Viral mutation rates

This on-line resource contains estimates of the spontaneous mutation rate for 25 different viruses.

Several independent estimates are available for some viruses.

Viral mutation rates can be expressed as substitutions per nucleotide site per cell infection (s/n/c) or as substitutions per nucleotide per strand copying (s/n/r).

Mutation rates per cell infection

Mutation rates per strand copying

The goal of this site is to provide an easily available, curated data set on viral mutation rates and to promote the use of common units. References to original publications and methodological details of each estimate are provided.

Data are taken from the following article, which also contains a detailed description of the methods used:

Sanjuán R., Nebot M.R., Chirico N., Mansky L.M., Belshaw R. (2010). Viral mutation rates. J. Virol. 84: 9733-9748. [pdf]

A few more recent estimates that do not appear in the above paper have been added.

The data span from the late 70´s until 2013. Please check Sanjuán and Domingo-Calap (2016) for newer estimates.

Rafael Sanjuán, Institute for Integrative Systems Biology
University of Valencia, Spain
Tel: +34 963 543 270
E-mail: rafael.sanjuan@uv.es
Mailing address: Institute for Integrative Systems Biology
                           Parc Cientific de la Universitat de Valencia
                           C/ Catedratico Agustin Escardino n° 9
                           46980 Paterna, Valencia