Spanish and Portuguese Society for English Renaissance Studies

University of Valencia
22-24 April 2009


24/3/09 11:38 AM

BANDÍN FUERTES, Elena - Univ. Murcia
Appropriating Shakespeare in Franco’s Times:
a Sure Bet for Commercial Theatre Companies.

During the Francoist dictatorship not only were Shakespeare’s plays performed at the Teatro Español, but commercial theatre companies turned to Shakespearean plays to guarantee the feasibility of their performances. They were based on a business model which remained intact throughout the dictatorship and which could not allow their proposals to be rejected by the official censorship. Thus, Pemán’s Hamlet or González Ruiz’s Otelo served to give prestige to the Teatro Español, whereas commercial companies such as Enrique Guitart’s, Enrique Rambal’s or Alejandro Ulloa’s made use of Astrana’s translations because they were a sure bet in terms of state censorship.

The aim of the present paper is two-fold: 1) to show that tolerance towards Shakespeare’s plays was the norm of behaviour among official censors; and 2) to give evidence of how appropriation of previous literary translations was the norm of translation adopted by commercial theatre companies when staging Shakespeare, the highest degree of appropriation being direct plagiarism.

Friday, April 24th ; 09.30-11.00; Sala Juntas
BRÍGIDO CORACHÁN, Anna María - Univ. Valencia
An-Other Narrative in the The Tempest. The Muted Voice of Sycorax and Its Contemporary Legacy
In the past two decades, several (most significantly women) scholars have unearthed one of the most intriguing supporting characters in William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest, Caliban’s mother, “the blue-eyed hag” Sycorax. This character has recently been revisited from a wide range of Feminist and/or Postcolonial perspectives. Most of these studies focus on Sycorax’s silenced absence from the play as a manifestation of Renaissance patriarchal constructions of race and ethnicity. In this essay, I briefly review present-day scholarship on Shakespearean representations of gender and race, as well as establish a contrast between Shakespeare’s original text and two contemporary British adaptations of the play. In Derek Jarman’s film The Tempest (1989), and Peter Greenaway’s 1991 adaptation, Prospero’s Books (both concurrent with many of the revisionist studies of the play above-mentioned), we find brief but explicit visualizations of Sycorax, which seem to reinforce traditional, patriarchal stereotypes that not only continue to silence but further deform the othered competing narratives in The Tempest.
Thursday, April 24th ; 16.00-17.30; Sala Juntas
CALBI, Maurizio - Univ. Salerno
“The fowl was foul …the Fair was fair”: Billy Morrissette’s Reinvention of Macbeth
The paper focuses on Billy Morrissette’s Scotland, PA (2001), an adaptation of Macbeth set in 1970s rural America. Probably taking its cue from the scenes of banqueting and hospitality that appear at crucial turning points in Shakespeare’s play, the witches’ boiling “cauldron” (4.1.4) that materialises at the beginning of act four, as well as the many references to animals that prey and are preyed upon, this adaptation creatively literalises appetite, and brings centre-stage the consumption of animals and the serving of food. It presents two self-proclaimed underachievers and unappreciated employees, Joe McBeth and his wife Pat, who conspire to murder Duncan, the owner of a dowdy local diner. After the murder, they refurbish the diner, streamline burger production, and start a “drive thru.” As carnivorous king and queen of burgers and fries, they are opposed to Lt. McDuff, a vegetarian detective who disdains their food, listens to New Age music, and, after McBeth and his wife’s tragic ending, opens a vegetarian restaurant at the same location. The paper raises questions about the significance of food in this adaptation, and explores the class and gender dynamics through which this adaptation reinvents Macbeth, arguing that it simultaneously conjures up the “original” and subverts it. More generally, it suggests that this adaptation allegorises, like some other recent adaptations of Macbeth, the process of incorporating “Shakespeare”, and does it by continuously drawing attention to leftovers of food which are also textual remainders.
Friday, April 24th ; 12.30-13.30; Salón Grados
CALVO LÓPEZ, Clara - Univ. Murcia
Sites of Memory, Sites of Conflict: Early Modern England and WWI
From 1914 to 1919, the Western Front and the North Sea were not the only sites of conflict. In 1916, at a time when the Great War had become a World War, with battle scenarios in several continents, some of the most enduring battles were fought at the Home Front. The 1916 Tercentenary turned Shakespeare’s England into a site of memory that kindled commemoration of England’s heroic past and into a site of conflicting views, needs and desires. This paper aims to examine several areas in which representations of early modern English culture during the First World War provided occasion for conflict, by focusing on people (Queen Elizabeth in relation to Mary Stuart, Bacon in relation to Shakespeare) media (film in relation to theatre) and nation (Germany in relation to England).
Friday, April 24th ; 18.00-19.00; Salón Grados
CAMPILLO ARNAIZ, Laura - Univ. Murcia
Building the Myth of a Romantic Hamlet in Spain

Leandro Fernández de Moratín’s translation of Hamlet in 1798 was a highlight in the history of Shakespeare reception in Spain. It was the first translation ever done from the English original, and it was accompanied by a critical apparatus -Introduction, Prologue and Notes- that became a blueprint for the future Shakespearian translations that appeared in the nineteenth century.

In an age of Neoclassical principles and rules, Moratín’s faithful rendering of Hamlet was a major achievement which, unfortunately, received little critical appraisal. It was not until the twentieth century when a number of Spanish critics recovered Moratín’s translation and analysed it in a series of literary studies (Juliá (1918), Ruppert (1920), Par (1935), Pujals (1975), Regalado (1986), Verdaguer (2004) and Pujante (2007).

The outcome of this modern research was as surprising as it was unexpected, for Moratín’s Hamlet was unanimously judged a Romantic translation which made its otherwise Neoclassical author a visionary playwright with a genuine devotion for Shakespeare.

In this paper, we will seek to unravel the complex circumstances which led Spanish critics to this conclusion, and we will propose an alternative if uncomfortable explanation to the reason behind Moratín’s Hamlet, which in our opinion was conceived as an anti-Shakespearean pamphlet to prevent the Bard’s influence from contaminating the Spanish stage.

Thursday, April 23rd ; 09.30-11.00; Salón Grados
CERDÁ MARTÍNEZ, Juan Francisco - Univ. Murcia
Spaces of Patronage: The Enchanted Island and Prospero’s Books
This paper looks at the changing relationship between patronage and political discourse in Restoration drama and British avant-garde cinema by looking at two of these artefacts, namely, Davenant and Dryden’s The Tempest; or The Enchanted Island and Peter Greenaway’s Prospero’s Books. The point of departure is to analyse the relationship between both artistic objects and the position they held in relation to the dominant political discourses at the time of production. In parallel, the paper illustrates how two different forms of patronage — those characteristic of Restoration drama and British independent cinema circles — testify to cultural phenomena and how this may affect the texts’ interpretation. From this perspective, the discussion looks at the transformation of the audience and the texts’ theatrical and cinematic space in the way they prove significant elements for the discussion of political patronage. Thus, the development of the playhouse and the 'social dimension of playgoing' in the Restoration, together with the configuration of film circuits, cinematic spaces and audiences at the end of the twentieth century are taken into account to discuss the relationship between two very different appropriations of Shakespeare’s The Tempest and their political interpretation.
Thursday, April 24th ; 16.00-17.30; Sala Juntas
CEREZO, Marta & CORA, Jesús - UNED
Shakespeare’s Sonnets 21 in the Light of George Herbert’s “Jordan (II)”: Seventeenth-Century Evidence for an Alternative Reading.

It has often been pointed out that George Herbert’s poem “Jordan (II)” (The Temple, 1633) is a sacred parody or contrafactum of Sir Philip Sidney’s Astrophil and Stella 2. However, not many editors point out that this imitation is actually mediated through Shakespeare’s own disputatio with Sidney’s sonnet in Sonnets 21. Shakespeare’s and Herbert’s sonnets share the same consideration of truth and sincerity in poetry, although each in its own field of secular and religious poetry. Herbert draws from Shakespeare’s sonnet to voice his particular concern over the plainness of both his poetic diction and his expression of truth and true religious feeling. Thus, lines 5 and 6 in “Jordan (II)” (“Curling with metaphors a plain intention, / Decking the sense, as if it were to sell.”) are closely modelled on Shakespeare’s final couplet in sonnet 21 (“Let them say more that like of hearsay well; / I will not praise that purpose not to sell”).

This paper discusses Herbert’s lines 5 and 6 as early modern evidence that validates the alternative reading and interpretation of Shakespeare’s final couplet as a coherent closing to sonnet 21 that we first proposed at the 16th SEDERI conference held in Murcia in 2005. This reading contests and challenges the traditional interpretation, constantly and uncritically repeated by even the latest editors of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, based on the consideration of the traditional proverb: “He praises who wishes to sell” (Tilley 546) and Love’s Labour’s Lost 4.3.184-87 thus forcing the final couplet to break the cohesion of the sonnet by reading against the conventional regular structure and metaphoric unity of the Renaissance and Shakespearean sonnet.

Thursday, April 23rd ; 16.00-17.00; Sala Juntas
CHAVES TIRADO, Rubén - Univ. Sevilla
Who Wrote The Life of Mother Shipton and Who Did it First?
A Comparison of Richard Head’s The Life and Death of Mother Shipton (1677) and Thomas Thompson’s The Life of Mother Shipton (1668?)

There has been some discussion as to the authorship of the play The Life of Mother Shipton, ascribed by Francis Kirkman to a Thomas Thompson, whose identity remains a mystery. However, critics like Macmanaway suggested that Richard Head, who wrote The Life and Death of Mother Shipton (1677), a narrative with many similarities with the aforementioned play, was the author behind the play. This argument seems all the more feasible as Thomas Thompson also wrote a play entitled The English Rogue (1668) and coincides, if only in title, with another narrative of the same name by Richard Head.

Therefore this paper will explore not only the stilistic similarities between the two works dealing with Mother Shipton but also also the differences, not only stylistic but also ideological, as a way to elucidate if Richard Head was the author behind the play. This will also serve to to shed some light on the precedence of the narrative over the play, which has been up to this day taken for granted, without any regard to the possibility that the play was acted before Head’s work.

Friday, April 24th ; 09.30-11.00; Salón Grados
CINPOES, Nicoleta - Univ. Worcester
"Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:/ She has deceived her father, and may thee." Do Defrauding Daughters Turn Deviant Wives?

Brabantio’s warning (to the Moor in Othello) on the changing nature of female loyalty cues the present paper. Closely examining daughters caught in the conflict between anxious fathers and husbands-to-be, this paper sets out to explore female deliberate deviancy and its legal and dramatic implications with reference to Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus and The Merchant of Venice.

I will argue that Lavinia’s, Portia’s, and Jessica’s struggle to evade male subsidiarity results in their conscious positioning on the verge of illegality. Besides occasioning productive exploration of law and justice ‘within the dynamics of human desire and of social institutions’ (Morss 2007:183), I argue that their self-exclusion reconfigures the male domain by affording the inclusion of previous outsiders (Bassianus, Antonio, Bassanio and Shylock) but only to reassert the status quo – one in which women maintain their deviant role.

Thursday, April 23rd ; 12.30-13-30; Salón Grados
DE PANDO MENA, Paula - Univ. Sevilla
Phallic Women and Unmanly Kings: History and Scandal in The Fatal Discovery.
The anonymous The Fatal Discovery (1698) is a highly experimental rewriting of a medieval story by Marguerite of Navarre which narrates the triple incest between a mother and her son and daughter. Beringaria, the incestuous mother, reverses the tradition of tyrant fathers in vogue throughout the Restoration: her attempts to prevent a marriage between her son and daughter -who are not aware of their shared parentage- align her with the stock characters of the despotic father and king, whose absolutism is symbolized by their brutal irruption in the sphere of sentiment. The play is an exploration of the consequences of the dissolution of the Law of the Father: Beringaria is what Julia Kristeva would call a “phallic mother”, whose unnatural dominance over those around her evidences the loss of points of reference in a historical moment of transition.
Friday, April 24th ; 16.00-17.30; Salón Grados
DE VICENTE SERVIO, Pilar - Univ. Sevilla
The Courier’s Tragedy, a Mock Revenge Tragedy in Thomas Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49.

In The Crying of Lot 49, Thomas Pynchon offers his own version of an early modern revenge tragedy in The Courier’s Tragedy. This paper comments on the language and plot of Pynchon’s play, identifying possible sources of inspiration and examining the author’s use of this genre’s conventions, delving into Pynchon’s use of allusion and the characteristics of his parody.

Pynchon “quotes” numerous conventions of revenge tragedy, respecting some and subverting others. The consequence of rewriting a specific genre, of putting already-existing materials in a new context, is that they interact in new, unexpected ways. Thus, unrelated as renaissance England and postmodernist America are, Pynchon could not have found a more appropriate genre to reflect on issues that are at stake in both a 1960s pseudo-detective novel and a mock revenge tragedy. The author manages to approximate two genres that seem totally unrelated; proving that it is possible to convey such apparently revolutionary notions as the critique of language, meaning and historiography, the Protean concept of identity or the need to revise the current concept of justice through the parody of such an apparently old-fashioned genre as the revenge tragedy.

Friday, April 24th ; 19.00-20.00; Sala Juntas
DÍEZ GARCÍA, María José - Univ. Salamanca
Ryan J-W Smith’s Sweet Love Adieu: The Return of the Bard
In the late twentieth-century a young and versatile playwright made a big impact on the British dramatic scene: Ryan J-W Smith. His works seem to counter the most modern drama by straying completely from the style of his contemporaries. In fact, Smith is an accomplished writer of verse drama as well as he restores the milieu of the Elizabethan times. Therefore, this paper attempts to offer an approach to Smith’s style and his way of making theatre through the analysis of his debut creation Sweet Love Adieu (1998). In this play, entirely written in rhyming iambic verse, Smith makes use of a heightened archaic language combined with modern vocabulary to convey everyday human stories. Sweet Love Adieu means an original pastiche of Shakespeare’s tragedy Romeo and Juliet with a hilarious farcical comedy. In this play Smith actually endeavours to fuse the classic structure of Elizabethan drama with modern comedy to create a unique work which entertains the audience. The result is an enjoyable and delightful play, a neo-Elizabethan comedy where one can find rhymed couplets, cross-dressing, swordplay and a happy ending; in short, as several critics have considered, “Shakespeare for a modern audience”.
Friday, April 24th ; 18.00-19.30; Sala Juntas
DOBSON, Michael - Birkbeck College, Univ. London
The Pageant of History: Nostalgia, the Tudors and the Community Play
This paper considers the persistence of the Renaissance pageant in modern and post-modern culture, both as a recurrent metaphor for history in general and as a feature of stage, cinematic and communal representations of early modern history in particular. Arguing that in Anglophone culture at least the early modern period has been identified with dances, courtly games and public celebrations in plays, films and community pageants on the subject to precisely the extent that those works have themselves been self-consciously festive and recreational, the paper examines a number of examples of the apparently arbitrary and unstoppable inclusion of processions, feasts, maypole dances and masques in different modern representations of Tudor England, drawing in part on eyewitness accounts of English local pageants. It identifies the immediate post-war years in particular as a time when the words 'European', 'Renaissance' and 'festival' became purposively intertwined.
Thursday, April 23rd ; 11.30-12.30; Salón Grados
FIGUEROA DORREGO, Jorge - Univ. Vigo
The Three London Jilts of the Restoration
During the English Restoration period there were two anonymous texts of prose fiction with the phrase London Jilt in the title or subtitle: The London Jilt: or, The Politick Whore (1683) and The German Princess Revived: or, The London Jilt (1684). Moreover, Alexander Oldys’s The Female Gallant: or, The Wife’s the Cuckold (1692) has a second title after the dedication: “The London Jilt; or, The Female Cuckold.” This has led to the incorrect ascription of the first anonymous text, whose authorship has often been wrongly attributed to Oldys. The recurrence of the title seems to attest the popularity of the first London Jilt, on which two authors or publishers considered valuable enough to capitalise in order to encourage the reading of their texts. This paper will analyse the similitude and differences between the three prose narratives because, in spite of sharing the same title or subtitle, LJPW is a picaresque novel about an anti-heroine who resorts to prostitution and trickstering, GPR is a brief criminal biography about the famous female thief Jenney Voss, and FG is a Restoration novel that features a wanton woman.
Friday, April 24th ; 09.30-11.00; Salón Grados
FONT PAZ, Carme - Univ. Autònoma Barcelona

The Case for Prophecy: Politics, Gender and Self-representation in 17th-century Prophetic Genres


It has been suggested that women prophets in the culture of seventeenth-century England represent the first significant group of women to establish the political authority of self-conscious female identity, and that as such they represent a foundational moment in the development of modern feminist consciousness.

My paper will argue that the political, religious and social upheavals in the English Revolution witnessed an explosion of prophetic speech among women. As a result, women prophets forged a widely-read literary genre which suited both their private and public concerns; at the same time, this venue allowed them to approach a sense of feminine writing away from the topos found in the Querelles des femmes , thus contributing to the formation of a prehistory of novelistic discourse (understood in Bakhtinean terms).

According to Phyllis Mack, some three hundred women prophesied during the 1640s and 1650s. Not all of these women's visions appeared as published tracts, but documentary evidence indicates that in the years 1641 to 1660, some 50 women prophets produced roughly 156 published treatises. Given that only 39 female-authored first editions of any genre appeared in the first forty years of the seventeenth century, the women prophets' publishing record represents a significant contribution in women's literary history.

In the manner of the Hebrew prophets of old, many female visionaries understood themselves to be called by God to warn political leaders. For women such as these, calls to prophesy and to intervention in the public sphere could take the form of dramatic visions, complex dreams, and audible voices. Likewise, prophetic messages themselves ranged from dramatic pronouncements of doom to carefully plotted exegetical commentary.

My paper will study these issues focusing on three prophetic discourses: Eleanor Davies To the Citie of London (1645); Anna Trapnel The Cry of a Stone (1654); and Katherine Evans and Sarah Cheevers A Short Relation of their Sufferings (1662).

  Friday, April 24th ; 19.00-20.00; Sala Juntas
FRASER, Scott - Univ. West England
Fracted and Corroborate: The Kingship of Shakespeare’s Henry V.
Criticism concerning the personal political development of King Henry V is most often focused on his relationship with Falstaff; and while the interpretation of that relationship can vary widely, it is as often dependent on the variety of symbolic attributions to Falstaff as it is to the critical approach taken by the author. Even with the multitude of religious, political, social and gendered readings of the character, critics have invariably (and understandably) tended to focus most often on the events leading up to and including the rejection scene in 2 Henry IV, and have given far less attention to the report of his death in Henry V. In light of criticism concerning the relationship between Falstaff and the actor Will Kemp, as well as the roles of the stage Vice and clown, this essay will focus on the report in an attempt to reinterpret it and its importance for the play as a whole. As will be seen, in performance it actually formed an integral part of an iterative process that would have served to problematize the presentation of kingship in Henry V on the early modern stage.
Thursday, April 23rd ; 12.30-13.30; Salón Grados
GARCÍA PERIAGO, Rosa María - Univ. Murcia
"As Osment likes it": Blackness, Homosexuality and the Politics of the Age in This Island’s Mine
The interpretation of Shakespeare’s “others” has caused controversy and discussion. Shakespeare’s Caliban is a case in point and has been rewritten and appropriated differently. George Lamming, Octave Mannoni, Roberto Fernández Retamar and black female writers such as Gloria Naylor and Toni Morrison have focused on this figure. This complexity concerning Caliban actually stems from the past in which all foreigners were regarded similarly by the Western gaze. Several stereotypes like the connection between blackness and homosexuality were built upon strangers, basically to strengthen national identity. The aim of this paper is to explore the parameters of ethnicity and sexual orientation in Philip Osment’s This Island’s Mine to relate them to the stereotypes associated with outsiders in Shakespeare’s time and to the politics of the 80s: Thatcherism. With the help of Celia R. Daileader’s notion of “Othellophilia,” anxiety about Selwyn’s identity – the main character in Osment’s play – will come to the surface, this figure owing as much to Caliban as to Othello. Ania Loomba’s ideas about the strong connection between blackness and homosexuality in the Renaissance will also be applied to Selwyn. The two sections of the paper show that the present is very much linked with the past and, if nationalism was the key in Shakespeare’s time, so was it in the 80s.
Friday, April 24th ; 16.00-17.30; Sala Juntas
GÓMEZ LARA, Manuel José - Univ. Sevilla
Serializing Elizabeth: The Tilbury Speech and the Myth of Elizabeth Revised in
The Virgin Queen (BBC, 2005) and Elizabeth I (Channel 4, 2005)
After Susan Frye’s article “The Myth of Elizabeth at Tilbury”(The Sixteenth Century Journal 23, 1992, pp.95-114), the Tilbury speech has become a site of controversy for revisionist historians. Its role in the making of the myth and the different “narrative” elements sorrounding the speech and its delivery have been used to discuss the text(s) either as a piece of historical forgery or as a historically truthful event. I would like to follow up this ongoing discussion by focusing upon two very recent TV serials, one produced for public television (BBC), the other for a company privately run (Channel 4). The episode division in 45’ compact programmes enhances the role of Tilbury as the turning point in the history of Elizabeth. The centrality of the speech in the contruction of a nationalistic discourse runs parallel to the imperatives of refashioning the queen for modern TV viewers. In these serials, the life of Elizabeth is built on his “amours” but in both of them the Tilbury speech brings into focus the heroic dimension of Elizabeth. Politics and love are no longer contradictory terms for this new Elizabeth, who overcomes the boundaries of both the “Woman Alone of All her Sex” and the “Virgin Queen”, and projects a vision of herself as a contemporary forceful woman with a tender heart, very much in line with the latest feminist constructions of the character.
Friday, April 24th ; 18.00-19.00; Salón Grados
GREGOR, Keith - Univ. Murcia
Spain's 'National' Shakespeares. A Comparative Approach
The paper considers performances of Shakespeare by ‘national’ companies from the start of the Franco dictatorship in Spain and from the decades of the 1980s and early 90s, following the restoration and consolidation of democracy. Disregarding the massive ideological differences separating Francoism and the ruling parties of the so-called ‘Transition’, a comparison between productions from these two periods reveals some striking similarities in both the kind of plays selected and the ways in which they were staged. In both cases the companies involved (the Español and the Centro Dramático Nacional) were committed to the production of a restricted range of plays, employing versions written especially for the occasion by well-known authors whose name tended to be a byword for artistic kudos and commercial success. As to the manner of production, the emphasis was on spectacular, large-scale mises-en-scene with ample casts headed by high-profile actors, many of them drafted in from other media, such as music, TV and cinema. As well as restoring a certain ‘dignity’ to the Spanish stage, which was embroiled in the futile endeavour to compete with other forms of entertainment, the incursions into Shakespeare in both epochs can be seen as an attempt to promote the national theatre as both a showcase of artistic excellence and an index of the country’s position at the 'forefront' of European culture.
Friday, April 24th ; 09.30-11.00; Sala Juntas
HUTCHINGS, Mark - Univ. Reading
Performing the Peace, 1603-5.

When James acceded to the English throne he and Anna of Denmark set in motion a process that began in 1603 and concluded only in 1605. This paper explores the narrative of negotiations towards and the formal signings – plural – of the peace between England and Spain as an extended performance. This involved not only one – or two – official, ceremonial acts in London and Valladolid but a sequence of events in both England and then Spain, as first the Spanish and then the English diplomatic missions were entertained by their counterparts.

This cross-cultural narrative included entertainment at James’s court for Villamediana in January 1604, when he attended a masque, and a series of civic entertainments for Nottingham from his landing in Spain to his arrival in Valladolid in 1605, following the signing of the peace at Somerset House in August 1604. These events were official exercises in diplomacy and hospitality, yet they also served a theatrical purpose which the printed narrative accounts underscored. Indeed, the peace thus became a performance transmitted and circulated among a range of audiences. This paper examines the ways in which the performative features of this narrative might be explored for their literary, theatrical, and political significance.

Wednesday, April 22th ; 18.30-19.30; Salón Grados
KETTNICH, Karen & MATUSKA, Agnes - Univ. Szeged
The Vice’s Broom: Creating the Empty Space in Early-Modern English Drama

In Puck's epilogue to A Midsummer Night's Dream, he tells us: "I am sent with broom before/ To sweep the dust behind the door." The image of a playmaker with a broom predates Puck significantly, however, cropping up, for example, in John Bale when the Vice enters with a "brom-brom-brom. In a later incarnation, broom and playmaker come together again as Jonson puns on the physical object of the broom and the name of his former-apprentice playwright.

Last year, we explored the magic Vices offer with their surprise legerdemain and creation of mirth, play, and identity. This year, as a part of our ongoing research into the heritage of the Vice as improvising playmaker, we will examine the previous stage of performance: creating of the empty space. Looking at the physical and metaphorical broom of the Vice and his successors, and the manner in which they clear an open and potentially magical space for play, we will ask what exactly these Vices are cleaning; what are they cleaning for?

Friday, April 24th ; 19.00-20.00; Salón Grados
LANIER, Douglas - Univ. New Hampshire
Murdering Othello: Valentin, In Othello, Stage Beauty
A fascinating metadramatic motif in early film adaptation of Shakespeare involves a stage performance of Shakespeare –often Othello– in which one of the actors is murdered in reality. After the post-World War II triumph of film as a mass medium over stage performance, this trope largely disappears from cinematic history. With the revitalization of Shakespearean screen adaptation in the 1990s, however, three recent films have taken up this trope: Juan Luis Iborra's Valentín (2003), Roysten Abel's In Othello (2003), and Richard Eyre's Stage Beauty (2004). My talk will examine these three films in the context of this metadramatic trope's history, particularly within the history of screen adaptation of Shakespeare. In all three, the plot involves a group of stage actors putting on a performance of Othello. And in all three Othello is the vehicle–or threatens to be–for the real murder of one of the cast members. Unlike earlier versions of this trope, however, these films engage not only the relationship between theater and film but also issues of identity politics. However, the identity politics these works address are not, as we might expect of Othello, matters of race or religion, but rather of sexuality, caste and class. That occlusion provides a revealing context within which to interpret more conventional film adaptations of Othello in the last decade.
Friday, April 24th ; 12.30-13.30; Salón Grados
MARTÍNEZ GARCÍA, Laura - Univ. Oviedo
Educating the Female Mind: Female Sense and “Folly”
in Mary Pix’s The Innocent Mistress (1697)
Tudor times were a watershed as far as female education was concerned; it was during the Tudor period that education became a most desirable asset in a woman. But as education and literacy became more widespread amongst both sexes, a new worry arose: intellectuals were concerned that since the female mind was “weaker” and more prone to fantasy, reading could be dangerous for young women, who could very easily be mislead by the “follies” they read in novels, and in consequence, expect their lives to be similar to the lives of the heroines of their favourite novels. Two views arose: on the one hand, the most conservative view, advocated for a strict control and limitation on female education, while the most advanced group strived for an improvement of female training, demanding an education that would focus on important matters, instructing them as sensible women who would always prefer books that would improve their minds, females that could see the danger of believing that sentimental novels were a loyal reflection of life, females that could read these novels without any danger of becoming obsessed with romance. Mary Pix (1666-1720?), an advocate for the improvement of female instruction, shows her audience the perils of a lack of proper instruction and the benefits of proper education in the characters of Bellinda and Arabella respectively, the two heroines of her play The Innocent Mistress (1697). With her defence of a sensible education, we can consider Mary Pix one of the many intellectuals that, during the seventeenth century, advanced what would in the next centuries become the passionate debate on female education and its perils.
Friday, April 24th ; 16.00-17.30; Salón Grados
MARTÍNEZ LÓPEZ, Miguel - Univ. Valencia
’Shooting first’: War and Peace in English Utopias of the Renaissance.
(A 21st Century Reading)

As we deal everyday with the reality of war, the longing for peace, and History’s insistence in defying the best intentions of the human race, European renaissance literature may offer some clues for a better understanding of some of our contemporary controversies: just war requirements, preemptive wars, preventive wars, treatment of P.O.W.s, and the progress of disillusion about the avoidability of war in and outside anti-war narratives, to name just a few. At the time of the formation of the nation-states of Britain, France and Spain, while Alberico Gentili was lecturing at Oxford University on the ius ad bellum and the ius in bello, Lord Deputy Arthur Grey of Wilton was ordering his troops to execute six hundred Irish, Italian and Spanish soldiers who had just surrendered (the Irish hanged and the rest put to the sword) in the so-called Smerwick massacre

For many, the idea of a better world requires a society without war and violence. The dream of a better world soon became so much an essential condition of the human experience that the term utopia, coined by Thomas More in 1516, immediately turned into a rhetorical paradigm around which all later utopias (and a substantial part of contemporary political literature) have been built. This lecture will attempt a reading of contemporary controversies about war and peace through the exploration of the morality of utopianism as depicted in two early English renaissance utopias: Th. More’s The Best State of a Commonwealth and the New Island of Utopia (1516) and F. Bacon’s New Atlantis (1626).

Wednesday, April 22th ; 11.00-12.00; Salón Grados
MASSAI, Sonia - King’s College, Univ. London
"To be ever one": Sexual/Textual Proximities in Early English Drama in Print
My paper identifies incest as a master metaphor shaping strategies of sexual / textual production and reproduction in the fictive world of early English drama and in its transmission into print. Building on Gayle Rubin’s notion of ‘sex/gender systems’ as ‘arrangements by which a society transforms biological sexuality into products of human activity’, I consider ways in which the representation of incestuous proximities on the early modern stage offers fresh insight into the impact of print on the transmission of dramatic texts in the early modern period and in current editorial theories and practices.
Friday, April 24th ; 11.30-12.30; Salón Grados
MONRÓS GASPAR, Laura - Univ. Alicante
“To be or not to be Shakespeare”: Robert Reece and Victorian Classical Burlesque

Nineteenth-century burlesque has traditionally been regarded as a poor quality drama which added little interest to the history of English theatre. Notwithstanding the lack of verbal wit of many of the plays, Victorian burlesque is a valuable source for understanding the politics, culture, humour and the aesthetic taste of the age. The plots of burlesque were recurrent and the parodies ranged from Shakespeare to melodrama, novels, historical figures and classical myths and legends.

Seminal studies by Stanley Wells and Richard W. Schoch demonstrate how all major burlesque authors such as Francis Talfourd, the Brough brothers, Francis C. Burnand, and Henry James Byron succumbed to the temptation of parodying the Bard. Second cousin to Shakespearean burlesque, Classical burlesque often appealed to famous scenes and speeches from Shakespeare’s tragedies to guarantee the favour of the audience. This paper seeks to explore the reception of Shakespearean tragedy within Victorian Classical burlesque as epitome of the syncretism between high-brow and popular stereotypes in the cultural texture of Victorian comic theatre. To this purpose I shall consider Robert Reece’s uses of Hamlet and Macbeth in Agamemnon and Cassandra, or the Prophet and Loss of Troy (1868).

Friday, April 24th ; 18.00-19.30; Sala Juntas
MORA SENA, María José - Univ. Sevilla
Gendering the Restoration Prologue
Though women were admitted to the stage in England after the theatres reopened in1660, some provinces of performance —like the speaking of prologues and epilogues— remained very much a male preserve. In the early Restoration period epilogues given to women are scarce, and are typically delivered by actresses still in character. But female prologues virtually did not exist for almost a decade, and the first to be spoken were presented as exceptional, transgressive pieces. This paper reviews the prologues and epilogues written for the English theatres in the 1660's, in an attempt to trace the actress’s conquest of this territory and analyze the way in which these texts negotiated gender issues.
Friday, April 24th ; 16.00-17.30; Salón Grados
ONCINS, José Luis - Univ. Extremadura
A Corpus Stylistic Approach to Shakespeare's Phraseological Language:
Some Applications (and Some Complications)
(PART 1)

This paper presents an exploration of Shakespeare's phraseological language by using Corpus Stylistic methodology and techniques. As part of a research project on Shakespeare's phraseology*, the paper aims to show through a few practical examples some of the advantages of using electronic tools -for instance, for the automatic identification and retrieval of a large number of phraseological patterns in his plays- and their applicability to different areas of Shakespeare studies, such as authorship attribution, style, or translations. The paper also discusses some of the difficulties that we have encountered in using these tools for exploring certain aspects of Shakespeare's phraseology.

Project title: A Discourse-based approach to the phraseological language of Shakespeare's Plays: with special reference to the modification of phraseological units (HUM 2005/ 01062FIL).

Thursday, April 23rd ; 16.00-17.00; Salón Grados
PÉREZ JÁUREGUI, María Jesús - Univ. Sevilla
“Black sparkling eyes”: Henry Constable’s Praise of Penelope Rich

From the early 1580s on, Penelope Rich (née Devereux) was the brightest star at Elizabeth’s court. Daughter and sister to the Earls of Essex, her descent from Mary Boleyn and —almost certainly— Henry VIII, gave her also close kinship to Queen Elizabeth. Her beauty, charm, education and wit earned her the praise of many remarkable men of her time, the most famous tribute being Sidney’s sonnet sequence Astrophil and Stella.

Besides providing the inspiration for Stella, Penelope may have been the Diana to whom Constable addressed his sonnet sequence, first published in 1592, and certainly makes an appearance in five sonnets included among his poems addressed to noble personages in the Todd MS (Victoria and Albert Museum, MS Dyce 44) which bear unequivocal references to her name. Of these sonnets, the corpus of my analysis, two engage with conventional love praise following Sidney’s model; two celebrate and bemoan the birth and death of Penelope’s daughter in 1588 while at the same time extolling the mother; and a fifth addresses Nicholas Hilliard, the famous miniature painter whose portrait of Penelope Constable carried to Scotland in 1589 as a present for King James. Sidney’s influence on Constable, the cult of Penelope, and Constable’s status as an insider in the Devereux’s political circle and manoeuvres, converge in these sonnets, providing new clues about this fascinating woman and her admirer. 

Thursday, April 23rd ; 16.00-17.00; Sala Juntas
PERNI LLORENTE, Remedios - Univ. Murcia
Ophelia at Margins: the Recovery of the Body
The title of this paper is composed of two parts: “Ophelia at margins” and “The Recovery of the Body,” which correspond to the two main sections articulated in it. Each of them, in turn, can be read ambiguously, depending on the different senses that I would like to suggest for the words margins and recovery respectively. I propose the use of the word margins in relation to the marginal role of Ophelia in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. This marginal position of Ophelia, far from being relocated, has often been accentuated by Art, which has persisted in presenting an Ophelia reified for the male gaze. The final objective of this paper is to show the change of place of Ophelia in the visual history of her representation, from a marginal position to the alternative ways put forward by some postmodern and 21st cent artists, particularly in the photographic medium. Among the works selected for this paper, I would like to point out those taking part in two recent collective photographic exhibitions Me, Ophelia (Amsterdam, 2008) and Ofelias y Ulises (Venice, 2001 and Duisburg 2002), together with the personal visions provided by artists such as Ana Mendieta, Gregory Crewdson and Miranda Lehman. As we will see, Ophelia’s body has been recovered, so that she has emerged from the margins in order to be re-read and turn into a vehicle for the expression of female concerns.
Wednesday, April 22th ; 16.30-17.30; Sala Juntas
PUJANTE, Ángel-Luis - Univ. Murcia
Shakespeare's Sonnets in Spanish: Rescuing the Early Verse Translations

The first Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, by the Cuban Matías de Velasco y Rojas (Madrid, 1877), were in prose, but in 1889 Velasco published what may be the first verse rendering in Spanish of a Shakespearean sonnet. Further verse translations followed for over thirty years. However, and unlike their fortunes in Germany — where the whole cycle of Shakespeare’s Sonnets was being translated in verse from the first half of the 19th century—, none of the verse translators of the Sonnets into Spanish in these three decades concentrated so exclusively on Shakespeare as to render all the sonnets or even a substantial number of them. Instead, Spanish verse renderings were scattered in various literary reviews and anthologies of English and foreign poetry in Spain and Latin America, which has made it difficult to trace them.

The present paper provides new evidence of 21 early verse translations of the Sonnets into Spanish that have never been listed in the relevant bibliographies, discusses their first publication, the translators, their characteristics and importance, and complements the extant information with some new facts.

Thursday, April 23rd ; 09.30-11.00; Salón Grados
QUEIROZ DE BARROS, Rita - Univ. Lisbon
What’s in a Variorum? Exploring Linguistic Information in a Variorum Edition of Richard II (or Troilus and Cressida)

Despite the multi, inter- or transdisciplinary trends we have been witnessing for a few decades, there are still areas of research that go along astonishingly apart. Historical English linguistics and the edition of Shakespeare’s texts are a case in point: bearing on his remarkable erudition on both the history of English and Shakespeare’s works, Norman Blake has proven that decisions required in the editing of that canon would certainly benefit from developments in modern and historical linguistics (1997) and claimed that historians of English would profit from a comparative study of the various Renaissance editions of Shakespeare’s texts (1990: 78-79; 1991: 56) .

Recognizing this as a judicious and almost unchallenged piece of criticism as far as research on the Early Modern English language is concerned, especially when variorum editions of the plays have been in print for so long, I will try in this paper to identify variations in Renaissance quarto and folio editions of Richard II (or Troilus and Cressida) that may contribute to the understanding of morpho-syntactic changes taking place in the Early Modern period. This work will be based on the collation of those early versions presented in M. W. Black’s (or H. N. Hillebrand’s) variorum edition of the play.

Wednesday, April 22th ; 16.30-17.30; Salón Grados
RAYNER, Francesca Clare - Univ. Minho
Past Narratives/Present Meanings?: Julius Caesar by Teatro da Cornucópia

The performances of Julius Caesar in 2007 by the independent Portuguese theatre company Teatro da Cornucópia won the annual prize of the Portuguese Association of Critics in that year. The Association praised the way in which the performances appropriated the play to stage a public debate about post-revolutionary Portuguese politics and allude to contemporary wars in Iraq. However, university students who accompanied me to see the performance admitted only to a sense of alienation. For them, the performance was long, tedious and often confusing while the parallels with Portugal after the 1974 Revolution simply passed them by. What might explain this generational disjunction in terms of expectations and forms of reading performance?

This paper starts from the perspective of these divergent interpretations of the performances in order to examine the question of representing history for contemporary audiences. It notes the ways in which conventions from mainstream television and cinema frame expectations about historical narratives in the theatre and render invisible more politicised approaches to the staging of history.

Wednesday, April 22th ; 16.30-17.30; Sala Juntas
RIBES TRAVER, Purificación - Univ. Valencia
Ludwig Tieck's Herr von Fuchs (1793) as the Perfect Embodiment of Romantic Irony.
This paper deals with a long forgotten German version of Volpone: Herr von Fuchs, written by the Pre-romantic playwright Ludwig Tieck in 1793 and unjustly neglected by editors, critics and stage directors alike. As an analysis of the play reveals, Herr von Fuchs is an accomplished and thought-provoking appropriation of a classical piece of drama which privileges the employment of Romantic irony as the best means to question widespread assumptions on political, educational, religious and aesthetic issues. Tieck resorted to metatheatrical devices to draw a critical reaction from an audience which was accustomed to more traditional patterns. That is probably the reason why his version met with a cold reception. But, unlike other plays where he similarly employed metatheatrical devices, his Herr von Fuchs would not enjoy a greater success when audiences became more receptive to these estranging techniques. So, whereas his Gestiefelte Kater was favourably received in the early 1920s, his Herr von Fuchs did not enjoy a similar fortune, probably because the extraordinary success of another German version of Volpone rendered it unnecessary. The shadow which Zweig's 1926 version of the play cast upon Tieck's neglected adaptation was so large that it has reached the twenty-first century. It is the aim of this paper to remove that shadow from Tieck's version so that readers and audiences can enjoy its subtle irony and ambivalence.
Thursday, April 23rd ; 09.30-11.00; Salón Grados
RUANO GARCÍA, Francisco Javier - Univ. Salamanca
Northern English and Seventeenth-Century Popular Ballads:
A Corpus-Based Approach

For decades, the analysis of regional variation in Early Modern England has been notably overlooked by scholarly tradition. But for a few examples, linguistic research on this intervening stage in the history of English has been largely biased, for attention has been mainly focused on a standard variety, and provincial modes of expression have been unjustly disregarded. Needless to say, what little evidence it has been hitherto assessed has been for the most part extracted from literary artefacts, mainly drama or fiction prose, that very often yield a perceptual and archetypal insight into regional speech at this time. Yet, as it has been well proved by García-Bermejo (1997, 1999, 2008) or Shorrocks (2004), these are useful and real guidances to Early Modern provincial varieties that do actually complete the patchy records of regionalisms in grammars or treatises of orthoepy.

This paper endeavours to widen our understanding of seventeenth-century northern English by means of a selection of popular ballads included in The Salamanca Corpus where regional traits proper to the North are attested. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, to demonstrate that this kind of untapped literary documents are fruitful and valuable testimonies to Early Modern English regional variation. Popular literature has not received much attention as a potential source for Early Modern dialect data. To my knowledge, only García-Bermejo (2001) has brought into focus that sixteenth-century jest-books, for example, contain a worthy amount of dialect information. Also, Wales (2004) has convincingly shown that popular songs and ballads yield trustworthy data that can tell us much about the language of the North. Her research is centred on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century specimens, though. Secondly, it is our purpose to analyse unattested features that shed light upon the ascendancy of northern speech in terms of phonology or lexis. In so doing, we hope to make a contribution to Early Modern regional ‘Englishes’ and to northern dialects in particular.

Wednesday, April 22th ; 16.30-18.00; Salón Grados
SÁEZ HIDALGO, Ana - Univ. Valladolid
Visus et expurgatus: the Impact of the Spanish Inquisition on an English Library

When the Jesuit Robert Persons founded St Alban’s College in Valladolid in 1589, he had in mind an institution for training English Catholic priests. Because of the persecutions in England, these future spiritual fathers needed a safe place to settle and study before their return home in order to convert their fellow countrymen to the “old religion.” In this educational institution students and teachers required books, most of which have remained in the College throughout the centuries. This book collection has become a large library still extant nowadays.

In spite of being a foreign institution, both the College and its book holdings have been subject to the Spanish legislation, including the ideological control effected by the Inquisition. One of the main concerns of the Holy Office was the importation of foreign books, therefore we might expect that the English College would be subject to especial enquiries. The aim of this paper is to study the visits of the Inquisition officers to St Alban’s and the type of censorship carried out, paying attention to English books in particular and to the impact it could have on the dynamics of book culture.

Wednesday, April 22th ; 18.30-19.30; Salón Grados
SÁNCHEZ ESCRIBANO, Francisco Javier - Univ. Zaragoza
English Multilingual Lexicography in the 16th and 17th Centuries
In this article we study the development of English lexicography in the 16th and 17th centuries and its relation with Spanish, French and Italian, especially the former. I have taken as an example James Howell’s multilingual dictionaries because they are a good example of how these dictionaries were made out, sometimes taking bilingual dictionaries as the starting point. I consider that his Lexicon Tetraglotton must be taken with caution because his contribution with new words is not important; but his Nomenclature is a dictionary that deserves the attention of lexicographers.
Wednesday, April 22th ; 16.30-18.00; Salón Grados
SÁNCHEZ GARCÍA, Manuel - Univ. Extremadura
A Corpus Stylistic Approach to Shakespeare's Phraseological Language:
Some Applications (and Some Complications)
(Part 2)

This paper presents an exploration of Shakespeare's phraseological language by using Corpus Stylistic methodology and techniques. As part of a research project on Shakespeare's phraseology*, the paper aims to show through a few practical examples some of the advantages of using electronic tools -for instance, for the automatic identification and retrieval of a large number of phraseological patterns in his plays- and their applicability to different areas of Shakespeare studies, such as authorship attribution, style, or translations. The paper also discusses some of the difficulties that we have encountered in using these tools for exploring certain aspects of Shakespeare's phraseology.

Project title: A Discourse-based approach to the phraseological language of Shakespeare's Plays: with special reference to the modification of phraseological units (HUM 2005/ 01062FIL).

Thursday, April 23rd ; 16.00-17.00; Salón Grados
SAWICKA, Ewa - Univ. Warsaw
Self-recognition in Shakespeare's Late Romances: The Tempest, The Winter's Tale and Cymbeline.
This paper is an attempt to read Shakespeare's late romances according to the theories of modern philosophy of cognition. I would like to contend that the passage of characters from 'our' world to alien and unreal worlds that we find in those plays, i.e. the island in The Tempest, Bohemia in The Winter's Tale or the forest in Cymbeline where the characters undergo change and metamorphosis in result of their encounter with the unknown, may be interpreted as a quest leading to self-constitution and self-recognition. I intend to draw on the works of Paul Ricoeur, especially on his last book, The Course of Recognition, in which the author states that self-understanding happens only through “signs deposited in memory and imagination by the great literary traditions.” Following this idea, I would like to answer the question to what degree a romance may be interpreted as an allegory of human cognition. To point to the metaphorical and metonymic resources resident in allegory I will also look at the writings of Saint Augustine, the father of allegorical thinking, who regarded it as a vehicle transferring man to divine reality. Finally, I will be interested in the question how the Renaissance romances, in comparison to medieval romances, mark a shift as far as the nature of the relationship between the 'self of consciousness' and 'the other' is concerned and establish this relation at epistemological rather than ethical level.
Friday, April 24th ; 19.00-20.00; Salón Grados
STERN, Tiffany Paula - Univ. Oxford
'Ruminated, Plotted and Set Down':
Three Kinds of Written Plot in The Early Modern Theatre
My talk will explore three different manuscript skeletons of plays all called plots. Firstly, playwrights had to offer the Œplot of a play to a company for approval before the text itself was written: if the plot was liked, the actual play might be composed (sometimes but not always by the plotter). The second kind of plot hung backstage and consisted of a series of entrances, but not always exits, for actors. The third kind of Œplot was a scene-by-scene summary of the action of the play given to the audience of sophisticated productions to read. As I will show, throughout a play's written and performed life, its plot was continually abstracted and separated. My paper will put post-play plots in apposition to the pre-play plots, asking to what extent Œplots came to represent the play itself to groups of people denied access to the fully written text.
Wednesday, April 22th ; 12.30-13.30; Salón Grados
TOMÉ ROSALES, Ángeles - Univ. Vigo
"[M]y wife shall make me no cuckold": Comic Masculine Anxiety in Elizabeth Polwhele’s The Frolicks (1671) and William Wycherley’s The Country Wife (1675)
In seventeenth-century patriarchal society, husbands’ honour was determined, above all, by their wives’ actions and words. Men were supposed to be the heads of their households, governing over their daughters, maids and wives. However, women were not always so chaste, silent and obedient as they were expected to be and, therefore, this brought about men’s anxiety. Husbands were particularly anxious about their wives’ chastity because, if they committed adultery, men would be severely shamed once their masculinity and their authority were questioned. In Elizabeth Polwhele’s The Frolicks (1671) as well as in William Wycherley’s The Country Wife (1675), one of the main characters is a husband frantic to get his spouse out of London and away from temptation. However, the cuckold plot in The Frolicks is rather different from the one in Wycherley’s play, largely due to the manner in which the country wife is presented. In spite of this different portrayal, both plays include superb comic situations in which the husband appears to be the humour-butt. So, this paper will analyse those situations in each of the two cuckold plots, the elements which make them comic, the differences between both cuckold plots and the implications derived from these variations.
Friday, April 24th ; 09.30-11.00; Salón Grados
TRONCH, Jesús - Univ. Valencia
Seventy Years of Shakespearean Productions in Spain, 1939-2008
This paper stems from the need know how often a given Shakespeare play has been produced in Spain since 1939. After gathering information about theatre and television productions (both straight stage versions and adaptations or derivatives), a tentative catalogue arranged by date and title can allow us to see, for instance, what plays were most or least produced in a given period. A comparison with data from theatre productions of Calderón, Lope, Tirso and Zorrilla allows us to estimate the cultural presence of Shakespeare on the Spanish stage. The results confirm some published statements but corrects others. One of the conclusions drawn from this quantitative and statistical evidence is that, although by 1993 there were still voices complaining about the lack of knowledge of Shakespeare among Spaniards (especially due to a general neglect of theatrical culture, even of Spanish classics), Shakespearean productions were on the increase. Reputed directors such as Miguel Narros, Lluís Pasqual and Calixto Bieito contributed to this surge, which saw five times as many productions of works by Shakespeare as of Spanish classics, and grew significantly after 1997 to the extent that one journalist described the situation as the “Bard’s Empire”.
Friday, April 24th ; 09.30-11.00; Sala Juntas