdem für jeden Menschen charakteristisch ist.
Es ist der Beginn einer Entwicklung, die aus winzigen Spuren am Tatort einen zweifelsfreien Beweis machen soll, der "todsicher" zum Täter führt. Wie beim Fingerabdruck die Linienmuster der Fingerkuppen einen Täter überführen können, vergleichen die Kriminalisten beim genetischen Fingerabdruck die unverwechselbaren Eigenschaften der Erbmasse.
Ein Muster wird sichtbar, das jeden Menschen eindeutig identifiziert
Das Resultat - ein Strichcode
Die molekulargenetische Spur, bekannt als DNA, ist die englische Abkürzung für Desoxyribonukleinsäure. Mit einem chemischen Trick gelang es Jeffreys, die Unterschiede sichtbar zu machen: Mit Hilfe von Enzymen wird die DNA in verschieden lange Bruchstücke zerlegt. Anschließend werden diese Bruchstücke in ein Gel geimpft, das unter Strom gesetzt wird. Dabei ordnen sie sich ihrer Länge nach entsprechend zu einem unsichtbaren Muster. Durch Hinzufügen einer radioaktiven Substanz werden die spezifischen Strukturen aus dem Erbgut auf einem Röntgenfilm sichtbar. Das Resultat ist ein Strichcode, wie auf einer Verpackung aus dem Supermarkt. Ein Muster, das jeden Menschen eindeutig identifiziert.
Aufgrund der DNA-Analyse kann der Mörder gefasst werden
Der erste DNA-Massentest
Im Fall der 15-jährigen Dawn Ashford erklärte sich ein Kriminalbeamter bereit, die Methode in dem Mordfall zu testen. Wie auch im Mordfall Lynda Mann wurde Sperma sichergestellt, das Jeffreys ein und derselben Person zuordnen konnte. 1987 wurde in England der erste Massentest der Kriminalgeschichte durchgeführt. 5000 Männer im Alter von 16 bis 34 Jahren aus der näheren Umgebung von Enderby mussten eine Speichelprobe abgeben. Dieser Test entlarvte nicht nur das falsche Geständnis eines 17-Jährigen, sondern führte auch zum Täter.
Weiter mit: Todsichere Beweise?
Neun Jahre später wurde in Großbritannien eine DNA-Datenbank eingerichtet, in der mittlerweile die DNA-Analysen von mehr als fünf Millionen Kriminellen gespeichert sind.
Welcome to the only website for medical students dedicated to forensic medicine, established in 1998.
This subject is now rarely taught at undergraduate level (particularly in the UK) and so this site provides a unique resource for clinical forensic medicine, legal medicine and forensic pathology.
Some may find the subject matter distressing. It is not my intention to offend, but to provide educational materials for medical students (and others) - if you are likely to be offended by the subject of violent injury/death and the aftermath of such violence, please do not proceed any further. This website is not suitable for viewing by minors.
If you are interested in any aspect of forensic medicine, and you can not find what you want on this site, or on any site featured in the links pages, let me know !
Student opportunity ...
The Royal Society of Medicine Section for Clinical Forensic and Legal Medicine are inviting expressions of interest for the position of 'Student Observer' on their Section Council.
Successful applicants will be required to attend quarterly meetings at the RSM headquarters in London, and represent the interests of medical students.
Expressions of interest from junior students (ie. those in their first few years of studies) are particularly welcomed.
Interested students should email me at email@example.com explaining why they wish to be considered for the position, with a description of how they might further interest in forensic medicine amongst their peers.
Expressions of interest should be received by August 31st 2005, after which they will be considered by the Section Council. The successful student will then be invited to the nearest Council meeting, and may be appointed at that stage.
Clinical Forensic Medicine Conference
Read all about the successful conference on clinical forensic medicine for medical students that took place at Guy's Hospital on Sat 16th April 2002 (organised by the European Medical Students' Association (EMSA)).
Have you been on an elective in forensic medicine/ psychiatry ? If so, tell me all about it !
I undertook a 9 week elective in forensic medicine at Guy's Hospital Forensic Medicine Department and the Office of Chief Medical Examiner, New York City in the summer of 2001- follow this link to read all about it!
I have tried to illustrate each topic with photographs and example links and books. However, I am always on the lookout for new material, so if you come across anything interesting, email me !
Recent additions to the website ...
This new section introduces the current 'hot topic' of the use of imaging techniques as an adjunct or replacement of the traditional autopsy, including references to the most recent and relevant papers ...
The clinical application of MRI to cardiovascular pathology is covered in a BMJ review (Vol 329 11th Dec 2004 pp. 1386-1389)..
Gadolinium enhanced images of patient with lateral wall myocardial infarction. Four chamber view of heart (A), with bright signal in lateral wall of left ventricle (LV). Signal results from gadolinium late enhancement as result of accumulation of contrast agent in scar tissue. (B) Corresponding short axis cut through left ventricle (Source: Prasad et al BMJ 2004:329:1386-1389)
General Topics ...
Read articles on forensic medicine by the website's author...
Following the death of Paula Ramsden at Beachy Head near Eastbourne, Sussex, UK, a new section looks at how such deaths are investigated, and why there are a relatively large number of deaths at this beauty spot.
Fundamental review of the Coroners service
Tom Luce has recently reported back following the Fundamental review of the Coroner's service in England and Wales. An overview of the recommendations made, as well as the interface between this review and that of the Shipman Inquiry is presented.
The government have responded to these recommendations in a 'position paper'. Read about their proposals, and the types of deaths to be reported to the Coroner and new office of 'Medical Examiner'.
A recent article outlined the pathological features to look out for when determining whether a person has died from their asthma. A brief overview of this article is presented.
Infection control during autopsies
A review of the main precautions to be taken when carrying out autopsies is presented.
The decline of the teaching autopsy
Read BMJ articles and letters dealing with the decline in the use of the autopsy within medical schools
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Recently in the news in the UK, find links to relevant websites and read several articles recently published in the BMJ (328:719,720,754 and 766 27th March 2004)
'Perimacular retinal folds from childhood head trauma' Lantz et al
'The evidence base for shaken baby syndrome' (Editorial) Geddes and Plunkett
'Shaken baby syndrome - pathological diagnosis rests on the combined triad, not on individual injuries' (Editorial) Harding, Risdon and Kraus
Transilluminated retinal image of right eye at autopsy showing circinate, elevated, perimacular retinal fold and extensive retinal haemorrhages
Forensic anthropology ...
Forensic pathologists and forensic anthropologists are often required to give their opinion as to whether organs/ organic material is human or not. A new section identifies the differences between organs and skeletons of (mainly) common food animals - material that is most likely to be dumped in rivers/ common ground etc, only to be found by a member of the public, fearing that it may be human ...
Find a review of the story of 'the body farm' and its creator Bill Bass, together with links to forensic anthopology resources in Book Reviews.
Forensic entomology ...
There has been a couple of 'special edition' journals featuring forensic entomology articles, which may be of interest to readers. These include the Forensic Science International Vol 120 (2001) (www.elsevier.com/locate/forsciint - accessible for subscribers to www.sciencedirect.com). More recently Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Technology (5(1) 2004) has repeated the format with some fantastic articles. These can be freely accessed at www.geradts.com/~anil/ij/indexpapers.html or the mirror site www.beneeke.com/maggots.html. Happy reading!
Forensic Science/ Medicine ...
Read about the forensic aspects of cocaine. This section outlines the forensic aspects of cocaine abuse, which is on the increase in the UK, particularly in London and the South East. Cocaine has wide ranging effects on the body, and cocaine intoxication as well as chronic cocaine use can give rise to serious and life threatening pathologies.
Cocaine related sudden death represents a particular challenge to the forensic pathologist in terms of interpretation, because often a range of evidence has to be taken into account before a cause of death can be ascribed to cocaine with the required degree of certainty. This is of particular importance when the death has occurred in police custody – a highly politically charged situation. Enormous advances have been made over the last decade in the understanding of the pathology associated with cocaine abuse, and as the prevalence of cocaine use spreads, it is likely that cocaine is going to exert it’s influence on substance-related deaths in the UK, and thus become an issue of increasing importance to professionals working in forensic science and medicine.
The BMJ (bmj.com Berger 325 (7377) 1403) recently produced a useful summary of how alcohol breath tests are carried out, and the science behind the tests.
As part of the forthcoming ABC of Alcohol (Paton A and Touquet R), the BMJ (http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/330/7482/85) have published an introductory article 'Alcohol in the body', setting out the pharmacokinetics of alcohol, and includes some basic charts of blood concentrations versus hours.
Dr. Lemos of the Forensic Toxicology Unit at St. Georges Hospital Medical School (London) writes about the development of forensic science, and what a modern forensic scientist does in a new 'Forensic Science Page'.
Medical Law and Ethics ...
In September 2000 the UK Court of Appeal delivered their judgement to what they described as a ‘truly unique’ case – that of the conjoined twins 'Jodie' and 'Mary' (Re: A (Children)).
They were being asked to consider whether a High Court judge had been correct to rule that the proposed separation of the twins, which would result in the death of one of them, was lawful, or whether it amounted to murder. In the opinion of the Court of Appeal, the proposed operation was ‘not unlawful’, an opinion justified on varied legal grounds including that of ‘necessity’.
At the heart of the legal debate in this case was the question of whether decisions about the relative worth of the life of individuals could be legally made, when those decisions result in the loss of the life considered to be less worthy. A new section examines the legal basis for these types of decisions, and consider whether the decision in Re: A (Children) will have any impact in other areas of medical practice where ‘value of life’ decisions are made.
Forensic Psychiatry/Psychology ...
And a new section on Forensic Psychiatry - presenting a history of 'criminal responsibility', and the 'treatment of the mentally abnormal offender' ('Forensic Psychiatry').
Review of Forensic Pathology Services in England and Wales
In March 2003, following a consultation period, the Home Office Minister, John Denham announced a package of measures to modernise and improve forensic pathology services. £5.6 million was identified for the training of 30 new forensic pathologists, with £10 million for the establishing of regional centres of excellence, including new / improved mortuary facilities.
The first batch of trainees were taken on in August 2003, and a further 4 posts have recently been advertised for consultants in histopathology wishing to undertake conversion training to forensic pathology.
Work is also underway on the development of group practices following national standards, and the establishment of the centres of excellence.
Further information is available from the Home Office Science Policy Unit (Room 530), Horseferry Road, Dean Ryle Street, London SW1P 2AW.
Following the review, the Royal College of Pathologists and the Home Office Policy Advisory Board for Forensic Pathology have published a 'Code of Practice and Performance Standards for Forensic Pathologists'. This can be accessed via the RCPath website - Publications section.
Online Forensic Medicine Journal ...
Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
This on-line journal contains some fantastic articles and case-studies, as well as a regular undergraduate section and makes for fascinating reading. Visit it today !
Prof. Aggrawal also has several other forensic related sites, including his 'Popular Forensic Medicine page', and 'Forensic Toxicology page'.
Full book reviews recently added to the Books section ..
‘Handbook of Paediatric Autopsy Pathology’, Gilbert-Barness E, Debich-Spicer DE, (With accompanying CDROM) HumanaPress
'Cardiac Physiology CDRom', Swanevelder J, Lin T (2001) MMT Medical Ltd
'Fluid Balance CDRom', Appadu B, Griffiths R, Hunt P, Stoker M, Weisz M. 2003 MMT Medical Ltd
'Forensic Taphonomy. The postmortem fate of human remains', Haglund WD and Sorg MH (1997) CRC Press
'Forensic Botany - Priciples and applications to criminal casework', Coyle HM (2004) CRC Press
'Forensic Pathology Reviews - Volume 2', Tsokos M (Ed) 2004 Humana Press
'Firearms, The Law and Forensic Ballistics', Warlow TA (2nd Ed), Taylor and Francis/ CRC Press
'The Forensic Pharmacology of Drugs of Abuse', Drummer O.H and ODell M (2001) Arnold Publishers
Neuropathology (2nd Ed), Ellison D. Love S. et al Elsevier/ Mosby
Robbins Review of Pathology, Klatt and Kumar 2005 Elsevier
Gray's Anatomy E-dition (39th Ed), Standring (Ed) 2004 Elsevier/ Churchill Livingstone
'Neuropathology Techniques', Dawson TP et al 2003 Arnold Publishers
'Forensic Gynaecology', Dalton. M (Ed) (2004) Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists www.rcog.org.uk
'Forensic Dental Evidence - An Investigator's Handbook', Bowers C.M.Elsevier Forensic Science,
'Forensic Practice in Criminal Cases', Townley L. and Ede R. (2003), The Law Society
'Knight's Forensic Pathology',(3rd Ed) Saukko P. and B. Knight (2004)
'Forensic Medicine: Clinical and Pathological Aspects', Jason Payne-James, Anthony Busuttil, William Smock (Ed)
'Death's Acre - Inside the legendry 'Body Farm'', Bass B. and Jefferson J.
'Rechtsmedizin systematisch', Penning et al 1997 [German]
'Estimation of Time Since Death in the Early Post-mortem Period', C. Henssge, T. Krompecher, B. Knight (Ed), B. Madea, Nokes L. (2nd Ed)
'Simpson's Forensic Medicine', Richard Shepherd (12th Ed)
'Colour Atlas of Anatomical Pathology', Cooke R.A., Stewart B. 2004
Have you read any good books? If so send me a short review and I will post it on the site!
Books to look out for ...
'Hard Evidence: Case Studies in Forensic Anthropology,' Dawnie Wolfe-Steadman, Prentice Hall ISBN 0130305677 $35
This text will cover a unique selection of case studies by a well respected forensic anthropologist from Bingham University, USA.
Online Discussion Groups
Join Forensics Discussion Forums on the web at eGroups or OneList to discuss any forensic issue with other prospective forensic professionals, or those working in the field.
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Do you think that forensic medicine is under represented in the new UK medical curriculum?
Dr Richard Jones
Specialist Registrar Forensic Pathology
Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine
University of Wales Hospital, Cardiff
The contents of this website are for educational purposes only. The opinions expressed are the author's own, and do not represent those of the Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine or the University of Wales Hospital, Cardiff.
The author is a trainee in forensic pathology, and any person wishing to gain an expert opinion for the purposes of a criminal or civil court action/ case should approach a suitably qualified and experienced individual.
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© www.forensicmed.co.uk. Richard Jones forensicmed.co.uk , all rights reserved ; this page or any part thereof may not be duplicated without the express written permission of the copyright owner.
This site aims to provide educational resources for medical students in the fields of forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine, forensic psychiatry and forensic science. All illustrations used are believed to be in the public domain, and royalty free. However, if this is not the case, and you are the copyright holder, I apologise, and will remove the relevant illustrations if required.
Andrews L. e Nelkin D., Il mercato del corpo, Giuffrè, Milano 2002
Aprile E., La prova penale, Giuffrè, Milano 2002
Aprile E., Silvestri P., La formazione della prova penale, Giuffrè, Milano 2002
Aprile E., Nuzzo F., Sanguineti L. M., La pratica penale, Giuffrè, Milano 2003
Barni M., Consulenza medico-legale e responsabilità medica, Giuffrè, Milano 2002
Barni M., Diritti-doveri: responsabilità del medico, dalla bioetica al biodiritto, Giuffrè, Milano 1999
Barni M., Il rapporto di causalità materiale in medicina legale, Giuffrè, Milano 1995
Buccelli C. ed altri, Radiologia Forense, Mediserve, Milano 2000
Ege H., La valutazione peritale del danno da mobbing, Giuffrè, Milano 2002
Fineschi V., Il codice di deontologia medica, Giuffrè, Milano 1996
Fumarola-Mauro M., Il principe nudo, Capone, Lecce 1995
Loré C., Cesare Biondi Medico Legale, Giuffrè, Milano 2004
Loré C. e Martini P., Aspetti e problemi medico-legali del transessualismo, Giuffrè, Milano 1991
Loré C. ed altri, L'aborto: aspetti medico-legali della nuova disciplina, Giuffrè, Milano 1979
Lo Russo G. e Pezzano R. (a cura di), Lexicon 2000, Simone, Napoli 2000
Marchello F. e Serafini S., La tutela delle acque dall'inquinamento, Simone, Napoli 2001
Marchello F., Perrini M. e Serafini S., Diritto dell'ambiente, Simone, Napoli 2002
Mazza L., Mosca C. e Pistorelli L., La disciplina di armi, munizioni ed esplosivi, Cedam, Padova 2002
Mortara Garavelli B., Le parole e la giustizia, Einaudi, Torino 2001
Positano G. e Positano G., La tutela del danno alla persona, Cedam, Padova 2001
Procaccianti P. ed altri, Medicina virtuale e problematiche medico-legali, L'EPOS, Palermo 1999
Recchia-Luciani A. e Di Lecce V., Medicina & Informazione, Infomedia, Ponsacco (PI) 2001
Van Caenegem R. C., I signori del diritto, Giuffrè, Milano 1991
Venuti M. C., Gli atti di disposizione del corpo, Giuffrè, Milano 2002
Regio Decreto Legge 20 luglio 1934, n. 1404 Decreto convertito in Legge 27 maggio 1935, n. 835 Istituzione e funzionamento del tribunale per i minorenni
Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 30 giugno 1965, n. 1124 Testo unico delle disposizioni per l'assicurazione obbligatoria contro gli infortuni sul lavoro e le malattie professionali
Legge 26 giugno 1967, n. 458 Trapianto del rene tra persone viventi
Legge 26 luglio 1975, n. 354 Norme sull'ordinamento penitenziario e sull'esecuzione delle misure privative e limitative della libertà
Legge 22 maggio 1978, n. 194 Norme per la tutela sociale della maternità e sull'interruzione volontaria della gravidanza
Legge 23 dicembre 1978, n. 833 Istituzione del servizio sanitario nazionale
Legge 14 aprile 1982, n. 164 Norme in materia di rettificazione di attribuzione di sesso
Legge 16 febbraio 1987, n. 81 Delega legislativa al Governo della Repubblica per l'emanazione del nuovo Codice di Procedura Penale
Decreto Legislativo 28 luglio 1989, n. 272 Norme di attuazione, di coordinamento e transitorie del Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 22 settembre 1988, n. 448, recante disposizioni sul processo penale a carico di imputati minorenni
D.P.R. 10 settembre 1990, n. 285 Approvazione del regolamento di polizia mortuaria
D.P.R. 9 ottobre 1990, n. 309 Testo unico delle leggi in materia di disciplina degli stupefacenti e sostanze psicotrope, prevenzione, cura e riabilitazione dei relativi stati di tossicodipendenze
Decreto Legislativo 14 gennaio 1991, n. 12 Disposizioni integrative e correttive della disciplina processuale penale e delle norme ad essa collegate
Decreto-Legge 1 marzo 1991, n. 60 Decreto convertito in Legge 22 aprile 1991, n. 133. Interpretazione autentica degli articoli 297 e 304 del codice di procedura penale e modifiche di norme in tema di durata della custodia cautelare
Decreto-Legge 13 maggio 1991, n. 152 Decreto convertito in Legge 12 luglio 1991, n. 203 in Gazz. Uff., 12 luglio 1991, n. 162 Provvedimenti urgenti in tema di lotta alla criminalità organizzata e di trasparenza e buon andamento dell'attività amministrativa
Legge 25 febbraio 1992, n. 210 Indennizzo a favore dei soggetti danneggiati da complicanze di tipo irreversibile a causa di vaccinazioni obbligatorie, trasfusioni e somministrazione di emoderivati
Decreto Legislativo 30 dicembre 1992, n. 502 Riordino della disciplina in materia sanitaria, a norma dell'articolo 1 della Legge 23 ottobre 1992, n. 421
Legge 12 agosto 1993, n. 301 Norme in materia di prelievi ed innesti di cornea
Decreto Legislativo 7 dicembre 1993, n. 517 Modificazioni al decreto legislativo 30 dicembre 1992, n. 502
Legge 29 dicembre 1993, n. 578 Norme per l'accertamento e la certificazione di morte
Legge 8 agosto 1995, n. 335 Riforma del sistema pensionistico obbligatorio e complementare
D.P.R. 30 giugno 1965, n. 1124 e modifiche del D.P.R. 13 aprile 1994, n. 336 Tabella delle malattie professionali nell'industria
D.P.R. 14 gennaio 1997 n. 801 Approvazione dell'atto di indirizzo e coordinamento alle regioni e alle province autonome di Trento e Bolzano, in materia di requisiti strutturali, tecnologici ed organizzativi minimi per l'esercizio delle attività sanitarie da parte delle strutture pubbliche e private
Decreto Legislativo 24 febbraio 1997, n. 46 Attuazione della direttiva 93/42/CEE, concernente i dispositivi medici
Legge 1 aprile 1999, n. 91 Disposizioni in materia di prelievi e di trapianti di organi e di tessuti
Decreto legislativo 19 giugno 1999, n. 229 Norme per la razionalizzazione del Servizio sanitario nazionale, a norma dell'art. 1 della Legge 30 novembre 1998, n. 419
Legge 16 dicembre 1999, n. 483 Norme per consentire il trapianto parziale di fegato
Legge 3 dicembre 1999, n. 493 Norme per la tutela della salute nelle abitazioni e istituzione dell'assicurazione contro gli infortuni domestici
Decreto Ministero Sanità 8 aprile 2000 Disposizioni in materia di prelievi e di trapianti di organi e di tessuti attuativo delle prescrizioni relative alla dichiarazione di volontà dei cittadini sulla donazione di organi a scopo di trapianto
) Giovanna Baccassino Informazione, consenso e responsabilità professionale medica (17 luglio 2003)
2) Cosimo Giuseppe Buccolieri Sopralluogo giudiziario ai fini della ricerca degli elementi di prova nel processo (22 luglio 2004)
3) Giuseppe Calogiuri Eutanasia tra storia e diritto: aspetti e problemi medico-legali (17 luglio 2003)
4) Francesco Cannoletta Indagine interdisciplinare su un caso di mobbing di gruppo: l'ILVA di Taranto (22 luglio 2004)
5) Lucia Caretto Atto medico: liceità, contenuti e limiti sub specie medicinae legalis (17 luglio 2003)
6) Giuseppe Cipressa Atti di disposizione del corpo e riflessioni bioetiche e medico-legali (29 ottobre 2003)
7) Federica De Giorgi Commercio di organi umani: il fenomeno dei bambini scomparsi (26 ottobre 2004)
8) Simone De Riccardis Tribunale per i crimini contro l'umanità: il contributo antropologico forense (22 luglio 2004)
9) Maria Fontana Di Noi Indagine in tema di balistica lesionale alla luce di una esperienza ONU (22 luglio 2004)
10) Alessandra Galati L'incapacità processuale dell'imputato per infermità di mente (22 luglio 2004)
11) Graziana Giacovelli Autopsia come mezzo di ricerca della prova nel processo penale (26 ottobre 2004)
12) Francesca Maggio Ruolo e responsabilità del cosiddetto medico di base (26 ottobre 2004)
13) Emanuela Monte La responsabilità del perito tra scienza medica e diritto penale (26 ottobre 2004)
14) Giusi Orlandino L’incesto nella disciplina giuridica e nella giurisprudenza italiana (26 ottobre 2004)
15) Vincenza Pasqua Invalidità civile: nuove realtà alla luce della recente giurisprudenza (26 febbraio2003)
16) Antonio Marco Perrotta Ipotesi di innovazione della valutazione delle micropermanenti in RCA (26 febbraio2003)
17) Daniele Petracca Utilità processuale della antropologia forense nella identificazione personale (26 ottobre 2004)
18) Lucia Soave Pisanello Danno biologico da morte: iure proprio e iure hereditatis (17 luglio 2003)
19) Maria Vittoria Podo La procreazione assistita nel divenire del dibattito legislativo (29 ottobre 2003)
20) Claudia Ornella Polo La perizia medico-legale in ambito di infortunistica stradale (22 luglio 2004)
21) Federica Potì La malattia professionale ipoacusia e sordità da rumori (28 aprile 2003)
22) Giuseppe Vinci Disagio minorile: il fenomeno del bullismo (26 ottobre 2004)
Non solo tesi...
1) Stefania Bene Assistenza sanitaria agli immigrati nel Salento: problemi di bioetica e medicina legale
2) Teresa D'Amuri Diritto all'immagine e valutazione del danno nell'evoluzione storica e legislativa
3) Silvia Iaconisi La valutazione medico-legale del danno in oftalmologia
4) Luigi Mangia Utilità e novità in ambito di una moderna balistica forense
5) Manuela Miggiano L’Ospedale Psichiatrico Giudiziario sotto il profilo della psicologia giuridica
6) Valentina Pappalardo Rassegna dei criteri definitori e metodologie valutative in tema di mobbing
…perché questi ragazzi aspirano non solo a finire ma a vivere anche l’esperienza della tesi in maniera consona ad una comunità accademica, dove l’attività di docenti e discenti culmina in una ricerca perseguita insieme perché l’università sia una società di persone insieme proficuamente impegnate a far progredire le scienze. Gli artefici delle indagini sono autori di compact disc contenenti l’illustrazione dei progetti di ricerca, la esposizione della documentazione raccolta (volumi e riviste scientifiche, giornali, siti in rete, interviste e sopraluoghi, film e documentari, trasmissioni televisive, immagini inedite), infine l’elaborato. Una tesi di pregio rappresenta oltre che un titolo di studio anche un biglietto da visita attraente ed utile ad un migliore inserimento nel mondo del lavoro. Lode all’impegno di coloro che si sono dedicati alla formazione e alla crescita di un Gruppo ormai numeroso ed affiatato di Docenti e Discenti, meritevole di essere Centro universitario di alto livello oltre che libera associazione di ricercatori scientifici, che nasce nel ricordo di Simona Petracca, studentessa deceduta mentre guidava l’auto tornando dall’Ecotekne alla sua San Cassiano, che per prima si dedicò alla Medicina Legale incoraggiandoci con la propria candidatura a fondare l’associazione a Lei dedicata nell’atto costitutivo rappresentato dalla sua lettera autografa, documento esemplare emulato dagli studenti successivi come emerge dalla voluminosa raccolta di lettere pervenute in questi primi sette anni di attività accademica.
Oltre la tesi...
Proprio dalla associazione ELSA ci viene ricordato che non vi è selezione senza esclusione, ma tra gli “inclusi” esistono Studenti di livello superiore per qualità umane, per dedizione allo studio e agli altri, per spirito accademico e per capacità organizzative: ebbene, queste persone meritano non solo una citazione ma anche una condizione di particolare attenzione e assistenza da parte dell’Università. Nel Gruppo di Ricerca medico-legale salentina vi sono alcuni Studenti che rappresentano l’anima ed il nerbo della piccola comunità che si è creata intorno ad una disciplina così originale e diversa rispetto alle consuete materie degli studi giuridici. Costoro si dedicano già in maniera esemplare alle varie fasi della vita dell’Ateneo, partecipando attivamente e spesso da protagonisti alla preparazione e alla realizzazione di studi e di eventi, di ricerche e di incontri. Per costoro gli esami e le tesi sono un momento di verifica all’interno di un percorso culturale universitario che proseguirà anche dopo la laurea
« MEDECINE LEGALE ET DROIT DE LA SANTE »
DANS LE CADRE DE LA REFORME DE LA
DEUXIEME PARTIE DU DEUXIEME CYCLE DES
établis à LILLE le jeudi 18 janvier 2000
Groupe de travail :
- Dr DEVEAUX, Lille
- Dr FORNES, Paris V Cochin Port Royal,
représentant Mme le Pr. LECOMTE
- Pr. GOSSET, Lille
- Pr. HEDOUIN, Lille
- Pr. LUDES, Strasbourg
- Pr. QUATREHOMME, Nice
- Dr ROBERT-BECART, Lille
- Dr ROUGE-MAILLART,Angers
représentant le Pr. PENNEAU
- Dr SAPANET, Poitiers
- Dr TELMON, Toulouse
représentant le Pr. ROUGE
Pr. GOSSET, Lille
MODULE 1 : « APPRENTISSAGE DE L’EXERCICE MEDICAL »
Item 1 : La relation malade-médecin. L’annonce d’une maladie grave. La formation du patient atteint d’une maladie grave. La personnalisation de la prise en charge médicale.
* Connaître le contrat médical (rang A)
* Connaître le contenu et les limites de l’information à donner au patient (rang A)
(cf items 6 et 141)
* Savoir ce qu’est le consentement éclairé (rang A)
(cf item 6 et 141)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir en cas de refus de soins de la part du patient en situation d’urgence et hors situation d’urgence (rang A)
(cf item 6)
* Connaître la notion de vérité au malade (rang A)
(cf item 6 et 141)
Item 2 : La méthodologie de la recherche clinique et des essais thérapeutiques
* Connaître les principales dispositions de la loi du 20 décembre 1988 relative à la protection des personnes qui se prêtent à des recherches biomédicales (rang A)
* Connaître les modalités du consentement obtenu préalablement à la réalisation d’une recherche biomédicale (rang C)
* Savoir ce qu’est un Comité Consultatif de Protection des Personnes dans la Recherche Biomédicale (rang B)
* Connaître les enjeux éthiques de la recherche biomédicale (rang B)
* La responsabilité du médecin investigateur (rang B)
Item 3 : Le raisonnement et la décision en médecine. La médecine fondée sur des preuves. L’aléa thérapeutique.
* Savoir évaluer le rapport bénéfices / risques et l’expliquer au patient (rang A)
(cf. item 6 et 4)
* Savoir ce qu’est un aléa thérapeutique (rang B)
(cf. item 10)
* Connaître les projets d’indemnisation d’un aléa thérapeutique (rang C)
Item 6 : Le dossier médical. L’information du malade. Le secret médical.
* Connaître les notions suivantes relatives au dossier médical : constitution, tenue, supports, accès, protection (réseaux, télémédecine…) (rang A)
* Connaître le contenu et les limites de l’information à donner au patient (rang A)
(cf item1 et 141)
* Savoir ce qu’est le consentement éclairé (rang A)
(cf item1 et 141)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir en cas de refus de soins de la part du patient en situation d’urgence et hors situation d’urgence (rang A)
* Connaître la notion de vérité au malade (rang A)
(cf item1 et 141)
* Connaître les textes juridiques et déontologiques relatifs au secret professionnel (rang B)
* Connaître les raisons d’être du secret médical (rang A)
* Secret professionnel et médical (rang A)
* Connaître les dérogations légales et jurisprudentielles à la règle du secret médical (rang A)
* Savoir envers qui nous sommes tenus au secret médical (rang A)
* Peut-on partager le secret ? Les relations des médecins soignants avec :
o médecin-conseil de sécurité sociale,
o médecin conseil de compagnie d’assurance, (questionnaire médical à la souscription d’un contrat, état antérieur, décès de l’assuré)
o médecin du travail,
o médecin du sport,
o médecin scolaire (rang B)
Item 7 : Ethique et déontologie médicales ; droits du malade : problèmes liés au diagnostic, au respect de la personne et à la mort.
* Connaître les principes déontologiques et leur description dans le code de déontologie médicale (rang A)
* Les comités d’éthique (rang B)
* Connaître les aspects éthiques et juridiques de l’accompagnement de fin de vie (rang A) (cf item 69)
* Connaître les dispositions des lois dites de bioéthique en matière de protection de la personne, d’empreintes génétiques, de procréation médicalement assistée, de prélèvements (rang A)
* L’éthique par rapport à la déontologie (rang B)
Item 8 : Les certificats médicaux. Décès et législation. Prélèvements d’organes et législation.
* Connaître les principes généraux de rédaction d’un certificat médical (rang A)
* Connaître les lésions élémentaires médico-légales en matière de coups et blessures (rang A)
* Savoir rédiger un certificat de coups et blessures (rang A)
* Connaître les difficultés liées à la certification des violences intra-familiales (rang A)
* Connaître les notions d’incapacité totale de travail, d’incapacité temporaire totale, d’arrêt de travail (rang A)
* Savoir comment examiner un adulte victime de violences sexuelles (rang A) (cf item 37 et 183)
* Savoir comment examiner un enfant victime de maltraitance ou de violences sexuelles (rang A) (cf item 37 et 183)
* Savoir rédiger un certificat en matière de violences sexuelles (rang A) (cf item 37 et 183)
* Savoir à qui il est possible de remettre un certificat médical (rang A)
* Savoir ce qu’est une réquisition, qui peut requérir, comment y répondre, les conséquences juridiques (rang A)
* Savoir rédiger un certificat en vue de la pratique d’un sport (rang B)
* Savoir constater un décès (rang A)
* Savoir examiner un cadavre (rang B)
* Connaître les circonstances et critères de diagnostic d’une mort cérébrale (rang B)
* Connaître les principes et l’intérêt d’une levée de corps (rang B)
* Connaître les principes de l’identification d’un cadavre (rang B)
* Connaître les différentes catégories d’autopsies (rang B)
* Connaître les signes d’une asphyxie, d’une pendaison, d’une strangulation, d’une noyade, d’une plaie par arme à feu, d’une plaie par arme blanche… (rang B)
* Connaître les définitions suivantes : mort suspecte, mort subite, mort naturelle (rang B)
* Savoir rédiger un certificat de décès, en connaître l’intérêt (rang A)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir devant un décès par suicide (rang A) (cf item 189)
* Connaître les aspects éthiques du prélèvement d’organes (rang B) (cf item 127)
* Le consentement et le refus de prélèvement d’organes pour un donneur vivant (rang A) (cf item 127)
* Le consentement et le refus de prélèvement d’organes pour un donneur mort (rang A) (cf item 127)·
* Le registre automatisé des refus (rang B) (cf item 127)
* La sécurité sanitaire en matière de prélèvement d’organes (rang C) (cf item 127)
* Connaître les notions suivantes en matière de législation thanatologique : délais et conditions de transport de corps, soins de conservation, don du corps, inhumation et crémation, prothèses radioactives (rang B)
Item 9 : Hospitalisation à la demande d’un tiers et hospitalisation d’office
* Savoir rédiger un certificat de demande de sauvegarde de justice (rang A)
* Savoir rédiger un certificat d’hospitalisation à la demande d’un tiers (rang A)
* Connaître les différences entre hospitalisation à la demande d’un tiers et hospitalisation d’office (rang A)
Item 10 : Responsabilité médicale pénale, civile, administrative et disciplinaire
* Connaître les principales juridictions civiles, pénales et administratives (rang B)
* Connaître les principes de la procédure civile (rang B)
* Connaître les principes de la procédure pénale (rang B)
* Connaître la hiérarchie des textes juridiques (rang B)
* Connaître le rôle des magistrats (rang B)
* Savoir ce qu’est un expert (rang B)
* Connaître l’organisation de l’Ordre des médecins (rang A)
* Connaître le rôle des différentes instances ordinales (rang A)
* Connaître la procédure devant les juridictions ordinales (rang A)
* Connaître les sanctions ordinales (rang A)
* Connaître la section des assurances sociales (rang A)
* Connaître les principes de la responsabilité civile (rang A)
* Connaître les notions d’obligation de moyens et de résultat (rang A)
* Connaître les infractions pénales (rang A)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir face à un appel urgent (rang A)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir devant un refus de soins (rang A)
* Connaître le délit de non assistance à personne en danger (rang A)
* Connaître les principes de la responsabilité administrative hospitalière (rang B)
* Connaître les notions de responsabilité avec présomption de faute, responsabilité sans faute, d’aléa thérapeutique (rang B) (cf item3)
* Connaître les conditions réglementaires de l’exercice de la médecine en France (rang A)
* Savoir ce qu’est l’exercice illégal de la médecine (rang A)
* Savoir ce qu’est la violation du secret professionnel (rang A)
(cf item 6)
* Connaître les principes de l ‘assurance en responsabilité civile professionnelle (rang A)
Item 13 : Organisation des systèmes de soins. Filières et réseaux.
* Connaître l’organisation de la Sécurité Sociale (rang A)
* Connaître le rôle du médecin conseil de Sécurité Sociale (rang B)
Item 14 : Protection sociale. Consommation médicale et économie de la santé.
* Savoir en quoi consiste le libre choix d’un médecin (rang B)
* Connaître les prestations de l’assurance maladie (rang A)
* Connaître les prestations en nature (rang A)
* Connaître les tarifs et les bases de remboursement (rang A)
* Connaître les prestations de l’assurance vieillesse (rang B)
* Connaître les aides à domicile (aide-ménagère, garde à domicile) (rang C)
* Connaître les prestations pour enfant à charge (rang B)
* Connaître les prestations de l’assurance maternité (rang A)
* Savoir ce qu’est une invalidité (rang A)
* Savoir ce qu’est un accident du travail (en liaison avec la médecine du travail) (rang A) (cf item 109)
* Connaître les formalités de déclaration d’un accident du travail (rang A) (cf item 109)
* Savoir ce qu’est une maladie professionnelle (rang A) (cf item 109)
* Savoir ce qu’est la Couverture Maladie Universelle (cf item 46) (rang A)
* Connaître l’assurance –décès (rang B)
MODULE 2 : « DE LA CONCEPTION A LA NAISSANCE »
Item 15 : Examen prénuptial.
* Savoir remplir un certificat prénuptial (rang B)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir en cas de découverte d’une maladie génétiquement ou sexuellement transmissible en particulier sérologie VIH positive chez un candidat au mariage (rang B) (cf item 6)
Item 27 : Contraception
* Connaître les modalités réglementaires de la prescription et de la délivrance d’une contraception (rang A)
Item 28: Interruption volontaire de grossesse
* Connaître les aspects éthiques des interruptions volontaires de grossesse (pour situation de détresse ou motif thérapeutique)
* Connaître la législation des interruptions volontaires de grossesse (pour situation de détresse ou motif thérapeutique) (rang A)
Item 30 : Assistance médicale à la procréation : principaux aspects biologiques, médicaux et éthiques.
* Connaître les données des lois de bioéthique en matière de procréation médicalement assistée (rang B)
* Connaître les finalités de l’assistance médicale à la procréation (rang B)
* Connaître les conditions de l’assistance médicale à la procréation (rang B)
* Connaître les conditions des études sur embryon humain (rang B)
Item 31 : Problèmes posés par les maladies génétiques à propos :
* d’une maladie chromosomique : la trisomie 21
* d’une maladie génique : la mucoviscidose
* d’une maladie d’instabilité : le syndrome de l’X fragile
* Connaître les problèmes éthiques posés par le dépistage des maladies génétiques (rang B)
* Connaître les aspects réglementaires du dépistage de la trisomie 21 (rang A)
MODULE 3 : « MATURATION ET VULNERABILITE »
Item 37 : Maltraitance et enfance en danger. Protection maternelle et infantile.
* Connaître les infractions pénales en matière d’enfance maltraitée (rang B)
* Connaître les définitions de l’enfant en danger, l’enfant maltraité, l’enfant à risque (rang C)
* Connaître l’épidémiologie de la maltraitance à enfant (rang C)
* Connaître les facteurs de risque de la maltraitance envers les enfants (rang A)
* Connaître les manifestations cliniques et paracliniques des sévices d’action (rang A)
* Connaître le syndrome de Münchausen par procuration (rang C)
* Connaître le syndrome de l’enfant secoué (rang A)
* Connaître les manifestations psychiques de l’enfant maltraité (rang A)
* Connaître la technique d’examen de l’enfant victime de violences physiques, psychiques et sexuelles (rang B) (cf item 183)
* Connaître les gestes ou attitudes à éviter chez un enfant victime de violences physiques , psychiques et sexuelles (rang A)
* Connaître les constatations et l’interprétation des lésions de l’enfant victime de violences sexuelles (rang B) (cf item 183)
* Connaître les modalités de prise en charge de l’enfant victime (rang A)
* Connaître la procédure de signalement judiciaire (rang A)
* Connaître la procédure de signalement administratif (rang A)
* Connaître les limites de la notion de secret professionnel en matière de maltraitance à enfant (cf item 6) (rang A)
Item 40 : Sexualité normale et ses troubles.
* · Connaître les principales dispositions de la loi sur la délinquance sexuelle (17.06.98) (rang B)
Item 45 : Addictions et conduites dopantes : épidémiologie, prévention, dépistage. Morbidité, comorbidité et complications. Prise en charge, traitement substitutif et sevrage :
* psychoactifs et substances illicites
* Connaître le métabolisme de l’alcool (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les signes cliniques de l’intoxication alcoolique aiguë (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les méthodes de confirmation d’une intoxication alcoolique aiguë (rang B) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les problèmes posés par l’alcool, les médicaments et les stupéfiants au volant (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Le certificat de non hospitalisation, l’ivresse publique manifeste (rang A)
* Connaître les principales classes de stupéfiants et savoir reconnaître les substances en nature (rang C) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les signes cliniques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication au cannabis (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les signes cliniques, biologiques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication à l’héroïne et aux morphiniques (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les signes cliniques, biologiques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication à la cocaïne (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les signes cliniques, biologiques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication aux amphétamines (rang A) (cf item 214)
* Connaître les complications somatiques des toxicomanies (rang A)
* Connaître la conduite à tenir devant un sujet supposé être transporteur de drogue in corpore (rang B) (cf item 214)
* Savoir prescrire un traitement par les substances de la classe des stupéfiants (rang A) (cf item167)
* Connaître les principaux traitements de substitution et leurs accidents (rang A)
* Connaître les principales substances utilisées en matière de dopage (rang A) (cf item 111)
* Connaître les effets secondaires des produits dopants et les accidents du dopage (rang A) (cf item 111)
* Savoir comment confirmer biologiquement l’usage d’une substance dopante (rang C) (cf item 111)
* Ivresse et garde à vue, sevrage et garde à vue (rang A)
Item 46 : Sujets en situation de précarité : facteurs de risque et évaluation. Mesures de protection sociale. Morbidité et comorbidité : diagnostic, complications et traitement.
* Savoir reconnaître les situations de précarité (rang A)
* Connaître l’épidémiologie de la précarité en France (rang B)
* Savoir ce qu’est la Couverture Maladie Universelle (rang A)(cf item 14)
* Connaître la situation sanitaire des sujets détenus (rang B)
* Connaître les modalités de la prise en charge médicale en milieu carcéral (rang B)
MODULE 4 : « HANDICAP-INCAPACITE-DEPENDANCE »
Item 49 : Evaluation clinique et fonctionnelle d’un handicap moteur, cognitif ou sensoriel
· Connaître les principes de la réparation juridique du dommage corporel (rang A)
· Connaître les notions d’incapacité temporaire, d’incapacité permanente, de guérison, de consolidation (rang A)
· Savoir comment évaluer une incapacité permanente dans les différents systèmes de réparation (droit commun, accident du travail, pension militaire, assurance individuelle) (rang B)
· Savoir évaluer les préjudices accessoires (rang B) (cf item 65)
· Savoir ce qu’est une tierce dans les différentes législations (rang B)
Item 52 : Le handicap mental. Tutelle, curatelle, sauvegarde de justice
· Connaître les notions de tutelle, curatelle, sauvegarde de justice (rang A)
· Savoir comment demander une mise sous sauvegarde de justice (rang A)
MODULE 5 : « VIEILLISSEMENT »
Item 64 : Autonomie et dépendance chez le sujet âgé
· Connaître les facteurs à l’origine de la maltraitance d’une personne âgée ou vulnérable (rang A)
· Connaître les différents types de maltraitance d’une personne âgée (rang A)
· Connaître la conduite à tenir en présence d’une personne âgée paraissant maltraitée (rang A)
MODULE 6 : « DOULEUR-SOINS PALLIATIFS-ACCOMPAGNEMENT »
Item 65 : Bases neuro-physiologiques et évaluation d’une douleur aiguë et d’une douleur chronique
· Connaître l’évaluation d’un quantum doloris en réparation du dommage corporel (rang B)
(cf item 49)
Item 66 : Thérapeutiques antalgiques, médicamenteuses et non médicamenteuses
· Connaître et savoir appliquer la réglementation sur la prescription et la délivrance des médicaments stupéfiants (rang A)
Item 69 : Soins palliatifs pluridisciplinaires chez un malade en fin de vie . Accompagnement d’un mourant et de son entourage
· Connaître les aspects éthiques et juridiques de l’accompagnement de fin de vie (rang A) (cf item 7)
MODULE 7: « SANTE ET ENVIRONNEMENT – MALADIES TRANSMISSIBLES »
Item 91 : Infections nosocomiales.
· Connaître les problèmes de responsabilité posés par les infections nosocomiales (rang C)
Item 109 : Accidents du travail et maladies professionnelles : définitions. (en liaison avec la médecine du travail)
· Savoir ce qu’est un accident du travail (rang A) (cf item 14)
· Connaître les formalités de déclaration d’un accident du travail (rang A) (cf item 14)
· Savoir ce qu’est une maladie professionnelle (rang A) (cf item 14)
· Savoir ce qu’est le comité de reconnaissance des maladies professionnelles (rang B)
Item 111 : Sports et santé. Aptitude aux sports chez l’enfant et chez l’adulte. Besoins nutritionnels chez le sportif.
· Connaître les principales substances utilisées en matière de dopage chez le sportif (rang A) (cf item 45)
· Connaître les effets secondaires des produits dopants et les accidents du dopage (rang A) (cf item 45)
· Savoir comment diagnostiquer biologiquement et toxicologiquement l’usage d’une substance dopante (rang C) (cf item 45)
MODULE 8 : « IMMUNOPATHOLOGIE - REACTION INFLAMMATOIRE »
Item 127 : Transplantations d’organes : aspects épidémiologiques et immunologiques; principes de traitement et surveillance ; complications et pronostic ; aspects éthiques et légaux.
· Connaître les aspects éthiques du prélèvement d’organes (rang B) (cf item 8)
· Le consentement et le refus de prélèvement d’organes pour un donneur vivant (rang A) (cf item 8)
· Le consentement et le refus de prélèvement d’organes pour un donneur mort (rang A) (cf item 8)
· Le registre automatisé des refus (rang B) (cf item 8)
· La sécurité sanitaire en matière de prélèvement d’organes (rang C) (cf item 8)
MODULE 10 : « CANCEROLOGIE - ONCOHEMATOLOGIE »
Item 142 : Prise en charge et accompagnement d’un malade cancéreux à tous les stades de la maladie. Traitements symptomatiques. Modalités de surveillance. Problèmes psychologiques, éthiques et sociaux.
· Connaître les problèmes éthiques posés par la maladie cancéreuse, l’acharnement thérapeutique (rang B)
· Connaître les problèmes médico-sociaux posés par la maladie cancéreuse : notions d’affections de longue durée, d’exonération du ticket modérateur et ALD30 (rang B)
MODULE 11 : « SYNTHESE CLINIQUE ET THERAPEUTIQUE. DE LA PLAINTE DU PATIENT A LA DECISION MEDICALE – URGENCES »
Item 167 : Thérapeutiques médicamenteuses et non médicamenteuses. Cadre réglementaire de la prescription et recommandations.
· Savoir rédiger une ordonnance (rang A)
· Connaître les règles de prescription des substances des listes I, II, de stupéfiants (rang A)
(cf item 45)
· Connaître les modalités de délivrance des médicaments (rang A)
· Savoir ce qu’est une référence médicale (rang A) (cf item 4)
· Connaître les dispositions du système conventionnel (rang A)
Item 170 : La décision thérapeutique personnalisée. Observance médicamenteuse.
· Connaître les conditions médicales d’obtention ou de maintien du permis de conduire (rang B)
Item 180 : Prescription d’une cure thermale.
· La demande d’entente préalable (rang B)
Item 183 : Accueil d’un sujet victime de violences sexuelles
· Savoir prendre en charge, examiner, orienter une femme adulte victime de violences sexuelles (rang A) (cf item 8)
· Savoir prendre en charge, examiner, orienter un homme adulte victime de violences sexuelles (rang A) (cf item 8)
· Savoir prendre en charge, examiner, orienter un enfant victime de violences sexuelles (rang A) (cf item 8)
· Connaître la technique d’examen de l’enfant abusé sexuellement (rang A) (cf item 37) (cf item 8)
· Connaître les constatations et l’interprétation des lésions de l’enfant abusé sexuellement (rang B) (cf item 37) (cf item 8)
Item 189 : Conduite suicidaire chez l’enfant et l’adolescent
· Connaître la conduite à tenir devant un décès par suicide (rang A) (cf item 8)
Item 210 : Malaise grave du nourrisson et mort subite
· Aspects médico-légaux de la mort subite du nourrisson (rang A)
· Connaître les diagnostics différentiels de la mort subite du nourrisson (rang A)
Item 214 : Principales intoxications aiguës
· Connaître le métabolisme de l’alcool (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les signes cliniques de l’intoxication alcoolique aiguë (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les méthodes de confirmation d’une intoxication alcoolique aiguë (rang B) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les problèmes posés par l’alcool, les médicaments et les stupéfiants au volant (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Le certificat de non hospitalisation, l’ivresse publique manifeste (rang A)
· Connaître les principales classes de stupéfiants et savoir reconnaître les substances en nature (rang C) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les signes cliniques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication au cannabis (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les signes cliniques, biologiques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication à l’héroïne et aux morphiniques (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les signes cliniques, biologiques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication à la cocaïne (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les signes cliniques, biologiques et toxicologiques d’une intoxication aux amphétamines (rang A) (cf item 214)
· Connaître les complications somatiques des toxicomanies (rang A)
· Connaître la conduite à tenir devant un sujet supposé être transporteur de drogue in corpore (rang B) (cf item 214)
· Savoir prescrire un traitement par les substances de la classe des stupéfiants (rang A) (cf item167)
· Connaître les principaux traitements de substitution et leurs accidents (rang A)
· Connaître les principales substances utilisées en matière de dopage (rang A) (cf item 111)
· Connaître les effets secondaires des produits dopants et les accidents du dopage (rang A) (cf item 111)
· Savoir comment confirmer biologiquement l’usage d’une substance dopante (rang C) (cf item 111)
· Ivresse et garde à vue, sevrage et garde à vue (rang A
Anthropologie et radiologie médico-légale
Criminologie et psychiatrie médico-légale
Droit médical et éthique
Médecine en milieu pénitentiaire
Médecine légale clinique
Odontologie médico-légale et identification
Réparation du préjudice corporel
Forensic Careers Page
SO YOU ARE A BRIGHT AND PROMISING YOUNGSTER AND WANT TO TAKE UP FORENSIC SCIENCE OR FORENSIC MEDICINE AS A CAREER.... YOU HAVE COME TO THE RIGHT PLACE!
Hi, I am Anil Aggrawal. I have spent a life time as a forensic pathologist. During this period I have come to regard this specialty as one of the most interesting and rewarding careers. Daily I get a number of phone calls from youngsters wanting to know how they can join forensic sciences. Although I love talking to all of them, I thought I should better put all the information I have on a page which all can access. If you talk to me after reading this page, we can discuss your career lot more meaningfully. In case you need to discuss, do call me up.
Before we begin, I have a gentle request. I have listed many Universities and colleges here, but I don't necessarily know the details of admission procedures. Rules and regulations, admission criteria and other details keep changing from year to year, and I can't possibly keep track of all the info. You have got to contact the respective Colleges/Universities to get that information. If you want to share this information (or any other forensic career related information for that matter) with all of us, you may want to contact me by Email/phone/snail mail, and send that information to me. I will put that information on this page, with due credit to you. Let this page be a common pool of collective wisdom, where we all contribute and from where we all benefit. Now to the real thing!
I love talking to young intelligent students on matters of forensic science, and especially on careers related to forensic science. One of my most memorable experiences was when I talked on "Forensic Engineering" to a group of highly intelligent students at IIT, Bombay in February 2002. The students were fantastic; I thoroughly enjoyed being with them and talking to them on this confluence of the two specialties. The students appeared to enjoy my slides and animations too. I heard some of them seriously wanted to become forensic engineers after that!
I have talked to many students (over phone mostly) who have a great love for forensics, and would love to pursue a course in it. But they are hesitant to join it. Why? Because they have heard from someone that the scope for Forensics is limited in our country. This is simply not true. My answer to this is simple - Your scope for ANY job is limited if you are mediocre in your specialty. And that includes Forensics. If you excel in your subject, there is no reason, why you can not make a name for you and your country.
A number of bright youngsters are today looking for unexplored areas where they can achieve success quickly and rise to big positions in a relatively short span of time. If you are a youngster with this view, this page is for you.
Great Opportunities in forensics!
Lady Luck is beckoning you! Don't miss this great opportunity. Bookmark this page by pressing Ctrl+D, and visit it often, as new and latest information regarding job opportunities in forensic science and medicine will be posted here on a regular basis.
For Indian Students: If you are a student from India, you could join forensic science in a number of ways. Many universities in India offer M.Sc. Courses in Forensic Sciences. Main among these are:
1. Punjabi University, Patiala, India
Punjabi University, Patiala, India offers a two year course of M.Sc. in Forensic Science. There are ten seats per batch. To be eligible you must have either of the following: (i)B.Sc. (Medical/Non-Medical) (ii) BDS (iii) MBBS. The university offers specialization in forensic biology, forensic serology, forensic chemistry and forensic toxicology. For more information, please contact, Dr. O.P. Jasuja. Full information about him is as follows:
Dr. O.P. Jasuja,
Reader in Forensic Science
Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002
Tel (R) 91-175-2285505
Tel (O) 91-175-2282461-65 EXT. 6342
Fax (O) 91-175-2282882 AND 2283073
You can also E-mail him by clicking over his name.
For more information on Dr. Jasuja please visit:http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/vol_001_no_001/editors.html
For more information on Forensic Science Department at Patiala, please visit:http://www.universitypunjabi.org/pages/teaching/teaching15.html
2. Department of Criminology and Forensic Science,
Dr. Hari Singh Gaur Vishwavidyalaya,
Sagar, Sagar University,
PIN-470 003 India
The department offers two Masters Degree courses. These are M.A. (Master of Arts) in Criminology, and M.Sc. (Master of Science) in Forensic Science and Forensic Toxicology. Each course has 12 seats. The selection is on merit basis. Admissions start in June every year (or sometimes in July). These courses are also taught at Graduate level (Both B.A. and B.Sc. Level). The department has a well-equipped laboratory for conducting experiments
Another course offered by this University is a six-month Diploma course in Criminology and Forensic Science. But this diploma is meant only for the Police officials of the Madhya Pradesh State. Please contact the University to check if you can be admitted to this course as a special case.
Research Programmes in Criminology and Forensic Science are also conducted.
3. University of Madras,
This University offers an MA in Criminology. Eligibility is a valid Bachelor’s degree.
4. Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi 221005 (UP),
This University offers an MA in Criminology. Eligibility is a valid Bachelor’s degree. You may want to visit the University's website by clicking here.
5. Forensic House,
35A Kamarajan Salai,
This institute offers a course in Criminology and Forensic Science. Eligibility is a valid Bachelor’s degree in Physics, Chemistry or Applied Science. MBBS, BDS, and B.Pharm. students are also accepted.
6. Department of Criminology and Forensic Science,
Karnataka University offers M.A. (Masters in Arts) in Criminology and M.Sc. in Forensic Science and Forensic Toxicology. To be eligibile, you have to have a BA, B.Sc. or B.Com. degree with a minimum of 50% aggregate. The admission is through an entrance test.
7. Department of Forensic Science,
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University,
This University offers an M.Sc. in Forensic Science.
8. Tata Institute of Social Sciences,
Post Box No. 8313,
Sion-Trombay Road Deonar,
This institute offers Criminology as a specialization course with Masters in Social Work programme.
9. Department of Anthropology,
University of Delhi,
Offers a certificate course in Forensic Science
10. National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science,
Ministry of Home Affairs,
Government of India,
Sector III, Institutional Area,
Outer Ring Road,
This institute is a premier body conducting traning and research in the field of Forensic Science. It offers research programmes and diplomas in Forensic Science. Officials who can attend these programs are police officers, forensic scientists, judges, research scholars, and senior officials from various forensic laboratories.
11. Department of Anthropology,
University of Pune,
Tel. No.: 020-5696061 Extn.:2182
This University started a Masters course as well as a P.G. Diploma course in Forensic Sciences in 2003. This information was provided to me on 23 June 2003 by a student Bindu Chacko.
12. Programming for Forensic Professionals
Are you an accomplished programmer? Or do you want to take up programming as a career? Well, why not make programs for forensic professionals. There is much in it for you. Forensic Professionals need expert programmers like you. Why, you may ask? Well, at the end of a year, most of them want to know, how many autopies they did on, say, drowned individuals, how many of them were between, say, 15 and 20 years of age, how many of them drowned in, say, fresh water and how many in sea water, and so on. To get all this data in a jiffy, you need to write a good program.
Or do you want to take up forensic programming as a career? If you do, please take time out to visit this forensic programming page.
Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice,
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,
Abhishekapatti, Tirunelveli, 627 012 Tamil Nadu
This department offers MSc in Criminology and Criminal Justice Science, which is a two year master's degree programme.
Eligibility: Any bachelor's degree
Contact email: email@example.com
This information was provided to me on 14 April 2004 by Dr.Jaishankar Karuppannan, who is affiliated with this University. The good doctor continues:
We also offer PhD programmes. You can visit our dept website at http://www.doccj.co.nr
Apart from the regular programme we also have distance education programme in criminology. This is a unique programme offered for the first time in the whole of the country. The details are as follows:
M.A. in Criminology and Police Science
This course is offered by the Directorate of Distance and Continuing Education, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abhishekapatti,Tirunelveli, 627 012 Tamil Nadu
A college affiliated under this university offers BSc in Police Science and Criminology.
For full details all the programmes Please contact
Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University
Abhishekappatti, Tirunelveli 627 012
Tamil Nadu INDIA
The department also brings out a monthly newsletter
One can download these issues from the following links
Crime and Justice Perspective January issue
Crime and Justice Perspective February issue
Crime and Justice Perspective March issue
Right-click the above links and then select "Save target as..."
The good doctor further advises readers to visit them at http://www.doccj.co.nr
Can I do B.Sc. in Forensic Science? Two institutes in India offer B.Sc. in Forensic Science. These are:
1. Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal
2. Amity Institute, NOIDA (Private)
To know about Amity, please visit www.amity.edu, or phone 1600-11-00-00 (Toll Free) or 011-24331000. Amity has campuses in Delhi, NOIDA, Gurgaon, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhubaneswar and Raipur.
Amity Institute offers the following four courses in Forensic Science.
1. B.Sc. (Hons.) Forensic Sciences (3 years)
2. M.Sc. Forensic Sciences (2 years)
3. PG Diploma in Forensic Science (1 year)
4. PG Diploma in Cyber Crime & Cyber Law (1 year)
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Can I do an M.Sc. in Forensic Science? Yes, of course. Amity Institute as mentioned above is one institute which offers a course in M.Sc. Forensic Science. In general, to be eligible for an M.Sc. Course in Forensic Sciences in any of the above universities, you should have a bachelor's degree, preferably with a first division in physics, chemistry, zoology, or botany. You can find out about the details of admission to this course from your local state university. Once you have done the M.Sc. successfully you can even go for a Ph.D. in Forensic Sciences.
In your M.Sc. Course you can choose a field of specialization such as forensic ballistics, forensic entomology, forensic botany and so on.
How can I become a Forensic Pathologist? To become a forensic pathologist (the specialist who conducts post-mortems on dead human bodies to find out the cause of death, the time and manner of death and so on), you must first do an MBBS degree and then go for an MD degree in Forensic Medicine. Almost all Indian Universities which offer M.B.B.S courses, also offer an M.D. in Forensic Medicine.
I want to become a Fingerprint expert. What should I do? Do an M.Sc. in Forensic Science as advised above.
I want to be a private Sherlock Holmes. What should I do? Investigation of crime is not allowed on a private basis in our country. It is done only by the police, and they take the help of Govt. agencies such as forensic science laboratories etc. If you want to become a private detective, you will have to restrict yourself to civil cases such as marriage and divorce etc. For more information, ring me up.
I don't want to join a formal course. Will reading of Sherlock Holmes stories help me? To a certain extent, YES. They will certainly help you to think logically. But they CAN NOT make you a detective all on their own. For that you MUST join a formal forensic science course. You may be surprised, Sherlock Holmes stories were at one time included as a course for the London Metropolitan Police force. If you want to read these stories, don't just pick up any book. Read ONLY "The Annotated Sherlock Holmes - The Four Novels and Fifty-six short stories complete". This book is lavishly illustrated with maps, diagrams, photographs and drawings, and gives all 60 works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. This book is edited by William S. Baring-Gould, with an introduction, notes and bibliography, and is easily the best book available on Sherlock Holmes today. This book is out of print now, but a used copy can be bought from amazon.com. I own a 1992 edition published by Wings Books, and I still read it occasionally. I am giving the cover of the book here.
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There is a lot of other literature on Sherlock Holmes too (including videos and CDs). Please click on the cover of the book to explore that. The link will take you to a page from my Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. Go to "Sherlockiana" section, and click on the book you want to read about.
There is another little known book which can help you. This is written by Satyabrata Dam. It is called "Eyewitness". To read more about this book, please click here.
So what are the rewards of joining Forensic Sciences? The first and foremost is that it is a challenging field, which fills you with lot of job satisfaction. The field is relatively unknown at present. Not many youngsters are aware of this discipline, so job positions are relatively easy to get, and you get a raise in hierarchical position very quickly. Above all, you can have the satisfaction of playing the real Sherlock Holmes!
I am a Commerce graduate. Certainly there should be no scope for me in Forensic science. Or is there some hope? The answer is a surprising "Yes". Many youngsters have written to ask me that they are commerce graduates and is it possible for them to join forensic science in some way. The beauty of forensic science is that almost anybody with knowledge in almost any field can become a forensic scientist. Even a locksmith can examine locks for forensic purposes! Commerce graduates can easily take up forensic accounting as a career. It is not possible for me to give in any detail about this specialty, but you would do well reading the following book:
Financial Investigation and Forensic Accounting by George A. Manning, C.F.E., E.A. (CRC Press, 2000). This book costs $69.95 and can be bought through Amazon or directly through CRC Press. Its site is at http://www.crcpress.com/
Recently I have been contacted by Vijay Narayan Govind, a chartered Accountant with active interest in forensic accounting and auditing. You may want to contact him by clicking here.
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I am an entomologist. What are my chances? Some bright youngsters with a Ph.D. Degree in entomology wrote to me asking how they could join forensic sciences. They could pursue a course in Forensic Entomology and become very successful Forensic Entomologists. These are the specialists who can help the law by their specialized knowledge of insects. For instance, if a corpse is infested with maggots, they can study them and can tell the time of death of that person. The cause of death could also be inferred in some cases, especially if the person was poisoned. If that were the case, maggots would ingest some of it along with the flesh. If the person was completely reduced to bones, the maggots could still be examined for the poison, because they had ingested it. If the maggots had metamorphosed into adult flies and had flown away, even then the poison ingested could be found out! How? Well, before turning into adults, the maggots first pupate. For this they move out of the body. About a few yards away from the body, they pupate and when they become adults, the pupa shells are left behind. A careful search around the body would enable the forensic entomologist to successfully identify them. These pupa shells can be examined and analysed for poisons. If the poison was present in the body in the first place, it would be ingested by maggots, and in turn passed on to the pupa shells. Forensic entomologists have even taken out the DNA of a dead individual from the guts of maggots and have successfully found out about the identity of the deceased person!
Book published by Harley (top) and Thomas Dunne (bottom)
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Get the idea? Needless to say, Forensic Entomology can be great fun. But how to go about it? Well, I am no entomologist, but what I can suggest you is that you contact John Kunich, by clicking on his name. He is a great forensic entomologist. I read his book ENTOMOLOGY AND THE LAW: FLIES AS FORENSIC INDICATORS, which is excellent. You may want to buy and read this book by clicking here, or on the cover of the book on the right. This is the only book (that I am aware of) that thoroughly covers both the law and the science of forensic entomology. Dr. Kunich has included a detailed examination of the law of scientific evidence, not only within the United States but in several other nations as well. I think this book will be very valuable to you, in case you want to pursue a course in Forensic Entomology.
Another very good book on Forensic entomology that I can suggest you is Maggots, Murder and Men - Memories and reflections of a forensic entomologist by Zakaria Erzinçlioglu. It was first published by Harley Books in 2000 (Natural History Publishers, Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex CO6 4AH, UK. Phone: 01206 271216; Fax: 01206 271182; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Its details are as follows:
256 Pages: ISBN 0-946589-65-8: Price £13.95.
Later - in 2002 - it was also published by Thomas Dunne Books, which is an imprint of St. Martin’s Press, (A Member of the St. Martin's Press group, Minotaur Books, 175 5th Avenue, NY, NY 10010, Fax: 212-674-6132). You can buy the book directly by visiting their site at:
http://www.minotaurbooks.com, or from Amazon by clicking here. Its details are:
256 Pages: ISBN 0-312-28774-7: Price $23.95, Can $33.95
Fortunately both Harley Books and Thomas Dunne Books were kind enough to send me an examination copy. I have gone through this book and have found it an extremely useful book.
This book gives a number of actual cases solved by the great Forensic Entomologist Zakaria Erzinçlioglu. The cases are narrated in a chatty style. Once you pick up the book, you can not put it down; that is for sure. I enjoyed reading this book thoroughly, and I am sure, you would share my experience. Clicking on the covers would take you to the amazon site, from where you can purchase the books online.
Covers of both these books say a lot. In the cover by Harley, you see a forensic entomologist examining the posterior spiracles of a maggot with his pocket lens. There is a blood stained knife in the background and a few drops of blood, indicating murder. In the cover by Thomas Dunne, you see an old style pocket watch with three flies over and around it. The pocket watch represents the time of death, of which flies are a very good indicator!
You may also want to visit the following two sites:
Another good forensic entomologist that you can contact for advice is Mark Benecke of Germany.
I am a dentist by training. What are my chances? Well, you could pursue a lucrative career in Forensic odontology. These are the specialists who help the law by virtue of their specialized knowledge of teeth and surrounding oral structures. For instance if a forensic pathologist finds teeth bite marks in, say, a case of death associated with sexual assault, he might want to call a forensic odontologist to assist him. The odontologist would make a dental cast from the teeth bite marks. This dental cast could be matched with that made from several suspects. Traces of saliva found around bite marks can assist in the identification of the culprit. Lip prints found on various objects, such as around cups and glasses can often help in the identification of a suspect. Some experts think lip prints can be as unique as finger prints. Much work however needs to be done in this nascent field known as cheiloscopy (the study of lip prints). You could be one of its pioneers. There is a very good journal devoted completely to the science of Forensic odontology. It is called "The Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology", and can be accessed by clicking here. If you want to know more about forensic odontology, you can contact my friend Bryan Chrz, who incidentally is one of the best in the field.
I am a mathematician. Can I join the forensic field in some way? So you are a mathematician! Good. You might think there is no scope for you in Forensic Science - and you would be WRONG. Mathematicians can become successful forensic statisticians. These are the specialists who guide the courts regarding the possibility (or statistical probability) of an accused being an actual criminal. If the killed person had a blood group, say, "B", and you find blood stains of the same group on the clothes of an accused, what is the probability that he actually killed the person? If a lost (and recovered) newborn baby has a blood group, say, "AB+", and the alleged mother is "O-" and the alleged father "A+", what is the probability that the child actually belonged to this couple. If a witness saw a green car speeding away from the scene of crime in the evening, what is the probability that he actually saw a green car, and not a blue car, which he mistook for green (because of fading light). Questions like this often take into account Bayes theorem. For more information, you may want to read the following books:
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1. Statistical Science in the Courtroom, 1st Edition, 2000, edited by Joseph K. Gastwirth, Springer-Verlag, GmbH & Co.KG, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121 Heidelberg, Germany. xxii + 443 pages, ISBN 0-387-98997-8. Hardcover $59.95. This book can be purchased either through amazon, or by visiting the Springer site at http://www.springer-ny.com
2. Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists, 1st Edition, 1995 (reprinted 1997), by C.G.G. Aitken, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA. xvi + 260 pages, ISBN 0-471-95532-9. Hardcover $110.00. This book too can either be purchased through amazon, or by visiting the publisher's (John Wiley) site at http://www.wiley.com
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Both these books cover the whole gamut of forensic statistics very comprehensively. If you know your statistics basics, you would hardly have any difficulty understanding these books on your own. Do try these books, if you are serious about becoming a forensic statistician. Both of them are excellent. I have gone through them, and although I am no mathematician, I could follow them easily.
Would you like to talk to a forensic statistician for more knowledge? Well, try your luck contacting the following forensic statisticians (click on their names). All of them are great statisticians, but rather busy, so they might take some time to reply to your queries. I contacted all of them (for a different purpose though), and they were gracious enough to reply to my letters. Here is the list:
1. Colin Aitken
2. David Balding
3. Joseph K. Gastwirth
4. Jay Kadane
5. Charles R. Mann
6. Marc Rosenblum
7. Nozer Singpurwalla
8. David Pollard
9. Donald Rubin
10. Weiwen Miao
If you are interested in knowing how mathematics can be used for forensic purposes, especially for Forensic DNA interpretation, you may want to contact Charles Brenner. Try his excellent site on Forensic mathematics by clicking here.
You may also want to read the following excellent book:
Interpreting DNA Evidence: Statistical Genetics for Forensic Scientists, 1st Edition by Ian W. Evett and Bruce S. Weir. Softcover, 6" x 9".
Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, 23 Plumtree Road, P.O. Box 407, Sunderland, MA 01375-0407, Phone: (413) 549-4300, Fax: (413) 549-1118. Publication Date 1998. xvi + 278 pages, ISBN 0-87893-155-4. Price $43.95
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This book can be bought either through amazon, or you may want to visit the publisher's site at http://www.sinauer.com/. You may also want to try out this link. The book having 30 illustrations, provides a rational basis for interpreting DNA evidence. Although it is based on modern theories of statistics and population genetics, it also rests on the principles of forensic science. While aimed at the undergraduate level, its primary audience is forensic science and legal professionals. If you are aiming to become a forensic statistician, go for this book. It is very highly recommended.
Forensic DNA typing sounds interesting to me. I have done a course in genetics, and would like to enter this field. What should I do? You have chosen a very promising field. Please contact following persons, who are masters in this field.
1. K. Thangaraj
Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology
2. Rajiv Giroti
Central Forensic Science Laboratory
3. Dr. M.S. Rao
Director-cum-Chief Forensic Scientist
Ministry of Home Affairs
Block no. 11, 4th Floor
New Delhi-110 003
Email: email@example.com 4. C.S. Paulose
Director, Center for neuroscience
Department of Biotechnology
Cochin University of Science and Technology
Cochin-682 022, Kerala
Phone: (0484)2576267 [O]
(0485)2812428, 2812510 [R]
5. Dr. Lalji Singh,
6. Saurav Guha
DNA Typing Unit
Advanced Center for Biomedical Sciences
Central Forensic Science Laboratory
30, Gorachand Road
Want to know more about Forensic DNA typing? Well, long time back I wrote an article on Forensic DNA typing, which dealt with basic procedure and genetics involved. It was published in a leading science monthly of India, Science Today. The exact reference of the article is:
Aggrawal A. DNA Fingerprinting. Science Today, March 1988, Pages 10-15
I have made a scan of that article, which anyone can download for personal study. This article would be most useful for beginners. Please note that this article deals with the technique that was prevalent in late 80s (when the article was written), i.e. RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Now this technique is almost obsolete. It has now been replaced with STR technique (Short Tandem Repeats). Nevertheless, the article should provide lot of information for beginners, especially those who are investigating the evolution of this amazing technique [Click each page to enlarge, or right click on the image and then press "save target as"].
page 10 page 11 page 12 page 13 page 14 page 15
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Did this article generate some interest in you in the subject of Forensic DNA Typing? If yes, you might want to read an excellent book on STR analysis. It is written by a renowned authority in the field of Forensic DNA Typing, Dr. John Butler (For an interview of Dr. Butler conducted by me, please click here). It is called "Forensic DNA Typing - Biology, Technology and Genetics of STR Markers". Its first edition which came out in 2001 was a bestseller (please click here to know more about that edition). In 2005, the publishers (Elsevier Academic Press) have come out with the second edition. How much material has been added in this edition can be gauged from the fact that while the first edition had 322 pages, this one has an astounding 660 pages! Very rarely have I seen an edition growing so rapidly. This also reflects the rapidity with which this field is evolving. This edition costs about $79.95.
The publishers were kind enough to send me a copy for perusal. I have gone through this book from cover to cover, and I can say this is the MOST IMPORTANT book on Forensic DNA Typing in the market today. You can pick up one through amazon by clicking on the cover of the book here. The link will also take you to a number of other interesting books on Forensic DNA Typing which you may want to read. Happy reading!
I have heard a lot about forensic toxicology. What do these people do, and how can I become one? Please visit my Forensic toxicology page by clicking here. You will get answers to several of your questions. To get details on how to become a forensic toxicologist, please contact:
Dr.V.V.Pillay, Chief, Poison Control Centre,
Dept. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology,
Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences,
Elamakkara, Cochin 682026.
Phones - 0484-339080, Ext.8052 (O);
0484-807055 (R); 98952 82388 (Cell).
To acquire more information on Forensic Toxicology, you can join a very popular newsgroup called "Criminal Poisoning" by clicking here.
Many nurses have contacted me asking if there is any scope for them to get involved in Forensics. Yes, certainly there is. They can take up a lucrative career in Forensic Nursing. To know more about forensic nursing, please get in touch with Ms. Virginia Lynch, who is a certified Forensic Nurse, working in USA. To contact her via Email, please click here.
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Some people have written that they are experienced photographers, and is it possible for them to take up forensic science in any way. Yes, they could take up Forensic Photography, which is fast becoming a lucrative career. They can profitably go through the following book for more information:
The Practical Methodology of Forensic Photography, Second Edition by David R. Redsicker (CRC Press). This book can also be bought online.
If you are a trained artist, you can take up forensic art and illustration as a career. For more information you can go through the following book.
Forensic Art and Illustration, 1st Edition, by Karen T. Taylor (CRC Press).
For more information about this book, you may want to click here
I am an architect. What options do I have? You can specialize in architecture of mortuaries and forensic science institutes. Mortuaries have special architectural requirements. These include special spaces or enclosures to receive dead bodies, to interact with police and other law enforcement agencies, to preserve dead bodies for long periods, to conduct post-mortem examinations and so on. An architect must take into account all these considerations, before he can design an impressive and effective institute. Well, in this short space, it may not be possible for me to explain you everything. Those of you who want to know more can contact Manidipa Basu of the J.J. School of Arts and Architecture who has completed a very good project on a similar subject. To contact Manidipa Basu, please click here
I am a psychologist/psychiatrist by training. You don't want to tell me I too have chances in the forensic field? Well, why not? You can become a forensic psychologist and/or a forensic psychiatrist. What is their exact role? Consider this situation. A person has committed a murder. Most countries have a law whereby an insane person is exempted from punishment if he has committed a crime (including murder). In India, section 84 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), specifically makes this provision. So naturally one of the strategies of the defence is to prove that the accused was insane at the time of committing the murder. How does one decide whether he was really insane or not? Well, call the forensic psychiatrist!
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If you are really interested in forensic psychology, I would suggest you two excellent books, which I have gone through, and which I have found most appealing. Both have been published by John Wiley. They are:
1. The Handbook of Forensic Psychology, 2nd Edition, 1999, by Allen K. Hess and Irving B. Weiner, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA. xii + 756 pages, ISBN 0-471-17771-7. Hardcover $130.00. This book can be purchased either through amazon, or by visiting the John Wiley site at http://www.wiley.com
2. Essentials of Forensic Psychological Assessment, 1st Edition, 1999, by Marc J. Ackerman, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA. x + 294 pages, ISBN 0-471-33186-4. softcover $34.95. This book too can either be purchased through amazon, or by visiting the publisher's (John Wiley) site at http://www.wiley.com
Another good link to follow (for forensic psychology) is this. This gives information about another good book called "Introduction to Forensic Psychology". This book has been published by Academic Press. For more information on this book, please click here.
Want to know more about forensic psychiatry? Well, why not contact my friend George Palermo, who is a highly successful forensic psychiatrist. He has written a number of books on forensic psychiatry, and you would surely benefit from his advice. Another expert you can contact is Marianne Kristiansson of Sweden.
To know more about Forensic Psychology, you may want to visit the excellent page by Dr. Margaret A. Lloyd. It's called "Marky Lloyd's Careers in Psychology Page", and can be accessed by clicking here. You can even contact her for personal advice by Clicking here.
I have specialized in botany. What are my chances? Good! You could become a forensic botanist. These are the people who utilize their knowledge of botany in the investigation of crime. One of the very first cases, which utilized the knowledge of trees and plants in the investigation of crime was the kidnapping of the 19 month old infant son of Charles A. Lindbergh (1902-1974), the famous aviator, who will always be remembered for the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic, from New York to Paris, on May 20-21, 1927.
Charles Augustus, Jr., Lindbergh’s son was kidnapped from the second floor of his newly completed home in Hopewell, New Jersey, sometime between 8 and 10 pm on March 1, 1932. The kidnapper had used a home made ladder (having cleats rather than rungs) to get into the second floor. The ladder was found at the scene.
Although a ransom of 50,000 dollars was paid (in marked bills), the highly decomposed body of the infant was found on May 12, 1932, in a wood about two miles from the Lindbergh estate.
A suspect Bruno Hauptmann was apprehended more than two years later (on September 19, 1934). A massive forensic investigation followed. One of the experts who participated in this investigation was the wood expert Arthur Koehler (1885-1967), who (applying his knowledge of tress and their wood) traced the wood used in the ladder to a Lumber Company in Bronx, New York. Hauptmann worked in this company. Furthermore Koehler studied the wood serving as the floor of the attic of Hauptman’s apartment. A piece of wood had been sawn off it and had been used to make the ladder. By studying the grain of the two pieces (wood on the floor of the attic of Hauptman’s apartment, and wood used in the ladder), Koehler could say that the they once formed the same piece. On April 3, 1936, Hauptmann went to the electric chair.
The following article is written by Arthur Koehler (who can be regarded as the father of modern forensic botany) about this case. Readers wanting to know more can refer to this article.
Koehler Arthur (1937) Techniques used in tracing the Lindbergh Kidnapping ladder. Am J Police Science;27:5
This case in all its detail can also be read from:
Graham SA (1997) Anatomy of the Lindbergh kidnapping. J For Sci; 42(3): 368-377
Another good article on the same case appeared in The Microscope, Vol. 31, no. 1 (1983), pages 1-14. This interesting case is also reproduced in a number of books. Two of the best that I can recommend are (i) Criminalistics - An Introduction to Forensic Science by Richard Saferstein (7th Edition, 2000) and (ii) The casebook of forensic detection - How Science solved 100 of the World's most baffling crimes by Colin Evans
Here are some more examples of how a forensic botanist can help in the investigation of crime.
(i) A dead body is found in a forest. The crime investigation team calls a forensic botanist. He recovers several pollen grains from the dead man’s shirt, which come from fir trees. There are no fir trees around. The inevitable conclusion: Either the man worked in an area where there were fir tress, or he was murdered at such a place. The police look around and ten miles away find a place where there are fir trees. Some blood is found, which can be matched with that of the murder victim. Some tire marks are found at this “new” scene of crime, from which the murderer’s car can be identified and he is apprehended. Had the forensic botanist not told about fir trees, the police would never have ventured as far as ten miles away from the scene of crime!
(ii) A dead body is lying in a forest. The leaves and grass under his body have turned yellow. If shielded from the sun, leaves and grass loose their chlorophyll in a certain fixed interval of time (two weeks minimum). From this observation it can be said that the body was lying there for at least two weeks (Calculation of the time since death)
(iii) A thief enters the house of a person through a window on the first floor. The entry is through his garden. The thief is clever enough to use gloves to prevent leaving fingerprints. He also takes care to wipe all footprints, and thinks he has done a perfect crime. Next day about ten suspects are rounded up, who were seen loitering around that region at the time the burglary was committed. The police asks them to submit their clothes. A forensic botanist examines the pollen grains found on the clothes of all. Only the clothes of the actual criminal actually match the “pollen print” of the victim’s garden. He is apprehended.
(iv) What is a “pollen print”? Well, every geographical area - small or large - has a unique “pollen print”. It refers to the specific combination of the types of pollens and spores found only in that area. The specific ration of the pollen grains further “individualizes” the pollen print. Let us imagine that the victim above grew 5 different types of flowers in his garden - roses, marigolds, Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), petunia and tulips, and they were in such numbers that the ambient air in and around the garden contained pollens in the following ratio:
Roses: marigolds: Carnation: petunia: tulips = 25%:10%:20%:30%:15%
This is the “pollen print” of the victim’s garden. On entering the garden, the suspect would have gone through this ambient air, and the pollens would have stuck to his clothes in roughly the same ratio. Any other suspect who has not been to that garden is very unlikely to have the very same pollen in the very same ration. It has even been said that pollen prints could have been used in the famous O.J.Simpson case. It is known that the person who killed Simpson's ex-wife Nicole Brown and her boy friend Ron Goldman on the night of June 12, 1994 hid in ambush under a flowering willow tree before escaping. In this situation the killer's hair and clothes would have got heavily soiled with the pollen from this tree. All the police had to do was to collect pollen samples from the hair and clothes of O.J.Simpson. Had willow pollen been found in these places, it would have been very difficult for the defense to account for them. On the other hand if no willow pollen had been found, the defence case would have got stronger, and there would be much less suspicion surrounding the case today. It is however a fact that the only country to use forensic botany in courts on a regular basis is NewZealand. Police personnel in other countries are simply not aware of its many potentials.
Pollen prints are now used in investigation of terrorism. Suspect letters, letter bombs etc would have the pollen print of the area where they originated. Thus the origin of such letters can be determined. The science of analyzing pollen and spores to help solve criminal cases is known as Forensic palynology.
For more help you may want to contact the following experts, who are world renowned experts on forensic botany.
David O. Norris: david.norris@buffmail.Colorado.EDU
Jane H. Bock: firstname.lastname@example.org
Some useful literature (paper citations etc.) on forensic botany can be seen at:
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I am interested in firearms and want to become a forensic ballistic expert. What should I do? Well, I told you something about forensic ballistics earlier. However two best forensic ballistic experts that I know of are (i) Gerald L. Hurst and (ii) James L. Roberts. Click on their names to send mails to them. Both of them are quite helpful and would be too glad to help you. Good luck!
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I know a lot about computers. Can I also be a forensic specialist? Great! You certainly can. You can have a bright future in computer forensics. These are the specialists who can analyse a computer and tell to the police all the illegal activities going on through that. If someone has been sending offending, threatening or sexually explicit mails to other persons, he can no more get away by simply denying his involvement. A computer forensic specialist can sit at his computer and can retrieve all the messages he has been sending through it. You might think that deleting these messages from the computer would erase all evidence, but this is not the case, as any computer specialist will tell you. People who have been throwing computer viruses through the internet have been caught in a similar way. There are a host of other illegal activities in the field of computers, such as hacking, altering banking records, personnel information etc, which can be caught by a forensic computer specialist.
These days, high tech crimes are being carried out by passing on messages through internet, Emails, websites etc. A forensic computer specialist can catch all of them. In a recent case of attack on the Indian Parliament by some terrorists (13 December 2001), a laptop was found in the possession of some of their supporters, and lot of incriminating information could be retrieved from it. On the basis of that information, more terrorists were later apprehended.
Amity Institute (please see above), offers a one year PG Diploma in Cyber Crime and Cyber Law.
If you want to read more on this fascinating subject, three of the best books that I can heartily recommend to all of you are:
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1. Handbook of Computer Crime Investigation - Forensic Tools and Technology, by Eoghan Casey. Academic Press, Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK. 320 pages, ISBN 0121631036. Price £26.95
2. Digital Evidence and Computer Crime: Forensic Science, Computers and the Internet, 1st Edition (third printing 2001) by Eoghan Casey. Academic Press, Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK. xvi + 279 pages, ISBN 0-12-162885-X. Price $69.95
3. Forensic Computing - A Practitioner's guide, 2000 (Second Printing 2001) by Tony Sammes and Brian Jenkinson Springer-Verlag, GmbH & Co.KG, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121 Heidelberg, Germany. xii+ 295 pages, ISBN 1-85233-299-9. softcover $49.95
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I have gone through all three of them, and I can say from my personal experience that they are the best in the field. The second of these (Digital Evidence and Computer Crime: Forensic Science, Computers and the Internet) comes with a CD, with a number of cases on it. You can actually try your hand at solving cases. I tried solving a few of them, and thoroughly enjoyed the experience. The first two books have been published by Elsevier Science - Academic press, and the third by Springer-Verlag. All these can be bought either through the publishers' site (you can go to the publishers' site by clicking on the book covers) or through regular book vendor sites such as amazon.com. A more detailed review of Digital Evidence and Computer Crime also appears in Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology and can be accessed by clicking here.
I am an Engineer by Profession. I want to learn about Forensic Science. And is there some way I can become a forensic specialist? Yes, you can have a very lucrative career in an exciting discipline called Forensic Engineering. If a structure (a building, a bridge etc.) was demolished by, say, planting a bomb inside (or by sabotage in any other manner), a clever forensic engineer can examine the nature and extent of damage to tell the investigating authorities, where the bomb was planted. These are the specialists who can examine the extent of damage on crashed vehicles and tell the investigating authorities the speed with which the vehicles were travelling at the time of the crash. Or they can examine the tyre tracks on the roads to tell which driver applied brakes and which didn't. Knowing the speed of vehicles is obviously very important, because if one of the vehicles had overstepped the normal driving speed in a city (normally 40 km/hr), that driver is obviously the culprit. There are a number of other ways in which engineers can help the law and crime investigating agencies.
I am a meteorologist. What kind of a forensic specialist can I become? Great! Meteorology, as we all know, comprises of a systematic study of short-term (i.e. day-to-day) variations in temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind, cloud cover, and precipitation, along with their causes. It provides the basis for weather forecasting. Meteorology is closely related to, but distinct from, climatology, which deals with weather conditions in a given area over an extended period of time (from a month to many millions of years).
You can have a great career in forensic meteorology and can become a very successful forensic meteorologist.
Forensic Meteorology entails researching weather documents for use in court room litigation. Some meteorologists simply hand the information over and state that conditions are favorable for the formation of ice, snow, water, lightning or some other form of weather phenomena that led to the accident (be it fire, auto accident, hypothermia.....). The work of some forensic meteorologists goes further in that they inspect sites where the accident occurred and look at factors not depicted on weather maps/charts and that includes terrain layout. This takes it down to a micro climate which can drastically affect how the weather affects you. So, instead of someone being charged in a vehicle manslaughter case, they would find that strong winds funneled through a low valley and channeled through an open field and created wind speed sheer which made the driver over-correct on a slippery road, thereby causing the accident where someone died. (Act of GOD) as the Court defines it.
Like it? Well, if you want to know more about forensic meteorology, consult my friend Greg MacMaster, who is a very successful forensic meteorologist. You can send him an Email by clicking here.
I am a physiologist. I have specialized in physiology. Is there a specialty called forensic physiology? If yes, what do forensic physiologists do? Yes, indeed there is a specialty called forensic physiology and you can be a successful forensic physiologist. These specialists utilize their knowledge of physiology to help law enforcing authorities in a number of ways. Several examples can be given but I will give just one.
Let us imagine that a person was found dead in his bedroom in the morning at about 6 am, when his maid came to clean his room. Everybody saw him take his evening meals at around 10 pm, after which he went to bed. Thus clearly he died sometime between 10 pm and 6 am, but nobody knows the exact time of death. This information may be very vital to the police. A forensic physiologist would look at the deceased's stomach contents and can opine the time he survived after taking the meals. Usually the stomach empties completely in about 3 hours, but a lot depends on the type of food taken (vegetarian or non-vegetarian; solid or liquid; less in quantity or more; high in calories or low; hot or cold; spicy or bland and so on). A lot also depends on the psychological state of the person. For instance if the person is emotionally tense, the food tends to stay in the stomach for a longer time. The emptying of stomach stops when the person dies, and the food remains where it was. A forensic physiologist would take all these factors in consideration. Seeing how much food has remained in the stomach and considering all the variables, he can opine the length of time the person remained alive after ingesting the food. Suppose in the given hypothetical case, the physiologist is of the opinion that the person survived about 2 hours after ingesting the food, it would mean that he died around 12 midnight (he took meals at 10 pm). This fact can be co-related with other police investigations to catch the criminal.
Similarly by seeing the amount of urine in the bladder, a forensic physiologist can opine upon the time of death. I once solved an actual case by this method. You can access this story by clicking here.
I am a podiatrist. What options do I have? You can practice Forensic Podiatry. Dr Wesley Vernon, Head of Podiatry Service and Research Lead at Sheffield tells me that Forensic podiatry covers the following subjects namely (i) Individualisation from footwear (ii) Barefoot print analysis (iii) CCTV individualisation and finally (iv) Identification using podiatry records. He goes on to say the following:
The added value of podiatric involvement in individualisation from plantar morphology (both in barefoot and footwear situations) is in utilising podiatry knowledge to consider the differences between plantar marks/impressions of the same individual caused by interaction with the footwear or through function.
While forensic podiatry has been practised by a few individuals since the 1970's, the formal evidence-base is relatively limited, but is gradually being added to. In the UK, this is handled quite nicely with the Bayesian approach to evidence-handling, but the work very much operates at class and not unique level for this reason.
For more information, you can visit a very interesting site called BAHID (British Association for Human Identification) at www.bahid.org, where they have a separate section on forensic podiatry. You may also want to contact Dr. Wesley Vernon himself by clicking here.
I am a veterinary surgeon. What options do I have? Lovely! You can be a great forensic veterinary surgeon. A forensic veterinary surgeon conducts autopsies on dead animal bodies and tries to find out their cause of death, just as an ordinary forensic pathologist (like myself) conducts autopsies on human beings. You may ask why one would want to know the cause of death of an animal at all? Well, there could be a number of reasons, but I will give you just few. In this country (and presumably in several other countries too), one of the preferred ways to get even with an enemy is to kill his cattle (or pets). Many people do it in very clever ways to avert suspicion (you may want to visit my story on "poisoning by Ratti seeds" by clicking here, to get some idea of this). In such cases it is very important for the police to know how the cattle died. A forensic veterinary surgeon can do this very well, by conducting a thorough autopsy. In alleged spurious animal deals too a forensic veterinary specialist can help a great deal (to verify the age of the animal being sold such as horses, or other alleged specialties of the animal). You can also enter the field of wildlife forensics?
Wildlife forensics? Never heard of this. What is this? Wildlife forensic specialists are the ones who detect illegal trading in wildlife articles such as elephant tusks, lion and tiger skins, bones, furs - even internal organs of animals such as gall bladders! There are a host of animal products in which illegal trading goes on. This is against the Wild life Acts in most countries. I am personally aware of one case in which an international traveller was trying to smuggle bear bile! Bile is a greenish fluid found in gall bladders of animals, and according to some local beliefs, is thought to be a great cure for several diseases. When this person was intercepted at the customs, he asserted that it was some medicine (which indeed it was, but it was prohibited!). A forensic wild life specialist was given the task of analysing that sample, and he opined the fluid must have come from the gall bladder of a bear of a protected species. He could say this by analysing the chemical composition of the bile fluid. The smuggler was immediately arrested.
If you want to pursue a course in Wildlife forensics, please contact:
Dr. S.P.Goyal or Dr. Reeta Sharma
Wildlife Forensics Cell
Wildlife Institute of India
P.O.Box 18, G.P.O. Chandrabani
I am an environmentalist. I deal with such issues as environmental pollution. Does forensic science hold anything for me? Sure.
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I am an anthropologist. How can I be a forensic expert? Wonderful. So you have studied anthropology. Anthropology, as we all know is the study of human beings. In particular the anthropologists study human being's physical character, evolutionary history, racial classification, historical and present-day geographic distribution, group relationships, and cultural history. Anthropology can be characterized as the naturalistic description and interpretation of the diverse peoples of the world.
Modern-day anthropology consists of two major divisions. One is cultural anthropology, which deals with the study of human culture in all its aspects and the second is physical anthropology, which is the study of human physical character, in both the past and present. Although both specialists can contribute to forensic science in a number of ways, it is the physical anthropologists who are most useful.
The beginnings of forensic anthropology occurred with the studies of Dr. Thomas Dwight (1843-1911), who was based at the University of Harvard, Massachusetts. It was Dr. Dwight's research on bones which enabled us to know, how much information we can provide the police with them. Dr. Thomas Dwight - quite rightly - is now known as the father of American Forensic Anthropology.
Consider a case where some bones were recovered from an area inhabited thickly by Chinese and Asians and very few Caucasians. How can you say from the bones, if the murdered man was a Chinese Asian or a Caucasian? What can you know his height? His occupation? Well, these are the questions which are dealt with by the forensic anthropologists. The use of anthropology for the detection of crime is known as forensic anthropology. One can now even reconstruct the face of a person, if his skull is provided to an expert forensic anthropologist.
I am an archaeologist. I certainly can't join forensics, or can I? Oh, yes you can! You can become a forensic archaeologist and work in close harmony with forensic anthropologists about whom I have just described. You are obviously an expert in precise archaeological techniques used in the recovery of old historical material. You can use these very techniques in legal exhumations or in the recovery of human remains who may be victims of mass murder [as a result of genocides, such as those that occurred in Hitler's regime (late 1930s and early 1940s) and later in Khmer Rouge (during Pol Pot's regime between 1975-1979), Rwanda (in 1994), Guatemala (1962 till 1996, including the infamous Rio Negro Massacre in March 1982), Argentina (1976 till 1983), Chile (during Augusto Pinochet's regime in 1973), Yugoslavia and several other places world wide]. The use of archaeological techniques in the investigation of crime is known as forensic archaeology. One of the most famous cases in which forensic archaeology was used was the exhumation of Ernesto "Che" Guevara (1928-1967), a doctor of medicine and a revolutionary, who was born in Argentina but who ran resistance movements in other countries - most notably Cuba and Bolivia. Che Guevara was born in Rosario, Argentina on June 14, 1928 and studied medicine to become a doctor. But he did not pursue a career in medicine. Instead he fought along with Fidel Castro of Cuba in the late 1950s to overthrow Batista's regime. [Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973) was the dictator who twice ruled Cuba (in 1933-44 and again in 1952-59). As a dictator he jailed his opponents, using terrorist methods, and made fortunes for himself and his associates. He obviously became very unpopular]. In 1966 Guevara's attention was directed towards Bolivia, where he hoped to repeat his feats, but was brutally killed by the Bolivian army on Oct 9, 1967. His hands were sawn off by the soldiers in order to establish his identity (perhaps to convince their masters that he had indeed been killed). On October 12, 1967, when Che's brother came to Bolivia to claim his brother's body, he was denied it. The army claimed that the body had been cremated, while in fact it had been buried.
Things stood like this till July 1995, when Bolivian General Mario Vargas Salinas claimed that he had indeed participated in a mass burial near Vallegrande in Central Bolivia (close to a dirt airstrip), and that Che Guevara had indeed been buried there. Almost twenty eight years had passed since, and obviously complex archaeological techniques were required to unearth Guevara's body. A team of Forensic anthropologists and forensic archaeologists applying techniques as diverse as ground penetrating radar and digital imaging unearthed the remains of Che Guevara. His remains were identified using a variety of forensic techniques. Guevara - more than thirty years after his death - received a hero's welcome in Cuba, where his remains were reburied in July 1997 (in a mausoleum at Plaza Ernesto Che Guevara in Santa Clara, Cuba). Similar archaeological techniques have been applied in the investigation of war crimes and genocides.
I am an underwater scuba diver. I want to join forensics. Now you really don't want to tell me I can be a great forensic investigator too, or do you? Oh, yes, you can. In fact, one or two sarcastic scuba divers asked me this question. They thought there certainly was no scope for them in forensic science. You might think the same and again you would be WRONG. If you are a trained SCUBA diver, you can assist in the investigation of underwater crime scenes. Imagine this scenario. A person has killed a person in a car, and then pushed the car down a lake. This car has gone down and settled at the bottom of the lake. How to get the car (and the dead body) to the surface? How to do it so the incriminating evidence is well-preserved? Well, this is done by trained scuba divers who have a knowledge of forensic science.
That's not the only thing you can do. There are a whole lot of possibilities. We all know about the unfortunate fate of the Air India flight 182, a Boeing 747, which took off from Toronto, Canada, with 329 people on board (including crew) on June 22, 1985 (local time). Due to a bomb placed in the cargo (because of suspected terrorist connections), it exploded in mid-air while crossing the Atlantic (at approximately 8:13 am on 23 June 1985, local time). All the 329 people on board died. The shattered plane sank down 6,000 feet and came to rest on the ocean floor. There was much evidence there including the Black Box (the popular name for the flight data recorder and the cockpit recorder, which are kept on all flights just for these eventualities), which could pin down the terrorists. Remains of bombs could also give important leads. How to bring all that material up? Well, here is where your skills (if you are a scuba diver) would come in handy. Incidentally, the black boxes of this flight were brought up in July 1985.
For more information, you may want to read "THE UNDERWATER CRIME SCENE: Underwater Crime Investigative Techniques" by Ronald F. Becker. This book has been published by Charles C. Thomas and can be accessed by clicking here.
I am a knot specialist, and know nothing except knots. I want to join forensic science. I would be damned if you told me, even I could be of some use! Yes, you too have a great role to play in forensic science. If you are a specialist in knots, you can become a forensic knot specialist!! What does a forensic knot specialist do? Well, by utilizing his knowledge he can tell if the knot used in, say, a case of hanging was tied by the person himself (making it a case of suicide), or by some other person (making it a case of homicide). Right handed, and left handed persons are known to tie knots in different ways. Some people also have a penchant for special knots. Some types of knots are too complicated for an untrained person to accomplish. All these facts - and lots of others - will help you decide who tied the knot in a given case. I know of cases, where a servant working in a house robbed it himself (when the owners were away at a party), stashed the money away at some safe place, and then gagged himself and tied himself up to show the work was done by some dacoits. Smart knot specialists have been able to determine in such cases that the knots were tied by the person himself. With this knowledge, the police swooped on the servant, and he confessed to the whole crime!
I am a musician. I can't join forensics, or can I? Oh, yes you can. You can have a lucrative career in forensic musicology and become a forensic musicologist. These are the people who use their knowledge of music to detect crimes such as piracy in music. One of the famous cases regarding piracy in music is Levine v. McDonald's 735 F. Supp. 92 (S.D.N.Y. 1990). The facts of this highly interesting case are as follows:
In the early 1970s, Paul DiFranco and Norman Dolph wrote a song Life Is a Rock (But the Radio Rolled Me) (I will call if just "life" now for convenience sake). An arrangement of this song by DiFranco, Mark Bellack and Joseph Levine was recorded by a group called Reunion and released by RCA in 1974. The song became an instant hit. In fact, it became one of the ten most popular songs in the United States shortly after it was released. It was reputed to have sold more than 750,000 copies.
So far, so good. In 1987, a company called Leo Burnett Company, Inc. (again for convenience sake, I will call it just "Burnett" from now onwards) hired Joseph Levine (please note that he was one of the three who composed "life") and his company, Joey Levine Crushing Music, to compose a jingle for its client, McDonald's (the famous fast food outlet). Levine and his company Crushing Music composed a song entitled "Good Time/Great Taste McDonald's" (I will call it just "Good time" from now onwards). Levine was paid handsomely for this song, and quite rightly he assigned all rights of "Good time" to Burnett as agent for McDonald's. "Good time" was used in numerous McDonald's commercials since 1988 as McDonald's theme song.
In 1989, McDonald's decided to modify the theme song. In the new jingle, they added a "patter" (please see below), which had earlier been composed by DiFranco, Mark Bellack and Joseph Levine way back in the 1970s, in their song "life". The new modified song used by McDonald's was called the "Menu Song" (I will call it just "menu" in my discussion). McDonald's obviously did not possess the rights of the earlier song "life" from which the "patter" had been taken.
What is a "patter"? Well, it is a special technique in music, which musicians surely know better than me, but I will attempt to tell you whatever little I know. In this technique the words are sung in a rapid tempo. "Life" consisted of a verse section, and a chorus section. The lyrics of the verse section of "life" (using the patter technique) consisted of a list of Rock and Roll icons. The patter section of "life" was nine measures long and consisted of the pitch "G" repeated 128 times in a constant sixteenth note pattern, followed by eight repetitions of the pitch "A" (one step up in the scale), and ended with eight repetitions of "G" again.
The exact problem between the two parties was this. The lyrics of the verse section of "life" (which utilized the "patter technique") consisted of a list of Rock and Roll icons. McDonald's in their "menu" replaced this list of Rock and Roll icons with the food and beverage items on the McDonald's menu. The patter section of "menu" also consisted of the rapid singing of the lyrics in a constant sixteenth note pattern of one or two pitches. The result was that whenever someone heard the "menu", he was invariably reminded of "life". Thus McDonald's tried to encash on the earlier popularity of "life". It was the contention of the plaintiffs, that McDonald's could not have used that "patter", without their permission. McDonald's on the other hand maintained that there was nothing original in that "patter" and anyone could have used it.
What would the court do? Obviously call a forensic musicologist and ask for his opinion. In this case, both the plaintiff and the defendant took the help of a forensic musicologist each. Plaintiff Joesph Levine took the help of the forensic musicologist Judith Finell who opined that the harmony of "menu" was "strikingly similar" to the harmony of "life". She also opined that "life's" harmony was not a basic blues progression and that the two songs were substantially similar in a number of ways. Furthermore - according to her - the patter section of "life" was sufficiently creative and could not have been placed in the public domain. The defendant McDonald's took the opinion of another forensic musicologist Earl V. Spielman, who opined otherwise. He opined that the underlying melody and harmony of "menu" was the same as that of "good time", and hence there was no problem (since the rights of "good time" were already with Burnett, McDonald's agents). He also opined that the patter of "life" lacked creativity and originality, and could be construed as being in the public domain. After a much heated debate, the court denied the defendants' motion.
Well, if you want to know more about forensic musicology, why not contact Craig De Wilde, one of the most famous in the field of forensic musicology. Please click here to contact him.
Alright, I am an astronomer. What do you have for me? You certainly don't want to tell me I can utilize my knowledge of astronomy, planets, sun, moon and the stars for detecting crime, or do you? Yes, you can. A new branch has emerged recently which has been called "Forensic Astronomy". This is an area which involves the use of astronomical information in the assistance of criminal and civil litigation. Forensic astronomers are people who utilize their knowledge of astronomy to calculate such things as visibility at the scene of crime at the estimated or reported time of crime. During the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (from Feb 16-21, 2004), a very interesting paper related to forensic astronomy was presented by three Turkish scientists. This paper entitled "Applications of Forensic Astronomy in Turkey" was presented by H. Bülent Üner, Emre Albek and Ismail Cakir. In their paper, they tell us that forensic astronomers use degrees of longitude and latitude of the scene, data from regular astronomical almanacs, moon phases, the times of moonrise, moonset, sunrise and sunset etc to calculate the visibility on the night of the event. This information may serve to corroborate or refute the statements made by victims, eye witnesses and the alleged assailants.
In their paper, the three scientists give another application of forensic astronomy. They tell us that in Turkey (with mostly Islamic population) persons involved in a criminal case sometimes report the time of occurrence in association with the muezzine's call for prayer. In such cases forensic astronomers have to calculate the exact hour of the praying call at the time of the alleged crime. Readers wanting to contact these scientists may do so at the following addresses (I have taken them from the "Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences", where an abstract of this paper was printed. You can download it free from http://www.aafs.org/pdf/crim.pdf)
H. Bülent Üner, Ph.D.
Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University
Adli Typ Enstitüsü, Cerrahpaba
Istanbul, 34301, Turkey
Emre Albek, M.D.
Cerrahpaba Medical Faculty, Istanbul University
Cerrahpaba Typ Facültesi
Istanbul, 34301, Turkey
Ismail Cakir, Ph.D.
Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey
Adli Typ Kurumu, Cerrahpaba
Istanbul, 34246, Turkey
You may also want to read a highly informative article called "The growing field of forensic astronomy" by Dr. Russell Sampson in the newsletter "The webfooted astronomer" (Seattle Astronomical Society, April-May 2003). It is available free of cost in pdf form at:
In this highly interesting article, Dr. Sampson explains how he used his knowledge of astronomy to decide whether the glare of the sun was responsible for accidents or not, how he calculated the luminosity (due to moonshine) of an unlit pathway where an accident occurred, and how he refuted the testimony of a witness, who happened to assert that full moon was visible on the night he witnessed the crime. Dr. Sampson, by his knowledge of astronomy could prove in a court of law that the moon on the night in question was in new phase and could NOT have been visible to the witness. This threw the witness's credibility in question.
For more information on Forensic Astronomy and how it can be used to solve some great cases, please read an interview with the famous forensic astronomer, Larry Ciupik by clicking here.
That's not all. If you venture out in astrology (a rather pseudoscientific offshoot of astronomy) too, check out a curious newsgroup called "Forensic Horary" at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Forensic_Horary/. The newsgroup claims there exists a subject called Forensic astrology. The group defines Forensic astrology as the use of horary and event charts in obtaining information regarding murdered or missing people. The group covers cases from past and present events. Since I am not an astrologer myself, I can't comment anything on my own. But you certainly can join the group and can find out more. Even if you are skeptical about such pseudosciences as astrology, nothing prevents you from joining the group and taking them head on.
Eugène-François Vidocq (1775-1857), Head the Paris Sûreté-Nationale in the early nineteenth century.
Alright, I am a crook and a thief, and have served six years for my illegal actions. I have been at loggerheads with forensic investigators all my life. I have you trapped now! You certainly can't utilize my skills for forensic science. Oh yes, I can. Surprisingly even a crook can be a great forensic investigator! You may be surprised to know that at one time, the Head of Sûreté-Nationale, the best known of France's four major police organizations, was a crook, who used his knowledge of the criminal mind in the service of law and order. His name was Eugène-François Vidocq (1775-1857). He employed his fellow crooks, to swoop down on criminals' dens, and they did it more succesfully than today's police officers!
How could they do that? Because they knew everything about crooks. How do they operate? Who are their connections? What is their modus operandi? Who finances them? What are their weak points? How can their weaknesses be exploited and so on? In fact French police did some of its best work under Vidocq. If you are a crook, you could even be an undercover agent. Talk to your nearest police officer today. I am serious!! To learn more about who the undercover agents are, please click here. Interestingly Vidocq himself was an undercover agent first. It was only later that the became the head of the great Sûreté-Nationale.
So I seem to have broken the final frontier too. You could simply be a crook, to be a great forensic investigator! To be involved in forensic science, you can be anybody. You just have to use your area of specialty in some way to help the police and law enforcement agencies.
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Get the idea? You can take up forensic science irrespective of what field you have specialized in. If you are an engineer, you can become a forensic engineer; a nurse can become a forensic nurse; an XXX specialist can become a FORENSIC XXX SPECIALIST. You might be beginning to get an idea of just how versatile forensic science can be. And also perhaps why I love forensic science so much. You could be anybody; even a crook as I said earlier.
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