MedTrees: Trees and large shrubs of the Mediterranean Basin

[MedTrees]
[pausas]


This is not an exhaustive review but a compilation of the main native trees and large shrubs growing in the mediterranean climate area of the Mediterranean Basin (i.e., the palaeartic mediterranean-type ecosystems). This area is perhaps not specially rich in trees, compared to tropical systems; however, still it harbours a large number of trees (more than many temperate and boreal ecosystems). The Mediterranean is specially rich in short trees often growing as large shrubs due to the disturbance regime. Part of the richness is due to the biogeographycal location (a meeting point of three continents), the complex topography and the benign conditions, thus co-occurring species with different biogeographycal origin and with different life history strategies (e.g., evergreen, summer deciduos, winter deciiduous, etc.). However, the strong and millenarian human pressure in the region has heavily shaped the mediterranean landscapes and many of the trees are not common. The objective of this page is to compile and spread the information on our tree diversity.

For this page, our definition of “tree” is a woody plant that have persistent buds at more than 2 m tall (some times called Macrophanerophyta following the Raunkiaer system), and thus, it may includes some large shrubs. Our definition of “mediterranean climate region” is the one included in the following map.

This page is incomplete and under construction, but feel free to let me know if you find errors or if you would like to make any suggestions. Much of the compiled information here is based on other web pages (e.g., wikipedia, IUCN, etc.) and some of this links may be unstable. Species are listed in alphabetic order of scientific names within Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. There is an index by Genus (left menu) and another by Family. If you do not see the menu in your left, press here.

Citation: Pausas J.G. (year). MedTrees: Trees and large shrubs of the Mediterranean Basin. URL: http://www.uv.es/jgpausas/medtrees

Gymnosperms | Angiosperms | Family index


Gymnosperms

Abies cephalonica

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Grecian Fir
Brief description: medium-size evergreen coniferous tree growing to 25-35 m (rarely 40 m) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m.
Distribution: Greece (primarily in the Peloponnesos, Mt Parmitha (Attica) and the island of Kefallinia) [map]
Habitat: It occurs at altitudes of 800-1800 m, on mountains with a rainfall of over 1000 mm.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: wood
Status: IUCN= Lower Risk / Near Threatened [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images:[Google] [cone]
References: [google]

Abies cilicica

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Cilician Fir
Brief description:
Distribution: E Turkey: Antitaurus Mtns.; N Syria; Lebanon. [map A. cilicica (green), A. marocana (dark red), A. nordmanniana (purple)]
Habitat: at 1000-2100 m
Regeneration:
Status: Lower Risk / Near Threatened [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [the Gymnosperm database] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Abies marocana

Syn.: A. pinsapo ssp./var. marocana
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Moroccan fir
Brief description:
Distribution: Rif mountains of northern Morocco [map A. cilicica (green), A. marocana (dark red), A. nordmanniana (purple)]
Habitat: 1400-2100 m asl.
Regeneration:
Status: Lower Risk / Near Threatened [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [the Gymnosperm database] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Abies nebrodensis

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Sicilian fir; Abete dei Nebrodi (Italian)
Brief description:
Distribution: Monte Scalone (Madonia mountains, Sicily, Italy). Endemic of Sicily [map].
Habitat: Currently growth on limestones at about 1500 m asl.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: It was common in the past in the Madonia mountains, but the extensive logging has decreased the populations to extremely low levels. The wood can be observed in many doors and beams of local churches.
Status: IUCN= Critically Endangered (D) [Red List]. The current population includes only ca. 30 trees (Montmollin & Strahn 2007).
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [the Gymnosperm database] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]
- Montmollin B. & Strahn W, (ed) 2007. Lista 'Top 50' de especies vegetales amanazadas de las islas del Mediterráneo. UICN, Suiza.

Abies numidica

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Algerian fir
Brief description:
Distribution: Algeria on Mounts Babor and Talahor in the Kabylie range
Habitat: 1300-200 m asl. "Withstands summer drought well. Since shoots appear rather late, it is not prone to spring frost injury. Low winter temperatures and impure atmosphere can damage this fir severely. It is suited for ornamental purposes because of its luxuriant, deep green crown. It can be successfully trimmed and therefore used for hedges. It is cultivated in the Mediterranean" (Vidakovic 1991).
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= Vulnerable (D2) [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [the Gymnosperm database] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]
- Vidakovic, Mirko. 1991. Conifers: morphology and variation. Translated from Croatian by Maja Soljan. Croatia: Graficki Zavod Hrvatske.

Abies pinsapo

Syn.: A. pinsapo var. pinsapo
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Spanish silver spruce, Spanish fir; Pinsapo (Spanish)
Brief description: evergreen tree growing to 20-30 m tall, with a conic crown, sometimes becoming irregular with age
Distribution: South of Peninsula Iberica (Spain): Sierra de Ronda (Cádiz) and Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga) [map]
Habitat: 1000-1800 m asl
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= Vulnerable (D2) [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [the Gymnosperm database] [Plants for a future] [Flora Ibérica: Abies pdf]
Images: [google] [forest] [cone] [foliage]
References: [google]

Cedrus atlantica

Syn.: C. libani var. atlantica
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Atlas cedar
Brief description: Leaves dark green to glaucous blue-green, 10–25 mm
Distribution: Altas mountains in Algeria and Morocco [map (C. atlantica in red, C. brevifolia in blue and C. libani in purple)]
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database] [architecture] [VirginiaTech factsheet]
Images: [google] [young cones] [tree] [branch] [cone]
References: [google]

Cedrus brevifolia

Syn.: C. libani var. brevifolia
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Cyprus cedar
Brief description: Leaves glaucous blue-green, 8–20 mm
Distribution: Mountains of Cyprus [map (C. atlantica in red, C. brevifolia in blue and C. libani in purple)]
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Vulnerable (D2) [Red List] Only one population is known (ca. 500 ha)
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Cedrus libani

Syn.: C. libani var. libani
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Lebanon cedar
Brief description: Leaves dark green to glaucous blue-green, 10–25 mm.
Distribution: Mountains of Lebanon, western Syria and south-central Turkey [map (C. atlantica in red, C. brevifolia in blue and C. libani in purple)]
Habitat: It forms forest.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database] [VirginiaTech factsheet]
Images: [google] [foliage] [tree]
References: [google]

Cupressus atlantica

Syn.: C. dupreziana var. atlantica
Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Moroccan Cypress, Atlas cypress;
Brief description:
Distribution: endemic tree to the valley of the Oued-n-Fis river in the High Atlas Mountains south of Marrakech in western Morocco
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Endangered (A1b, B1+2bcd) [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]

Images: [google] [cupressus net] [cones, cones] [seeds]
References: [google]

Cupressus sempervirens

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Mediterranean Cypress
Brief description:
Distribution: eastern Mediterranean region. Found in north-east Libya, south-east Greece (Crete, Rhodes), southern Turkey, Cyprus, western Syria, Lebanon and eastern Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran. Planted and naturalised in other parts of the Mediterranean basin [ map (distribution within Europe; Asian and African distribution not shown on this map; half-black dots indicate uncertain status, probably naturalised)]
Habitat:
Regeneration: it has serotinous cones that allows post-fire regeneration
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / near threatened [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [cones] [cone] [landscape]
References: [google]
- Battisti A., Cantini R., Rouault G. & Roques A. 2003. Serotinous cones of Cupressus sempervirens provide viable seeds in spite of high seed predation. Ann. For. Sci. 60: 781-787.

Ephedra fragilis ssp. fragilis

Syn.:
Family: Ephedraceae
Common names:
Variability:
Brief description:
Distribution: western Mediterranean: North Africa (Norte de África (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) and south-west Europe (Italy, Portugal, Spain).
Habitat: Low lands, dry areas
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: medicinal
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Juniperus communis ssp. communis

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: juniper; enebro (Spanish); genévrier (French)
Brief description: small tree or large shrub with needle-like leaves in whorls of three. Dioecious.
Distribution: mainly in Eurosiberian temperate ecosystems. It has the largest range of any woody plant, throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia [world distribution]. It is very rare in mediterranean climate areas, occurring in the mountains only.
Habitat:
Regeneration: Does not resprout after disturbance.
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [cones and foliage] [landscape] [cones]
References: [google]
- García, D., R. Zamora, J.M. Gómez, P. Jordano and J.A. Hódar. 2000. Geographical variation in seed viability in Juniperus communis throughout the Palaearctic: distribution and operational reproductive limits in Mediterranean high-mountains. Journal of Ecology 88: 435-446.

Juniperus drupacea

Syn.: Arceuthos drupacea
Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Syrian juniper;
Brief description:
Distribution: native to the eastern Mediterranean region from southern Greece (a single population on Parnon Oros, Peloponnese), southern Turkey, western Syria, and the Lebanon.
Habitat: Growth on rocky sites from 800-1700 m altitude.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: The species is used as a source of timber for carpentry and fuel.
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]. In Greece, the species is now restricted to a single large population on the Parnon Mountains in Peloponnissos. It is more widespread in southern Turkey.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Juniperus excelsa

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Greek juniper
Brief description: small tree or large shrub with scale-leaves (with juvenile needle-like leaves on seedlings)
Distribution: throughout the eastern Mediterranean, from north-eastern Greece and southern Bulgaria across Turkey to Syria and the Lebanon, and the Caucasus mountains.
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [tree]
References: [google]

Juniperus foetidissima

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Stinking juniper, Foetid juniper;
Brief description: tree with scale-leaves (with juvenile needle-like leaves on seedlings and resprouts)
Distribution: south-eastern Europe and south-western Asia, from southern Albania and northern Greece across Turkey to Syria and the Lebanon, the Caucasus mountains, the Alborz mountains of northern Iran, and east to south-western Turkmenistan. There is also an isolated population in the Crimea.
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Juniperus oxycedrus

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Western Prickly Juniper, Cade Juniper; cade (Spanish)
Brief description: tall shrub or small erect tree with needle-like leaves in whorls of three. Dioecious.
Distribution: Mediterranean. Across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Palestine and Israel.
Habitat: shurblands.
Regeneration: in costal populations of eastern Spain is a very good resprouter after fire; apparently do not resprout in central Spain (JM Moreno, com. pers.) or in Attica (Greece; M. Arianotsou com. pers).
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [fruits, fruits]
References: [google]

Juniperus phoenicea

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Phoenicean Juniper; sabina (Spanish); Arâr
Variability: var. phoenicea: Throughout the range of the species; cones globose, about as wide as long. Var. turbinata (syn. J. turbinata): Confined to coastal sand dune habitats; cones oval, narrower than long.
Brief description: large shrub or small tree with scale-leaves (but juvenile needle-like leaves on seedlings)
Distribution: Mediterranean. Throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Turkey and Egypt, and also on Madeira and the Canary Islands, and on the mountains of western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea
Habitat: Rocky areas and clifts, and in other long unburned ecosystems.
Regeneration: Does not resprout after disturbance. Bird-dispersed and good colonizer.
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [fruits] [line drawing]
References: [google]

Juniperus thurifera

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Spanish juniper; sabina albar (Spanish)
Brief description: large shrub or tree with scale-leaves (with juvenile needle-like leaves on seedlings). Dioecious.
Distribution: West Mediterranean.Mountains of the western Mediterranean region (Algeria, France. Morocco, Spain), from northwestern Italy and southern France (including Corsica) across eastern and central Spain to Morocco and locally in northern Algeria [map]
Habitat: Mediterranean mountains.
Regeneration: Does not resprout after disturbance.
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database] [D. Montesinos] [J thuriffera
]
Images: [google] [illustration] [foliage] [tree] [foliage]
References: [google]
- Montesinos, D. 2007. Juniperus thurifera: una especie dioica, vecera y relíctica. Ecosistemas XVI, 2007/3 [link] [pdf]
- Montesinos, D., Verdú, M. & García-Fayos, P. 2007. Moms are better nurses than dads: sex biased self-facilitation in a dioecious juniper tree. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 271-280.
- Montesinos, D., De Luís, M., Verdú, M., Raventós, J. & García-Fayos, P. 2006 When, how and how much: gender-specific resource use strategies in the dioecious tree Juniperus thurifera. Annals of Botany 98: 885-889.

Pinus brutia

Syn.: P. halepenis ssp. brutia
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Turkish pine;
Brief description:
Distribution: East Mediterranean. The bulk of its range is in Turkey, but it also extends to the East Aegean Islands of Greece, the Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, western Syria, Lebanon, and Cyprus
Habitat: It generally occurs at low altitudes, mostly from sea level to 600 m (up to 1200 m in the south of its range), forming crown-fire ecosystems.
Regeneration: it has both serotinous and non-serotinous cones (and thin bark)
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database] [architecture]
Images: [google]
References: [google]
- Ne'eman, G. and Trabaud, L. (eds.). 2000. Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and P. brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Pinus halepensis

Syn.: P. halepensis ssp. halepensis
Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Aleppo pine; Pino carrasco (Spanish); Pi blanc (Catalan); (French)
Brief description:
Distribution: Mediterranean. From Morocco and Spain north to southern France, Italy and Croatia, and east to Greece and northern Libya, with an outlying population (from which it was first described) in Syria (including Aleppo), Jordan and Palestine-Israel.
Habitat: It is generally found at low altitudes, mostly from sea level to 200 m forming crown-fire ecosystems, but can grow at an altitude of up to 1000 m in southern Spain, and up to 1700 m in the south, in Morocco and Algeria. In the lowlands it may grow in almost any place, sometimes forming (monospecific or mix) woodlands, but also dispersed in shrublands.
Regeneration: it has both serotinous and non-serotinous cones (and thin bark)
Uses and overuses: Often planted in many places, thus many of the woodlands are of anthropogenic origin. Seeds are used in the traditional Tunisian cusine for making flour (crushing to power the seed nuts, including the hard shell) used for preparing custard, ice creams, iogurts and other specialities.
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [illustration] [non-serotinous cones: 1, 2]
References: [google]
- Goubitz S., R. Nathan, R. Roitenberg, G. Ne'eman, and A. Shmida. 2004. Canopy seed bank structure in relation to: fire, tree size and density. Plant Ecol. 173:191-201.
- Ne'eman, G. and Trabaud, L. (eds.). 2000. Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and P. brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
- Pausas J.G., Ribeiro E. & Vallejo R. 2004. Post-fire regeneration variability of Pinus halepensis in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management 203: 251-259. [pdf] [ScienceDirect]

Pinus heldreichii

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Bosnian pine;
Brief description:
Distribution: in south-western Bulgaria, Bosnia, Albania, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, northern Greece (south to Mount Olympus), and locally in southern Italy
Habitat: 900-2,500 m altitude (it often reaches the tree-line)
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [cones]
References: [google]

Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: European black pine, Corsican pine, Cevennes black pine, Spanish black pine; pino laricio (Spanish), pinassa (Catalan),
Variability: var. salzmannii (Spain and S France), var. corsicana (syn. ssp. laricio; in Corsica and Central Italy), var. mauretanica (in scattered localities in Algeria and Morocco)
Brief description: long-lived tree
Distribution: Submediterranean. In the western Mediterranean region, see varieties.
Habitat: surface fires ecosystems.
Regeneration: it has non-serotinous cones and thick bark. It survive low-severity surface fires. Dense plantations and long-term fire suppression have however changed the fire regime towards more frequent crown-fires, making this species disappear locally after large and intense crown fires.
Uses and overuses: Often planted, and some times planted after logging oaks.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [the Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Pinus pinaster

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Maritime pine; pino rodeno (Spanish); Pinastre (Catalan)
Brief description:
Distribution: Western Mediterranean. From Portugal and Spain north to southern and western France, east to western Italy, and south to northern Morocco, with small outlying populations in Algeria and Malta (possibly introduced).
Habitat: It generally occurs at low to moderate altitudes, mostly from sea level to 600 m, but up to 2000 m in the south of its range in Morocco.
Regeneration: It is a highly variable species in its fire-related traits. May have serotinous cones, and the proportion of serotinous cones varies a lot between populations. There are highly serotinous populations with thin bark, populations with very low serotinity and thick bark, and several intermediate situations (Tapias et al. 2004).
Uses and overuses: Very often planted for timber.
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [illustration] [forest]
References: [google]
- Tapias, R., Gil, L., Fuentes-Utrilla, P. & Pardos, J.A. 2001. Canopy seed bank in Mediterranean pines of south-eastern Spain: a comparison between Pinus halepensis Mill, P. pinaster Ait., P. nigra Arn. and P. pinea L. J. Ecol. 89: 629-638.
- Tapias, R., Climent, J., Pardos, J.A. & Gil, L. 2004. Life histories of Mediterranean pines. Plant Ecol. 171: 53-68.

Pinus pinea

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Stone pine; pino piñonero (Spanish); pi pinyoner (Catalan)
Brief description: Tree with a very characteristic umbrella-like shape.
Distribution: Mediterranean. Probably the original distribution area was the Peninsula iberica (uncertain); it has been widely planted all over the mediteranean because of the edible seeds. It has also been naturalised in other Mediterranean-type ecosystems (South African Cape Province, California, Australia).
Habitat: Probably the original habitat were dune systems, but currently appears in other ecosystems (planted). Preferentially on acidic soils.
Regeneration: Cones are not serotinous. High temperature resistance of the seeds conferred by the thick seed coat (Escudero et al. 1999). This species has a thick bark and no branches in the lower portion of the tree (self-pruning); furthermore, can survives fires that affect more than 80% of the crown volume scorched (Rigolot 2004).
Uses and overuses: This tree has been exploited for its edible pine nuts since prehistoric times. Currently, it is also a widespread horticultural tree, besides being cultivated for their seeds.
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [illustration] [cone and seeds] [the tree, 2, 3] [bark]
References: [google]
- Escudero A., Sanz M.V., Pita J.M. & Pérez-García F. 1999. Probability of germination after heat treatment of native Spanish pines. Ann. For. Sci. 56: 511-520.
- Rigolot E. 2004. Predicting postfire mortality of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L. Plant Ecol. 171: 139-151.

Pinus sylvestris

Family: Pinaceae
Common names: Scots pine; pino albar (Spanish); pi roig, pi rajolet (Catalan);
Brief description:
Distribution: mainly in Eurosiberian temperate and boreal ecosystems. A typical tree of north Europe (the only native pine of that area) [world map], but also reach the Mediterranean mountains (e.g., in the Iberian Peninsula).
Habitat: It often forms monospecific forests in montane areas or low density trees in high mountain communities (with Juniperus).
Regeneration: thin-bark and non-serotinous cones; it cannot survive fire. Typically grows in environments where fires are rare and usually small.
Uses and overuses: important forestry tree, planted in many places. In has been often planted replacing hardwood (oak) forests.
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [line drawing]
References: [google]

Taxus baccata

Family: Taxaceae
Common names: Yew; Tejo (Spanish); Teix (Catalan)
Brief description: evergreen tree
Distribution: mainly in Eurosiberian temperate ecosystems. Native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
Habitat: In the Mediterranean ...
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gymnosperms database] [Wageningen Univ, pdf]
Images: [google] [fruits, 2, 3] [leaves] [bark] [illustration] [illustration] [flowers]
References: [google]

Tetraclinis articulata

Family: Cupressaceae
Common names: Sandarac; Gharghar (Malta); Sabina de Cartagena (Spanish); Araar (Arabic)
Brief description: It is a small, slow-growing tree, to 10-15 m tall and 0.4 m trunk diameter. The foliage forms in open sprays with scale-like leaves 1-5 mm long. The cones are 10-15 mm long, green ripening brown in about 8 months from pollination, and have four thick scales arranged in two opposite pairs. The seeds are 5-7 mm long and 2 mm broad, with a 3-4 mm broad papery wing on each side.
Distribution: It is native to north-western Africa in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, with two small outlying populations on Malta, and near Cartagena in south-east Spain. It is the national tree of Malta.
Habitat: It grows at relatively low altitudes in a hot, dry subtropical Mediterranean climate.
Regeneration: resprouts from large basal burls after fire or logging.
Uses and overuses: The wood, particularly from burls at the base of the trunk, is used for decorative woodwork. The resin (sandarac) is used to make varnish and lacquer (it is particularly valued for preserving paintings), and also and medicinal.
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / near threatened [Red List]. The populations in Malta and southern Spain are highly threatened. In North Africa the species is also restricted in range. It is believed that in the past Tetraclinis was a very common tree throughout the area, but the very high quality of its wood (it is both aromatic and resistant to rotting) made it valuable for all past civilizations. Even the burls, which can be very large after recurrent disturbances, have been extensively collected for their quality and beauty.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gymnosperm database]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [cones]
References: [google]

Angiosperms

Acacia gummifera

Family: Fabaceae
Common names:
Brief description: evergreen
Distribution: Central zone of western Morocco. It is the only species of this genera that reach the mediterranean climate of the Mediterranean Basin
Habitat: Grows best in semi-arid to arid Mediterranean bio-climates with mild to warm winters.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: yields abundant gum marketed locally (North Africa)
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [FAO]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Acer monspessulanum

Family: Sapindaceae (Aceraceae)
Common names: Montpellier Maple; Arce de Montpellier (Spanish); auró negre (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous
Distribution: Submediterranean. From Morocco and Portugal in the west, to Turkey and Lebanon in the east, and north to the Jura Mountains in France and the Eifel in Germany.
Habitat: moist sites
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [FloraEuropea] [jeanlouis.helardot]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves & fruits] [leaves & fruits] [foliage] [leaves]
References: [google]

Acer opalus

Family: Sapindaceae (Aceraceae)
Common names: Italian Maple; (Spanish); blada (Catalan)
Variability: ssp. opalus in more frequent in Eurosiberian temperate ecosystems; ssp. granatense (= ssp. hispanicum), more in mediterranean ecosystems
Brief description: winter deciduous
Distribution: Western submediterranean. From Italy to Spain and north to southern Germany, and also in northwest Africa in Morocco and Algeria.
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [jeanlouis.helardot]
Images: [google]
References: [google]
- Gleiser G., Picher M.C., Veintimilla P., Martinez J. & Verdú M. 2004. Seed dormancy and seed storage behaviour in Acer opalus. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 145: 203-208.

Acer sempervirens

Syn.: Acer creticum
Family: Sapindaceae (Aceraceae)
Common names: Cretan Maple
Brief description: semi-evergreen tree
Distribution: eastern Mediterranean Basin (west Turkey, Greece, Lebanon)
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [jeanlouis.helardot]
Images: [google] [leaves] BR> References: [google]

Anagyris foetida

Family: Fabaceae
Common names: ; garrofer podent (Catalan)
Brief description: large shrub or small tree
Distribution:
Habitat:
Regeneration: bird-pollinated
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Arbutus andrachne

Family: Ericaceae
Common names: Greek Strawberry Tree; madroño oriental (Spanish);
Brief description:
Distribution: Eastern mediterranean.
Habitat:
Regeneration: Resprouts after disturbance.
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [bark] [leaves]
References: [google]

Arbutus unedo

Family: Ericaceae
Common names: Strawberry Tree; Madroño (Spanish); arboç, arbocer (Catalan); arbousier (French);
Brief description: evergreen small tree or large shrub
Distribution: Mediterranean.
Habitat: Evergreen oak forests, shrublands.
Regeneration: Resprouts after disturbance.
Uses and overuses: edible fruits
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [fruits: 1, 2] [tree in flower] [flower] [flowers]
References: [google]

Argania spinosa

Family: Sapotaceae
Common names: Argan; Argan (Spanish)
Brief description: evergreen tree. This is the only species of the Sapotaceae family that growth in the Mediterranean Basin
Distribution:
Habitat: dehesa-type woodlands in western Morocco, in very warm areas with very low rainfall but high air moisture from the Atlantic.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: The tree is grazed (mainly by goats), and it is used for cooking oil production (Argan oil). Argan tree woodlands provide an estimated 2 million people with oil, pasture, honey, charcoal and construction materials.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [the tree] [immature fruits] [dehesa-type woodlands]
References: [google]
- M’Hirit, O., M. Benzyane, F. Bencherkroun, S.M. El Yousfi, and M. Bendaanoun. 1998. L’arganier. Une espèce fruitière-forestière à usages multiples. Edition Pierre, belgique, 144 p. ISBN: 2870096844
- Peltier, J.P. 1983. Les séries de l’arganeraie steppique dans le souss (Maroc). Ecologia Mediterranea 9 (1): 77-88.

Buxus balearica

Family: Buxaceae
Common names: Balearic Box; Boix balear (catalan)
Brief description:
Distribution: Balearic Islands, southern Spain, northwest Africa
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]
- Lázaro A. & Travesset A. 2005, Spatio-temporal variation in the pollination mode of Buxus balearica (Buxaceae), an ambophilous and selfing species: mainland-island comparison. Ecography 28: 640–652
- Rosselló JA, Lázaro A, Cosín R and Molins A. 2007. A Phylogeographic Split in Buxus balearica (Buxaceae) as Evidenced by Nuclear Ribosomal Markers: When ITS Paralogues Are Welcome. Journal of Molecular Evolution 64: 143-157.

Buxus sempervirens

Family: Buxaceae
Common names: Common box; Boj (Spanish); Boix (Catalan)
Brief description: evergreen shrub or small tree
Distribution: submediterranean. Western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia, from southern England south to northern Morocco, and east through the northern Mediterranean region to Turkey.
Habitat:mountains
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: The wood is very hard and traditionally used to make spoons and other tools. Currently used in gardening.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [foliage] [plant] [illustration] [line drawin]
References: [google]

Carpinus betulus

Family: Betulaceae
Common names: European Horbeam; Carpe, Ojaranzo (Spanish);
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: native to western, central and southern Europe, extending eastward as far as western Russia and the Ukraine. In the Mediterranean climate area ......
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves & fruit] [tree]
References: [google]

Carpinus orientalis

Family: Betulaceae
Common names: Oriental Hornbeam
Brief description: winter deciduous tree or shrub
Distribution: south-east Europe and south-west Asia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Castanea sativa

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Sweer Chestnut; Castaño (Spanish); Castanyer (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: Submediterranean. Natural to the Balkan peninsula and northern Turkey but it is widespread and naturalized throughout southern Europe.
Habitat: mountains, in acidic soils.
Regeneration: Resprouts after disturbance.
Uses and overuses: Edible fruit. The Italian chestnut-and-pasture landscapes are the product of a historical management based on burning the dead leaves on the floor to promote pasture under trees (Grove & Rackham 2001).
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [fruit] [tree] [foliage]
References: [google]
- Groves, A.T. & Rackham, O. 2001. The nature of Mediterranean Europe: An ecological history. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Celtis australis

Family: Ulmaceae
Common names: European nettle, European Hackberry, Lote tree; almez (Spanish); lledoner (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: Mediterranean Basin and SE Asia.
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: Traditionally the fruits were eaten and the wood was used for making tools; so it is often found close to old houses. Currently planted for gardening.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [line drawing]
References: [google]

Celtis tournefortii

Family: Ulmaceae
Common names: Oriental Hackberry
Brief description: short winter deciduous tree
Distribution: SE Europe (Turkey, Greece, Balkans) to W. Asia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Ceratonia siliqua

Family: Fabaceae
Common names: Carob tree; Algarrobo (Spanish); Garrofer(a), garrover (Catalan); alfarrobeira (Portuguese)
Brief description: evergreen tree, dioecious.
Distribution: Coastal areas of the Mediterranean; it reach inland in North Africa.
Habitat: Coastal shrublands. It grows well in warm areas and tolerates hot and humid coastal areas. It is a drought-resistant species, and it is typical of the maquis.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance (e.g., fire)
Uses and overuses: edible seed pods, also for feed livestock. The flesh of the carob pods taste similar to sweetened cocoa, thus it is often promoted as a health food alternative to chocolate.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, it, fr] [Plants for a future] [fruits in warm climates]
Images: [google] [illustration] [illustration] [fruit (pods)] [leaves & flowers]
References: [google]

Cercis siliquastrum

Syn.:
Family: Fabaceae
Common names: Judas-tree; Arbol del amor, árbol de judas (Spanish); Albero di Giuda (Italian)
Variability:
Brief description: Deciduous tree. Pink hermaphrodite flowers produced on year-old or older growth, including the trunk in late spring, and pollinated by bees. The leaves appear shortly after the first flowers emerge.
Distribution: Eastern mediterranean and west Asia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Chamaerops humilis

Family: Arecaceae (Palmae)
Common names: European Fan Palm. Darwf Fan Palm; palmito (Spanish); margalló, bargalló, garballó (Catalan);
Brief description: short palm tree. Dioecious.
Distribution: Thermomediteranean area. In southwestern Europe (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Malta) and in northwest Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia)
Habitat: coastal shrublands (maquis).Abundant in over-burnt and over-grazed areas.
Regeneration: resprouts well after fire. Fruits dispersed by mamals (fox, wild boar, badger). The seeds also survive the heat of the fire.
Uses and overuses: traditionally (and still nowadays) the leaves are used to make baskets, carpets, brooms, and other domestic tools. The core of the stem and the fruits (dates) are eaten.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [palm encyclopaedia]
Images: [google] [plant] [flowers: 1, 2]
References: [google]

Crataegus monogyna

Syn.:
Family: Rosaceae
Common names: Common Hawthorn; Majuelo (Spanish); arç blanc (Catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: Deciduous large shrub or small tree.
Distribution: Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration]
References: [google]

Fagus sylvatica

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: European Beech; Haya (Spanish); Faig (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: Eurosiberian temperate ecosystems. The natural range extends from southern Sweden (with some isolated locations in southern Norway) to central Italy, west to France, northern Portugal, and central Spain, and east to north-west Turkey. In the Mediterranean climate zone is rare, appearing in some specific mountain areas where there is enough moisture (fog) to maintain small populations (e.g. in Els Ports de Beseit, Eastern Spain).
Habitat:
moist forests. Regeneration: Resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: wood
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [leaves]
References: [google]

Ficus carica

Family: Moraceae
Common names: Common Fig; Higuera (Spanish); Figuera (Catalan); Fico (Italian)
Brief description: deciduous tree, sometimes as shrub. Pollinated by wasps [fig wasps]. Wild figs are monoic trees, but cultivars are dioic.
Distribution: Native to south-west Asia and the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece east to Afghanistan). Probably introduced in the western part of the Basin (?).
Habitat: In may grow as a small tree or shrub in rocky areas, scarps and stone walls, but also as a tree in better soils.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: edible fruit; they can be eaten fresh or dried. It is the plant with the earliest record of cultivation by humans (fossilized parthenocarpic figs from early Neolithic has been found in the Jorndan Valley).
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration
] [illustration] [leaves and fruits, 2] [fruit] [cut open fruits]
References: [google]

Fraxinus angustifolia

Family: Oleaceae
Common names: Narrow-leafed Ash; Fresno común (Spanish); Freix, Fleix (Catalan)
Variability: Typically, 3 subspecies are considered: ssp. angustifolia (western Mediterranean); ssp. oxycarpa (= F. pallisiae; east central and southern Europe from NE Spain eastwards); and ssp. syriaca (Turkey and eastwards to Iran). However, there are also many intermediate forms.
Brief description: winter deciduous tree, up to 30 m tall. Wind-pollinated. Inflorescences can be male, hermaphrodite or mixed with male and hermaphrodite flowers, but the trees are all functionally hermaphrodites (with both male and female flowers).
Distribution: southern and eastern Europe, from Iberian peninsula and north Africa in the west to Turkey (Mediterranean and Black Sea region), Syria, Caucasus, Iran and southern Russia.
Habitat: often as a riparian tree (riverine mixed forests).
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance; wind dispersed
Uses and overuses: used and planted for timber
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [fraxigen pdf]
Images: [google] [leaves] [buds: 1, 2,]
References: [google]
- Fraxigen 2005. Ash species in Europe: biological characteristics and practical guidelines for sustainable use. Oxford Forestry Institute, UK. [the book]

Fraxinus ornus

Family: Oleaceae
Common names: Manna Ash, Flowering Ash; Fresno (Spanish);
Brief description: winter deciduous tree up to 15-20 m tall, with white flowers in large showy inflorescences which are mainly pollinated by insects. It is an androdioicous tree, that is, some trees are hermaphrodite and other males (Fraxigen 2005).
Distribution: Submediterranean. Central and eastern parts of the Mediterranean area: South west France, Italy, Greece, Balkans, Turkey, Syria, and in disjunction, in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Valencia, eastern Spain). Absent in North Africa.
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance (e.g., fire); insect-pollinated; wind-dispersed
Uses and overuses: Planted as an ornamental tree and also cultivated on Sicily (Italy) for production of Manna.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [fraxigen pdf] [flower biology]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [several images] [foliage: 1, 2, 3, ]
References: [google]
- Fraxigen 2005. Ash species in Europe: biological characteristics and practical guidelines for sustainable use. Oxford Forestry Institute, UK. [the book]
- Verdú, M. 2004. Physiological and reproductive differences between hermaphrodites and males in the androdioecious plant Fraxinus ornus. Oikos 105: 239-246.
- Verdú M, González -Martínez SC, Montilla AI, Mateu I, Pannell JR 2006. Ovule discounting in an outcrossing, cryptically dioecious tree. Evolution 60: 2056–2063. [abstract]
- Verdú, M., Spanos, K, Canova, I., Slobodnik, B & Paule, L. 2007. Similar gender dimorphism in the costs of reproduction across the geographic range of Fraxinus ornus. Annals of Botany, 99: 183-191.

Laurus nobilis

Family: Lauraceae
Common names: Bay Laurel, Laurel; Laurel (Spanish); Llorer (Catalan)
Brief description: aromatic evergreen tree
Distribution: Mediterranean.
Habitat: moist sites (gullies)
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance; bird-dispersed
Uses and overuses: Leaves are nowadays used for their flavour in cooking. Sacred plant for ancient Greeks and Romans; crown of Greek god Apolo. Planted in the past, now naturalised in many places.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [flowers] [leaves, fruits] [illustration] [flowers: 1, 2, ]
References: [google]

Liquidambar orientalis

Syn.:
Family: Altingiaceae
Common names: Oriental (Turkish) Sweetgum
Variability:
Brief description: Deciduous tree.
Distribution: southwestern Turkey and on the Greek island of Rhodes
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: Used for the production of a medicinal oil
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration]
References: [google]

Moringa peregrina

Syn.:
Family: Moringaceae
Common names:
Variability:
Brief description:
Distribution: Mainly in arid Africa and Arabic Peninsula, but sometimes appears in Mediterranean climate area of the Near East. From the Dead Sea area sporadically along the Red Sea coasts to northern Somalia and around the Arabian Peninsula to the mouth of the Persian Gulf.
Habitat: on rich, often inundated soils
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: It is thought that the oil may have been one of the important oils of ancient times. A least in the southern Arabian Peninsula, the tubers of saplings are roasted and eaten.
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [info]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Myrtus communis

Family: Myrtaceae
Common names: myrtle; mirto, arrayan (Spanish); murta (Catalan, Portuguese, Sardinian)
Brief description: aromatic evergreen sclerophyllous shrub
Distribution: Mediterranean. Coastal areas around the mediteranean sea (Europe and North Africa) and western Iberian peninsula.
Habitat: coastal shrublands
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: Medicinal (fruits and leaves). Fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. Also used for gardening, specially in the Spanish-Arabic tradition (e.g., Alhambra de Granada). Persians considered sacred. Also sacred to the Greek goddess of love, lust and beauty (Aphrodite). Myrtle has been used for the production of drinks since ancient times (the mediaval Arabic Spain, and in the Magreb); and currently, it is still used in the Islands of Sardinia and Corsica to produce an aromatic liqueur (liquore di mirto) by macerating it in alcohol: the "Mirto Rosso" (red) produced by macerating the berries, and the "Mirto Bianco" (white) produced from the leaves. In Muslim tradition, it is used to cover dead bodies and to place on graves.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves and flowers] [fruits] [flower, ]
References: [google]

Nerium oleander

Family: Apocynaceae
Common names: Olander; adelfa (Spanish); baladre (Catalan)
Brief description: evergreen shrub rarely or small tree. Very toxic.
Distribution: Thermo-Mediterranean area. It is native to a broad area from Morocco and Portugal eastward through the Mediterranean region and southern Asia to Yunnan in southern China.
Habitat: typically occurs around dry stream beds (“ramblas”)
Regeneration: Resprouts after disturbance (e.g., channel scouring from floods)
Uses and overuses: Used for gardening (despite its toxicity!).
Status: Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [flowers, ] [plant]
References: [google]

Olea europaea

Family: Oleaceae
Common names: Olive tree; Olivo, acebuche (Spanish); Olivera, ullastre (Catalan)
Variability: cultivars are typically bigger trees with larger fruits, selected over millennia (var. europeae). The wild olive tree (var. sylvestris) is often a large shrub, with smaller fruits.
Brief description: small evergreen tree. Leaves and branches of young individuals are different from adult individuals (heterophylia): leaves are smaller and branches are shorter and relatively rigid (cage-like sensus Bond).
Distribution: Mediterranean.
Habitat: the wild olive tree (var. sylvestris) occurs in shrublands and maquis.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: Planted all over the Mediterranean Basin for olives and olive oil production. The dove with an olive branch is a symbol of peace (e.g., the Picasso Blue dove).
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [olives home page] [Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [trees: 1, 2] [details 1, 2, 3] [leaves and flowers] [foliage] [fruit, fruits] [foliage & fruits] [cultural landscapes: 1]
References: [google]

Ostrya carpinifolia

Family: Betulaceae
Common names: European Hop-hornbeam; Carpino nero (Italian)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution:
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves] [female flowers, 2, ] [male flowers]
References: [google]

Osyris alba

Syn.:
Family: Santalaceae
Common names: ; guardalobo, retama loca (Spanish); ginestó (Catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: hemi-parasitic dioecious large shrub with a red freshy fruit
Distribution: All over the Mediterranean Basin
Habitat: shrublands and maquis
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Osyris quadripartita

Syn.: Osyris lanceolata
Family: Santalaceae
Common names: ; bayón (Spanish); arraià (Catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: hemi-parasitic dioecious large shrub with a red freshy fruit
Distribution: Western Mediterranean (southern Iberia and Northern Africa)
Habitat: lowland dry shrublands and maquis (termomediterranean)
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]
- Herrera, C. M. (1988) The fruiting ecology of Osyris quadripartita: individual variation and evolutionary potential. Ecology 69, 233-249.
- Herrera, C. M. (1988) Plant size, spacing patterns, and host plant selection in Osyris quadripartita, a hemiparasitic dioecious shrub. Journal of Ecology 76, 995-1006.

Paliurus spina-christi

Syn.:
Family: Rhamnaceae
Common names: Jerusalem Thorn; Espinavessa (Catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: deciduous shrub or small tree (<4m), with spines (stipules)
Distribution: Northern Mediterranean Basin: from North Spain, S France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, southwest and central Asia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, cat, it, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Phoenix theophrasti

Family: Arecaceae (Palmae)
Common names: Cretan Date Palm;
Brief description: Dioecious.
Distribution: Creta (Greece) and Turkey.
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk / near threatened [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [tree] [planted] [planted]
References: [google]

Phillyrea angustifolia

Family: Oleaceae
Common names: ; labiérnago (Spanish); aladerm de fulla estreta (Catalan)
Brief description: evergreen shrub with narrow screrophyllous leaves. Fruit is a drupe. Androdioecious (with both males and hermaphrodites plants).
Distribution: western mediterranean.
Habitat: shrublands, maquis and forests.
Regeneration: resprouts after fire or after other disturbances from a (small) basal lignotuber
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustrations] [foliage: 1, 2]
References: [google]
- Pannell JR, Ojeda F (2000) Patterns of flowering and sex-ratio variation in the Mediterranean shrub Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae): implications for the maintenance of males with hermaphrodites. Ecol. Lett. 3, 495–502. [abstract]

Phillyrea latifolia

Family: Oleaceae
Common names: ; aladerm de fulla ample, fals aladerm (Catalan)
Variability: ssp. latifolia and ssp. media.
Brief description: evergreen sclerophyllous large shrub or small tree. Fruit is a drupe.
Distribution: Mediterranean.
Habitat: shrublands, maquis and forests.
Regeneration: it resprouts after fire or after other disturbances
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustrations: ssp latifolia, ssp media] [leaves] [plant with flowers] [leaves & fruits]
References: [google]

Pistacia atlantica

Family: Anacardiaceae
Common names: Betoum;
Brief description: winter deciduous
Distribution: western mediterranean
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Pistacia lentiscus

Family: Anacardiaceae
Common names: Mastic; Lentisco (Spanish); Llentiscle (Catalan); Aroreira, Lentisco (Portuguese)
Variability: Pistacia × saportae is a hybrid between P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus.
Brief description: evergreen shrub (sometimes a small tree). Dioecious.
Distribution: Mediterranean.
Habitat: shrublands.
Regeneration: resprouts after fire or after other disturbances
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [line drowing] [leaves]
References: [google]
- Verdú, M. & García-Fayos, P. 1998. Female biased sex ratios in Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae). Plant Ecology 135: 95-101.
- Verdú, M. & García-Fayos, P. 1998. Ecological causes, function and evolution of abortion and parthenocarpy in Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 134-141.
- García-Fayos, P. & Verdú, M. 1998. Soil seed bank, factors controlling germination, and establishment of a Mediterranean shrub: Pistacia lentiscus L. Acta Oecologica 19: 357-366.

Pistacia terebinthus

Family: Anacardiaceae
Common names: Terebinth, turpentine tree;
Variability: ssp. terebinthus in all around the mediterranean, and ssp. palestina (= P. palaestina) in the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. Pistacia × saportae is a hybrid between P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus
Brief description: small deciduous tree. Dioecious.
Distribution: Mediterranean. From Morocco and Portugal east to Turkey and Syria, and also the Canary Islands.
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: used as a source for turpentine, possibly the earliest known source.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [FloraEuropaea]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves]
References: [google]

Platanus orientalis

Syn.:
Family: Platanaceae
Common names:
Variability: P. x hispanica is an hybrid of P. orientalis x occidentalis, very often used in gardens of many cities (resistent to pollution, etc.)
Brief description:
Distribution: from the Balkans to Iran
Habitat: found naturally in riverine settings; however, it is quite capable of survival and success in dry soils once it is established.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: medicinal, wood (fornitures)
Status: IUCN= IUCN = Lower Risk / least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Populus alba

Family: Salicaceae
Common names: White Poplar; Chopo blanco, álamo (Spanish); àlber (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: All Europe. Rare in Greece.
Habitat: Riparian forests
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: planted and used for production of cellulose and cheap boxes (soft wood).
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [branch] [leaves] [bark ]
References: [google]

Populus euphratica

Family: Salicaceae
Common names: ; Chopo de Elche, álamo del Éufrates (Spanish)
Brief description:
Distribution: E. Asia - Himalayas, Thire is a population in south-eastern Spain (Elx), probably planted.
Habitat:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Populus nigra

Family: Salicaceae
Common names: Black Poplar; Chopo (Spanish); Pollancre (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: Native to Europe and southwest Asia.
Habitat: mainly in Eurosiberian temperate ecosystems, but also along mediterranean rivers, in riparian forests.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: Very often is planted along rivers.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [line drowing] [leaves] [tree] [tree (var italica)]
References: [google]

Prunus lusitanica

Family: Rosaceae
Common names: Dark-Brown Wood, Portugal laurel; Loro (Spanish); llorer-cirer de Portugal (Catalan)
Brief description: evergreen tree
Distribution: Macaronesian area and eastern mediterranean.
Habitat: moist sites (gallery forests)
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: . Rare in the mediterranean, with very patchy distribution.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [hipernatural] [USDA database]
Images: [google] [illustration] [foliage/fruits]
References: [google]

Prunus mahaleb

Family: Rosaceae
Common names: St Lucie Cherry;
Brief description: deciduous tree or large shrub
Distribution: central and southern Europe, western and central Asia, and northwest Africa, from Morocco north to France, southern Belgium, and Germany, and east to northern Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan.
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance. Bird-dispersal (Blackbirds and Blackcaps).
Uses and overuses: The plant is cultivated for a spice, which is fragrant and has the taste of bitter almonds. It is used in small quantities to sharpen sweet foods, such as the Greek sweet-bread tsoureki or the Armenian sweet-bread chorak.
Status: Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [foliage & fruits: 1, ] [flowers: 1,] [seeds: 1,]
References: [google]
- García, C., Arroyo, J.M., Godoy, J.A. and P. Jordano. 2005. Mating patterns, pollen dispersal, and the ecological maternal neighbourhood in a Prunus mahaleb L. population. Molecular Ecology 14: 1821-1830.
- García, C., P. Jordano and J.A. Godoy. 2007. Contemporary pollen and seed dispersal in a Prunus mahaleb population: patterns in distance and direction. Molecular Ecology, 16: 1947-1955.
- Guitián, J. et al. (1992). Spatial Variation in the Interactions between Prunus mahaleb and Frugivorous Birds. Oikos 63: 125-130.
- Herrera, C. M. and P. Jordano. 1981. Prunus mahaleb and birds: the high efficiency seed dispersal system of a temperate fruiting tree. Ecological Monographs 51: 203-21.
- Jordano, P. and E. W. Schupp. 2000. Determinants of seed disperser effectiveness: the quantity component and patterns of seed rain for Prunus mahaleb. Ecological Monographs 70: 591-615.
- Jordano, P. 1995. Frugivore-mediated selection on fruit and seed size: birds and St. Lucie's cherry, Prunus mahaleb. Ecology 76: 2627-2639.
- Jordano, P. 1993. Pollination biology of Prunus mahaleb L.: deferred consequences of gender variation for fecundity and seed size. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 50: 65-84.

Prunus spinosa

Syn.:
Family: Rosaceae
Common names: blackthorn, sloe; endrino (Spanish); aranyoner (Catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: deciduous large shrub or small tree
Distribution: All Europe, rare towards the south (e.g., rare in North Africa)
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: Fruits used to produce a liquor (called "patxaran" in northern Spain) or jam
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration]
References: [google]

Pyrus bourgaeana

Syn.: P. mamorensis, P. communis ssp. bourgaeana
Family: Rosaceae
Common names: ; piruétano, peral silvestre, galapero (Spanish); pereiro bravo, catapereiro (Portugues)
Brief description: Tree or large shrub, winter deciduous
Distribution: Western Mediterranea area (Iberia and north Africa)
Habitat: edges and gaps of evergreen oak forests, but also in shrublands and open spaces
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia:
en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Pyrus spinosa

Syn.: P. amygdaliformis
Family: Rosaceae
Common names: ; Peral de hojas de almendro (Spanish); perelloner, pera borda (Catalan)
Brief description: large shrub or small tree, winter deciduous
Distribution: South of Europe, from Iberia to Anatolia
Habitat: edges and gaps of evergreen oak forests
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Pyrus syriaca

Syn.:
Family: Rosaceae
Common names:
Variability:
Brief description:
Distribution: W. Asia - Turkey, Iran, Caucasus.
Habitat: on rich, often inundated soils
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Quercus alnifolia

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Cyprus golden oak
Brief description: sclerophyllous evergreen tree
Distribution: endemic of southern Cyperus
Habitat: it is restricted to Troodos Massif, where it grows on igneous geological substrate at an altitude of 400 to 1800 m. It occupies dry habitats in association with Pinus brutia or forms dense maquis in mesic habitats.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: national tree of Cyprus.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [leave] [acorn]
References: [google]

Quercus afares

Family: Fagaceae
Common names:
Brief description:
Distribution: Algeria, Tunisia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google]
[leaf]
References: [google]

Quercus canariensis

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Canarian oak, Algerian oak; Quejigo africano (Spanish)
Brief description: winter semi-deciduous (marcescent) tree
Distribution: western mediterranean: Iberian peninsula and North Africa
Habitat: Oak woodlands, sometimes together with other oaks (e.g., with Q. suber).
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [leaves] [acorn]
References: [google]

Quercus cerrioides

Family: Fagaceae
Common names:
Variability: the taxonomic status is uncertain; it may be a hybrid between Q. canariensis and Q. humilis ?
Brief description: winter semi-deciduous (marcescent) tree
Distribution: eastern Spain.
Habitat: Oak forests, including evergreen oak forests (Q. ilex).
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk /cd [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [leaves] [winter foliage] [tree] [tree]
References: [google]

Quercus cerris

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Turkey oak
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: souther Europe and Asia minor
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [leaf] [illustration]
References: [google]

Quercus coccifera

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: kermes oak (ssp. coccifera) / Palastine oak (ssp calliprinus); coscoja (Spanish); coscoll, garric (Catalan); Chêne kermès (French)
Variability: two taxons (ssp or var) has been considered: ssp. coccifera, ssp. calliprinios
Brief description: evergreen sclerophyllous shrub (ssp. coccifera) or tree (ssp. calliprinios). Biennial acorn maturation. Spiny-serrated leaves.
Distribution: Mediterranean. Q. c. ssp. coccifera occures in the western part of the Basin (Portugal to Greece). Q. c. ssp. calliprinios in the eastern part and southwest Asia (from Algeria and Turkey east across the Middle East)
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts vigorously after disturbance (fire, etc) from rhizomes
Uses and overuses: it was historically important as the food plant of the Kermes insect Kermes ilicis, from which a red dye was obtained
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world] [Flore électronique]
Images: [google] [leaf] [acorns] [tree] [foliage] [illustration]
References: [google]
- Malanson, G.P. & Trabaud, L. 1988. Vigour of post-fire resprouting by Quercus coccifera L. J. Ecol. 76: 351-365.

Quercus faginea

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Portuguese oak; Quejigo (Spanish); gal·ler, roure valencià (Catalan)
Brief description: winter semi-deciduous (marcescent) tree
Distribution: western submediterranean: Iberian peninsula and North Africa.
Habitat: forests, dehesas.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [leaf] [leaves
References: [google]

Quercus frainetto

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Hungarian oak
Brief description: evergreen tree. Annual acorn maturation
Distribution: occurs in parts of Italy, the Balkans, parts of Hungary, Romania and Turkey
Habitat: in subcontinental climate of southeastern Europe but the main factor of its occurrence at a particular site is the soil. It is specially adapted to heavy acidic soils (cambisols and vertisols), usually leached out, very dry in the summer and wet in the spring. Do not tolerate lime in the soil.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: a sacred and tabooed oak tree of Serbian tradition.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google]
[leaf] [tree]
References: [google]

Quercus humilis

Syn.: Quercus pubescens
Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Pubescent oak, Downy oak; roble pubescente, Roble negro (Spanish); roure martinenc (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: submediterranean.
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Quercus ilex

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Holm oak; Encina, carrasca (Spanish); Alzina, carrasca (Catalan)
Variability: ssp. ilex; ssp. ballota (=ssp rotundifolia)
Brief description: evergreen sclerophyllous tree. Annual acorn maturation.
Distribution: Mediterranean. ssp ilex: from northern Iberia and France east to Greece; ssp ballota: the southwest of the species' range, Iberia and northwest Africa
Habitat: Forms the most typical evergreen oak forest, but isolated individuals may also occur in shrublands and in margins of crop patches.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance (fire, logging), and many of the stands are currently coppices. Acorns are dispersed by the European jay (at long distances) and by rodents (at short distances) (Pons & Pausas 2007).
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [illustration, illustration] [foliage] [foliage] [foliage and male flowers: 1] [tree]
References: [google]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2007. Rodent acorn selection in a Mediterranean oak landscape. Ecological Research 22: 535-541. [pdf] [doi] [springer: pdf html]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2007. Not only size matters: acorn selection by the European jay (Garrulus glandarius). Acta Oecologica 31: 353-360. [pdf] [doi]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2007. Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-tracking. Oecologia 153: 903-911 [pdf] [doi]
- Rodà F., Retana J., Gracia C.A. and Bellot J. 1999. Ecology of Mediterranean Evergreen Oak Forests, Springer, Berlin.

Quercus infectoria

Family: Fagaceae
Common names:
Brief description: evergreen small tree or shrub
Distribution: Asia Minor to Middle Asia
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: Galls are used in medicine
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world] [HenriettesHerbal]
Images: [google] [foliage]
References: [google]

Quercus ithaburensis

Syn.: Q. aegilops ssp. ithaburensis, Q. macrolepis ssp. ithaburensis, Q. pyrami, Q. ungeri
Family: Fagaceae
Common names:
Brief description: marcescent
Distribution: Southeastern Italy, South Albania, Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, Syria, Lebanon, Palestina
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [illustration]
References: [google]

Quercus libani

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Lebanon oak
Brief description:
Distribution: Syria, Lebanon, Asia Minor (in mountains)
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [acorn] [leaf]
References: [google]

Quercus macedonia

Syn.: Q. trojana Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Macedonia´s oak; Roble de troya (Spanish)
Brief description:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [oaks of the world]
Images: [google] [foliage]
References: [google]

Quercus pyrenaica

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: ; Roble melojo (Spanish); roure reboll (Catalan)
Brief description: winter semi-deciduous (marcescent) tree
Distribution: West France, Iberian peninsula and Morocco.
Habitat: Oak forests in siliceous soils.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: Looging. Many stands are currently coppices from past loggings.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [oaks of the world] [Plants for a future] [herbarivirtual]
Images: [google] [foliage] [leaves] [foliage]
References: [google]

Quercus suber

Family: Fagaceae
Common names: Cork oak; Alcornoque (Spanish); Suro, alzina surera (Catalan); Chêne-liège (French)
Brief description: evergreen sclerophyllous tree. Short-lived foliage (ca. 1 year). It has a very tick corky bark that if it is not debarked (most trees are debarked for cork production), it may attain more that 20 cm [see example here]. It produce both annual and biennial acorns.
Distribution: Western Mediterranean. Portugal, Spain, France (south), Italy, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Habitat: Growth on non-carbonated soils such as acidic soils on granite, schist, or sandy substrates, but does sometimes occur in limestone-derived soils, or in neutral soils overlying dolomitic bedrocks. Most stands are located in areas below 800 m altitude (low winter temperatures appears to set the geographical distribution limits, both in altitude and in continentality) and in areas with annual precipitation above 600 mm. Form pure forests, other times are mixed with pines (P. pinea, P. pinaster), and is one of the trees in the dehesas agrosystems.
Regeneration: Good post-fire resprouter from stem buds (protected by the thick and insulating bark, the cork; Pausas 1997) and from lignotuber (Molinas & Verdaguer 1993). Cork extraction increase the tree susceptibility to fire. Acorns are dispersed by the European jay (at long distances) and by rodents (at short distances) (Pons & Pausas 2007).
Uses and overuses: The bark (cork) is extracted every 9 to 12 years (depending of the site quality). It is one of the trees often occurring in dehesa (= montado) agrosystems; in such conditions, grazing or ploughing makes the regeneration of the tree very difficulties.
Status: Many population under the dehesa system are declining because the system does not allow for regeneration (overgrazing, ploughing).
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [leaves]
Additional links: [The Cork Oak book] [Instituto del Corcho,la Madera y el Carbón Vegetal (IPROCOR)] [Institut National de recherche et de développement de la suberaie, du Chêne-liège et du liège] [VARQUS project]
References: [google]
- Molinas, M.L. & Verdaguer, D. 1993. Lignotuber ontogeny in the cork-oak (Quercus suber; Fagaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 172-181, 182-191.
- Pausas, J.G. 1997. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE Spain after fire. J. Veg. Sci. 8: 703-706. [pdf]
- Pausas J.G., Ribeiro E., Dias S.G., Pons J. & Beseler C. 2006. Regeneration of a marginal Cork oak (Quercus suber) forest in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. J. Veg. Sci. 17: 729-738. [pdf] [doi] [BioOne]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2006. Oak regeneration in heterogeneous landscapes: the case of fragmented Quercus suber forests in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. For. Ecol. Manage. 231: 196-204 [pdf] [doi]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2007. Rodent acorn selection in a Mediterranean oak landscape. Ecological Research 22: 535-541. [pdf] [doi] [springer: pdf html]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2007. Not only size matters: acorn selection by the European jay (Garrulus glandarius). Acta Oecologica 31: 353-360. [pdf] [doi]
- Pons J. & Pausas J.G. 2007. Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-tracking. Oecologia 153: 903-911 [pdf] [doi]
- Pons J. & Pausas JG. 2008. Modelling jay (Garrulus glandarius) abundance and distribution for oak regeneration assessment in Mediterranean landscapes. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 578-584. [pdf] [doi] [scribd]
- Aronson J., Pereira J.S., Pausas J.G. (eds). 2009. Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge: conservation, adaptive management, and restoration. Island Press, Washington DC. 315 pp. [The book]

Retama sphaerocarpa

Syn.: Lygos sphaerocarpa
Family: Fabaceae
Common names: ; retama, retama amarilla (Spanish); Ginestera vimenera (Catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: Large multi-stemmed shrub (up to 3 m), with green stems; fruit: small legume with one seed only
Distribution: Western Mediterranean: Iberian Peninsula and North-West Africa
Habitat: dry, open ecosystems
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: Medicinal, firewood
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Rhamnus alaternus

Family: Rhamnaceae
Common names: Buckthorn; aladierno (Spanish); aladern (Catalan); alaterno (Italian)
Brief description: evergreen small tree or shrub.Dioecious.
Distribution: Mediterranean.
Habitat: shurblands, forests
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] it] [Plants for a future] [global invasive species]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves] [leave] [foliage/fruits] [fruits,
References: [google]

Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris

Family: Rhamnaceae
Common names: ; llampúdol bord, rotaboc (Catalan);
Brief description: evergreen small tree or shrub
Distribution: Endemic of the Balearic islands (Mallorca, Minorca, Cabrera).
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, cat] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [leaves] [leaves/fruit] [flower] [foliage] [plant]
References: [google]

Rhamnus lycioides

Syn.: Rhamnus palaestinus
Family: Rhamnaceae
Common names: ; espino negro (Spanish); arçot (Catalan)
Variability: several subsp and varieties has been described, e.g., ssp. lycioides, ssp. oleoides, ssp. graecus (the latter in the eastern of the Mediterranean Basin)
Brief description: Evergreen shrub with rigid branches
Distribution: Souther Mediterranean. Common in Iberia and North Africa, but occurs also in Sardinia, Sicily, Greece, Turkey
Habitat: dry shrublands
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Rhus coriaria

Family: Anacardiaceae
Common names: sumac, elm-leaved sumach; zumaque (Spanish); Summaaq, Summaq (Arabic); Sumak (Turkish)
Brief description: deciduous
Distribution: Cultivated and naturalised specially in Italy (incl. Sicily) and Middle East.
Habitat:
Regeneration: resprouts and germinates after fire.
Uses and overuses: Spice for condiment specially in the eastern mediterranean and Near East. Dried fruits, usually sold ground (purple-reddish powder, often mixed with salt). Leaves are rich in tannins and used to tan leather.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages]
Images: [google]
[illustration] [illustration] [cultivation] [foliage/fruits] [foliage] [buds]
References: [google]
- Ne'eman G, Henig-Sever N, Eshel A. 1999. Regulation of the germination of Rhus coriaria, a post-fire pioneer, by heat, ash, pH, water potential and ethylene. Physiologia Plantarum 106:47–52.

Salix ...

Syn.:
Family: Salicaceae
Common names:
Variability:
Brief description:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Sambucus nigra

Family: Caprifoliaceae
Common names: Elder, Elderberry, Black Elder; sauco (Spanish); saüc (Catalan);
Brief description: deciduous small tree
Distribution: In most Europe, including the Mediterranean part, North Africa and southwest Asia.
Habitat: In the Mediterranean area growth in moist places
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: medicinal plant. The leaves and stems are poisonous.
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [Köhler's illustration] [B&W illustration] [foliage/flowers] [fruits]
References: [google]

Styrax officinale

Family: Styracaceae
Common names: ; estoraque (Spanish)
Brief description: winter deciduous shrub or small tree, up to 7 m.
Distribution: South Asia, Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Lebanon, Italy)
Habitat:
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: medicinal, gardening
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [jardin]
Images: [google] [illustration] [flowers] [foliage w/ flowers: 1, [fruit]
References: [google]

Tamarix africana

Syn.: T. hispanica
Family: Tamaricaceae
Common names: ; Taray, taraje (Spanish); tamariu africà (Catalan)
Brief description:
Distribution: western mediterranean. Coastal areas of the western mediterranean, but also inland in North Africa.
Habitat: moist saline soils
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [plant]
References: [google]

Tamarix boveana

Family: Tamaricaceae
Common names: ; tamariu alacantí (Catalan)
Brief description:
Distribution: western mediterranean. North Africa and some spots in Spain (e.g., Alacant).
Habitat: moist saline soils
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Tamarix anglica

Family: Tamaricaceae
Distribution: western mediterranean and atlantic zones.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Tamarix canariensis

Family: Tamaricaceae
Distribution: western mediterranean.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Tamarix parviflora

Family: Tamaricaceae
Distribution: eastern mediterranean.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Ulmus minor

Family: Ulmaceae
Common names: Field Elm; Olmo (Spanish); Om (Catalan)
Brief description: winter deciduous tree
Distribution: Most Europe North Africa and western Asia.
Habitat: riparian forests
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance; produces suckers from roots and stumps. Seeds are easily dispersed by wind.
Uses and overuses: planted since long ago (Romans, etc.)
Status: IUCN = Lower Risk /least concern [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
[illustration, 2] [foliage: 1]
References: [google]

Viburnum tinus ssp. tinus

Family: Caprifoliaceae
Common names: Laurustinus; durillo (Spanish); marfull (Catalan)
Variability: V. tinus ssp. regidum and ssp. subcordatum growth in Canary Islands and Azores, respectively.
Brief description: a evergreen shrub (rarely a small tree) reaching up to 2-7 m tall, with a dense, rounded crown. Fruit: drupe.
Distribution: Mediterranean. Absent in Greece.
Habitat: evergreen oak forests.
Regeneration: resprouts after disturbance
Uses and overuses: cultivated in many European and North American gardens.
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
[illustration] [flowers] [leaves/flowers] [fruit] [plant] [leaves/flowers]
References: [google]

Vitex agnus-castus

Family: Verbenaceae
Common names: Vitex (Chaste Tree, Chasteberry, or Monk's Pepper); Gatillo casto, Hierba de la castidad, Pimentera, Zausgatillo (Spanish); aloc (Catalan)
Brief description: aromatic small deciduous tree
Distribution:
Habitat: dry river beds, moist sites
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: Medicinal. Widely cultivated in warm temperate and subtropical regions for its aromatic foliage and flowers
Status:
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google] [illustration] [leaves/flowers] [flowers: 1] [plant: garden]
References: [google]

Withania frutescens

Syn.:
Family: Solanaceae
Common names: Oroval (Spanish); orval, bufera (catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: summer-deciduous shrub (ca. 2.5 m height)
Distribution: West-Mediterranean: southern Iberia and northern Africa
Habitat: dry/warm shrublands
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Zelkova abelicea

Family: Ulmaceae
Common names: Cretan Zelkova;
Brief description: winter deciduous
Distribution: Crete (endemic). Occurring in small numbers in 15-20 localities on the three main mountain massifs, especially at the south-east corner of the Omalós Plain.
Habitat:
Regeneration: Regenerate well after grazing by suckering.
Uses and overuses:
Status: IUCN = Vulnerable (VU B1+2ce, D2) [Red List].
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Zelkova sicula

Family: Ulmaceae
Common names: Sicilian Zelkova;
Brief description: small winter deciduous tree or shrub (2–3 m tall)
Distribution: single remote population extends 200 m along the banks of a stream on the northern slopes of the Iblei Mountains in south-eastern Sicily (endemic)
Habitat: Discovered in 1991, only some 200-250 individuals exist, growing in a very old cork oak (Quercus suber) forest.
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: The ancient oak forest hosting this species is rather degraded due to overexploitation (logging, grazing, and removal of cork) during several centuries.
Status: IUCN = Critically Endangered [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Ziziphus lotus

Syn.:
Family: Rhamnaceae
Common names: ; azufaifo (Spanish); ginjoler murcià (catalan)
Variability:
Brief description: winter-deciduous shrub (up to 2-3 m or more) with thorns (stipules). 1-cm fruits with a sweet pulp. It has very long/deep roots
Distribution: SE Iberian Peninsula, North Africa and eastern Mediterranean
Habitat: arid ecosystems
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses: edible fruit (fresh, dry or in jam), in the past was used for making bread, wine, and conserves. The wood is valued by craftsmen and for use a fuel.
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future] [waste.ideal]
Images: [google]
References: [google]

Ziziphus spina-christi

Syn.:
Family: Rhamnaceae
Common names: Christ's Thorn Jujube;
Variability:
Brief description: evergreen tree with thorns (stipules)
Distribution: southern Asia and Africa
Habitat: arid ecosystems
Regeneration:
Uses and overuses:fruits are edible. It is said that Jesus's Crown of Thorns was made from this tree
Status: IUCN= XXX [Red List]
Links: [wikipedia: en, es, fr] [Plants for a future]
Images: [google]
References: [google]


Genera by Families

Gymnosperms
Cupressaceae: Cupressus Juniperus Tetraclinis
Ephedraceae: Ephedra
Pinaceae: Pinus Abies Cedrus
Taxaceae: Taxus

Angiosperms
Altingiaceae: Liquidambar
Anacardiaceae: Pistacia Rhus
Apocynaceae: Nerium
Arecaceae (Plamae): Chamaerops Phoenix
Betulaceae: Carpinus Ostrya
Buxaceae: Buxus
Caprifoliaceae: Sambucus Viburnum
Ericaceae: Arbutus
Fabaceae: Acacia Anagyris Ceratonia Cercis Retama
Fagaceae: Castanea Fagus Quercus
Lauraceae: Laurus
Moraceae: Ficus
Moringaceae: Moringa
Myrtaceae: Myrtus
Oleaceae: Fraxinus Olea Phillyrea
Platanaceae: Platanus
Rhamnaceae: Paliurus Rhamnus Ziziphus
Rosaceae: Crataegus Prunus Pyrus
Salicaceae: Populus Salix
Santalaceae: Osyris
Sapindaceae: Acer
Sapotaceae: Argania
Solanaceae Withania
Styracaceae: Styrax
Tamaricaceae: Tamarix
Ulmaceae: Celtis Ulmus Zelkova
Verbenaceae: Vitex


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