Ladislao Salmerón, Lalo








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Full Professor
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology
University of Valencia
Blasco Ibáñez, 21
46010 Valencia, Spain
ladislao.salmeron [at]
Curriculum Vitae

2006, PhD. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Granada
2004, Fulbright graduate student, Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado at Boulder
2000, BS in Psychology, Complutense University of Madrid

Research interests:
I conduct my research at the Research Unit on Reading (ERI Lectura) at the University of Valencia on the following topics: Digital reading comprehension, Effects of digitalization on reading, Critical reading on the Internet.

Projects (current):

Optimización de la lectura digital: Análisis e intervención en los procesos cognitivos implicados / Optimization of digital reading: Analysis and intervention in the cognitive processes involved, Funded by the Spanish Minister of Science and Innovation, 2022-2024. [web]

Lectura en pantalla en las aulas de Primaria y Secundaria: estudios multimétodo / On-screen reading at Primary and Secondary education classrooms: multimethod studies, Funded by the Spanish Minister of Science and Innovation, 2021-2024. [web]


Vargas, C., Altamura, L., Blanco-Gandía, M. C., Gil, L., Mañá, A., Montagud, S., & Salmerón, L. (2024). Print and digital reading habits and comprehension in children with and without special education needs. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 146, 104675. [open access]

Altamura, L., Vargas, C., & Salmerón, L. (2024). Do new forms of reading pay off? A meta-analysis on the relationship between leisure digital reading habits and text comprehension. Review of Educational Research. [post-print]

Bråten, I., Latini, N., & Salmerón, L. (2024). Source evaluation. In S. Graham, J. Fitzgerald, C. MacArthur (Eds.). Handbook of Writing Research, 3th edition. Guilford Publications

Salmerón, L., Altamura, L., Delgado, P., Karagiorgi, A. & Vargas, C. (2024). Reading comprehension on handheld devices versus on paper: A narrative review and meta-analysis of the medium effect and its moderators. Journal of Educational Psychology. [post-print]

McCrudden, M. T., Bråten, I., & Salmerón, L. (2023). Learning from multiple texts. In R. Tierney, F. Rizvi, K. Ercikan (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of Education, 4th Edition, Elsevier [post-print]

Haverkamp, Y. E., Bråten, I., Latini, N., & Salmerón, L. (2023). Is it the size, the movement, or both? Investigating effects of screen size and text movement on processing, understanding, and motivation when students read informational text. Reading and Writing, 36, 1589-1608. [open access]

Salmerón, L., Vargas, C., Delgado, P., & Baron, N. (2023). Relation between digital tool practices in the language arts classroom and reading comprehension scores. Reading and Writing, 36, 175-194. [open access]

Salmerón, L., Altamura, L., Blanco-Gandia, M.C., Montagud, S., & Vargas, C. (2022). Validation of a reading comprehension efficiency test for Spanish university students. Psicologica 43(2): e14809. [open access]

Delgado, P., Serrano-Mendizábal, M., Gómez-Merino, N., Pi-Ruano, M., Rubio, A., Skrobiszewska, N. & Salmerón, L. (2023). Changes in reading habits during the COVID-19 confinement in Spain. Culture and Education, 35(2), 420-449.

Fajardo, I., Avila, V., Delgado, P., Gómez-Merino, N., & Salmerón, L. (2022). Video-blogs and linguistic simplification for students with intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 35, 1217-1230. [open access]

Hautala, J., Salmerón, L., Tolvanen, A., Loberg, O. & Leppänen, P. (2022). Task-oriented reading efficiency: interplay of general cognitive ability, task demands, strategies and reading fluency. Reading and Writing, 35, 1787-1813. [open access]

Delgado, P. & Salmerón, L. (2022). Cognitive effort in text processing and reading comprehension in print and on tablet: An eye-tracking study. Discourse Processes, 59, 237-274. [web]

Delgado, P. Anmarkrud, Ø., Avila, V., Altamura, L., Chireac, S., Pérez, A., & Salmerón, L. (2022). Learning from text and video blogs: comprehension effects on secondary school students. Education and Information Technologies. [open access]

García, V., Amadieu, F., & Salmerón, L. (2021). Integrating digital documents by means of concept maps: testing an intervention program with eye-movements modelling examples. Heliyon, e08607 [open access]

Sampietro, A., & Salmerón, L. (2021). Incivility in online news and Twitter: effects on attitudes toward scientific topics when reading in a second language. Language Sciences, 85, 101385. [web]

Salmerón, L., Delgado, P., Vargas, C., & Gil, L. (2021). Tablets for all? Testing the screen inferiority effect with upper primary school students. Learning and Individual Differences, 86, 101975. [post-print]

Delgado, P., & Salmerón, L. (2021). The inattentive on-screen reading: Reading medium affects attention and reading comprehension under time pressure. Learning & Instruction, 71, 101396. [web]

Salmerón, L., Arfé, B., Ávila, V., Cerdán, R., de Sixte, R., Delgado, P., … Perea, M. (2020). READ-COGvid: A database from reading and media habits during COVID-19 confinement in Spain and Italy. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 575241. [open access]

Salmerón, L., Delgado, P., & Mason, L. (2020). Using eye-movement modeling examples to improve critical reading of multiple webpages on a conflicting topic.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 36, 1038-1051. [post-print]

Latini, N., Bråten, I., & Salmerón, L. (2020). Does reading medium affect processing and integration of textual and pictorial information? A multimedia eye-tracking study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 62, 101870. [open access]

Delgado, P., Stang  Lund, E., Salmerón, L. & Bråten, I. (2020). To click or not to click: investigating conflict detection and sourcing in a multiple document hypertext environment. Reading and Writing, 33, 2049-2072. [web]

Salmerón, L., Sampietro, A., & Delgado, P. (2020). Using Internet videos to learn about controversies: Evaluation and integration of multiple and multimodal documents by primary school students. Computers & Education, 148, 103796. [post-print]

Macedo-Rouet, M., Salmerón, L., Ros, C., Pérez, A., Stadtler, M., & Rouet, J-F. (2020). Are frequent users of social network sites good information evaluators? An investigation of adolescents’ sourcing abilities, Infancia y Aprendizaje, 43, 101-138.

Potocki, A., De Pereyra, G., Ros, C., Macedo-Rouet, M., Stadtler, M., Salmerón, L., & Rouet, J-F. (2020). The development of source evaluation skills during adolescence: exploring different levels of source processing and their relationships, Infancia y Aprendizaje, 43, 19-59.

Bråten, I., Magliano, J.P., & Salmerón, L. (2020). Concurrent and task-specific self-reports. In D.L. Dinsmore, L.K. Fryer, & M.M. Parkinson (Eds.), Handbook of strategies and strategic processing: Conceptualization, intervention, measurement, and analysis. New York: Routledge. [post-print]

Bråten, I., Braasch, J. L. G., & Salmerón, L. (2020). Reading multiple and non-traditional texts: New opportunities and new challenges. In E. B. Moje, P. Afflerbach, P. Enciso, & N. K. Lesaux (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. V) (pp. 79-98).  New York: Routledge. [post-print]

Latini, N., Bråten, I., Anmarkrud, Ø., & Salmerón, L. (2019). Investigating effects of reading medium and reading purpose on behavioral engagement and textual integration in a multiple text context. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 59, 101797. [open access]

Andresen, A., Anmarkrud, Ø., Salmerón, L., & Bråten, I. (2019). Processing and learning from multiple sources: A comparative case study of students with dyslexia working in a multiple source multimedia context. Frontline Learning Research, 7, 1-26. [open access]

Sanchiz, M., Lemarié, A., Chevalier, A., Cegarra, J., Pauvel, P.V., Salmerón, L., Amadieu, F. (2019). Investigating multimedia effects on concept map building: Impact on map quality, information processing and learning outcome. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 3645-3667. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., & Delgado, P. (2019). Análisis crítico sobre los efectos de las tecnologías digitales en la lectura y el aprendizaje. Cultura y Educación, 31, 465-480. [post-print]

Delgado, P., Avila, V., Fajardo, I., & Salmerón, L. (2019). Training young adults with intellectual disability to read critically on the Internet. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 32, 666-677. [post-print]

Macedo-Rouet, M., Potocki, A., Scharrer, L., Ros, C., Stadtler, M., Salmerón, L., & Rouet, J-F. (2019). How good is this page? Benefits and limits of prompting on adolescents’ evaluation of Web information quality. Reading Research Quarterly, 54, 299–321. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Fajardo, I., & Gómez, M. (2019). Selection and evaluation of Internet information by adults with intellectual disabilities. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 34, 272-284. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., & Llorens, A. (2019). Instruction of digital reading strategies based on eye-movements modeling examples. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57, 343-359. [post-print]

Delgado, P., Avila, V., Fajardo, I. & Salmerón, L. (2018). Programa de lectura crítica en Internet para jóvenes con discapacidad intelectual. Revista Española de Discapacidad, 6, 229-245. [open access]


Salmerón, L., Gil, L., & Bråten, I. (2018). Using eye-tracking to assess sourcing during multiple document reading: A critical analysis. Frontline Learning Research, 6, 105-122. [open access]


Delgado, P., Vargas, C., Ackerman, R., & Salmerón, L. (2018). Don't throw away your printed books:

A meta-analysis on the effects of reading media on comprehension. Educational Research Review, 25, 23-38. [open access]

Salmerón, L., García, A., & Vidal-Abarca, E. (2018). WebLEC: A test to assess adolescents’ Internet reading literacy skills. Psicothema, 30, 388-394. [open access]

García. V., & Salmerón, L. (2018). El uso de Wikipedia en educación Primaria: complejidades y retos. Aula Innovación, 275, 33-38. [post-print]

Delgado, P., & Salmerón, L. (2018). El libro no ha muerto: Desventaja meta-cognitiva de la lectura en pantalla. Ciencia Cognitiva, 12, 36-38. [open access]

Pérez, A., Potocki, A., Stadtler, M., Macedo−Rouet, M., Paul, J., Salmerón, L., Rouet, J-F. (2018). Fostering Teenagers’ Assessment of Information Reliability: Effects of a Classroom Intervention focused on Critical Source Dimensions. Learning & Instruction, 58, 53–64.

Salmerón, L., Gil, L., & Bråten, I. (2018). Effects of reading real versus print-out versions of multiple documents on students’ sourcing and integrated understanding. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 52, 25-35. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Strømsø, H. I., Kammerer, Y., Stadtler, M., & van den Broek, P. (2018). Comprehension processes in digital Reading. In M. Barzillai, J. Thomson, S. Schroeder, and P. van den Broek (Eds.) Learning to read in a digital world (pp. 91-120). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., García, A., & Vidal-Abarca, E. (2018). The development of adolescents’ comprehension-based Internet reading skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 31-39. [post-print]

Bråten, I., Stadtler, M., & Salmerón, L. (2018). The Role of Sourcing in Discourse Comprehension. In M. Schober, D. N. Rapp & M. A. Britt (Eds.), Handbook of Discourse Processes (pp. 141-166). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Macedo-Rouet, M., Salmerón, L., & Rouet, J-F. (2017). Les forums de questions-réponses comme ressource pour l’apprentissage informel: Quelle approche critique des sources par les adolescents? Olivier Las Vergnas (Ed.) Le e-learning informel. Paris: Éditions des archives contemporaines. [HTML]

García-Blanco, A., Salmerón, L., & Perea, M. (2017). Inhibitory control for emotional and neutral scenes in competition: An eye-tracking study in bipolar disorder. Biological Psychology, 127, 82–88. [post-print]

Mañá, A., Vidal-Abarca, E., & Salmerón, L. (2017). Effect of delay on search decisions in a task-oriented Reading environment. Metacognition and Learning, 12, 113–130.

Salmerón, L., Naumann, J., García, V., & Fajardo, I. (2017). Scanning and deep processing of information in hypertext: An eye-tracking and cued retrospective think-aloud study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33, 222–233. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Abu Mallouh, R., & Kammerer, Y. (2017). Location of navigation menus in websites: an experimental study with Arabic users. Universal Access in the Information Society, 16, 191-196. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Macedo-Rouet, M., & Rouet, J-F. (2016). Multiple viewpoints increase students' attention to source features in social question and answer forum messages. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67, 2404–2419. [post-print]

Naumann, J., & Salmerón, L. (2016). ¿Acaso la navegación siempre predice el desempeño? Los efectos de la navegación en la lectura digital son moderados por las habilidades de comprensión. Revista Mexicana de bachillerato a distancia, 16, 132-155. [open access]

Bråten, I., Salmerón, L., & Strømsø, H.I. (2016). Who said that? Investigating the Plausibility-Induced Source Focusing assumption with Norwegian undergraduate readers. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 253-262. [post-print]

Scharrer, L. & Salmerón, L. (guest editors). Special issue ‘Sourcing in the reading process’. Reading and Writing. [open access]

Salmerón, L., Gómez, M., & Fajardo, I. (2016). How students with intellectual disabilities evaluate recommendations from Internet forums. Reading and Writing, 29, 1653–1675.[post-print]

Naumann, J., & Salmerón, L. (2016). Does navigation always predict performance? Effects of relevant page selection on digital reading performance are moderated by offline comprehension skills. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17, 42-59. [open access]

Fajardo, I., Villalta, E., & Salmerón, L. (2016). ¿Son realmente tan buenos los nativos digitales? Relación entre las habilidades digitales y la lectura digital. Anales de Psicología, 32, 89-97. [open access

Salmerón, L., Llorens, A. C., & Fajardo, I. (2015). Instrucción de estrategias de lectura digital mediante modelado por video. Informació Psicològica, 110, 38-50. [open access]

Salmerón, L., Vidal-Abarca, E., Martínez, T., Mañá, A., Gil, L., & Naumann, J. (2015). Strategic decisions in task-oriented reading. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, 1-10. [post-print

Amadieu, F., Salmerón, L., Cegarra, J., Paubel, P-V, Lemarié, J., & Chevalier, A. (2015). Learning from Concept-Mapping and Hypertext: an eye tracking study. Educational Technology & Society, 18, 100-112. [open access

Salmerón, L., Cerdán, R., & Naumann, J. (2015). How adolescents navigate Wikipedia to answer questions. Infancia y Aprendizaje: Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 38, 435-471. [post-print

Pérez, D., & Salmerón, L. (2015). When Human-Computer Interaction meets Blended Learning and heuristics are not enough: evaluating the usability with field observation and interviews. In B. R. Jones (Ed). Blended Learning: Student Perceptions, Emerging Practices and Effectiveness. Nova Science Pub.

Tavares, G., Fajardo, I., Avila, V., Salmerón, L., & Ferrer, A. (2015). Who do you refer to? How young students with mild intellectual disability confront anaphoric ambiguities in texts and sentences. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 108-124.

García-Blanco, A, Salmerón, L., & Perea, M. (2015). Attentional capture by emotional scenes across episodes in bipolar disorder: Evidence from a free-viewing task. Biological Psychology, 108, 36-42. [post-print

Amadieu, F. & Salmerón, L. (2014). Concept maps for comprehension and navigation of hypertexts. In R. Hanewald & D. Ifenthaler (Eds). Digital Knowledge Maps in Education (pp. 41-59). Springer, New York. [

García-Blanco, A., Salmerón, L., Perea, M., & Livianos, L. (2014). Attentional biases toward emotional images in the different episodes of bipolar disorder: An eye-tracking study. Psychiatry Research, 215, 628-633. [post-print]

García-Blanco, A., Perea, M., & Salmerón, L. (2014). Atención y procesamiento emocional en personas con trastorno bipolar. Ciencia Cognitiva, 8:1, 1-4. [open access]

Salmerón, L., Kammerer, Y., & García-Carrión, P. (2013). Searching the Web for conflicting topics: page and user factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2161–2171. [post-print]

Salmerón, L. (2013). Actividades que promueven la transferencia de los aprendizajes: una revisión de la literatura. Revista de Educación, volumen extraordinario 2013, 34-53. [open access]

García-Blanco, A., Perea, M., & Salmerón, L. (2013). Attention orienting and inhibitory control across the different mood states in bipolar disorder: An emotional antisaccade task. Biological Psychology, 94, 556- 561. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., & García, V. (2012). Children’s reading in printed text and hypertext with navigation overviews: the role of comprehension, sustained attention and visuo-spatial abilities. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 47, 33-50. [post-print]

Salmerón, L. (2011). ¿Por qué realizar un examen mejora nuestro aprendizaje? Lecciones científicas y educativas del efecto del test. Ciencia Cognitiva, 5:1, 19-21 [open access]

Salmerón, L., & García, V. (2011). Reading skills and children's navigation strategies in hypertext. Computers in Human Behaviour, 27, 1143–1151. [post-print]

Vidal-Abarca, E., Martínez, T., Salmerón, L., Cerdán, R., Gilabert, R., Gil, L., Mañá, A., Llorens, A., & Ferris, R. (2011). Recording online processes in task-oriented reading with Read&Answer. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 179–192. [post-print]

Bråten, I., Strømsø, H., & Salmerón, L. (2011). Trust and mistrust when students read multiple information sources about climate change. Learning and Instruction, 21, 180-192.

Vidal-Abarca, E., Salmerón, L., & Mañá, A. (2011). Individual differences in task-oriented reading. In M.T. McCrudden, J. P. Magliano, & G. Schraw (Eds.), Text relevance and learning from text. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Salmerón, L., Kintsch, W. & Kintsch, E. (2010). Self-regulation and link selection strategies in hypertext. Discourse Processes, 47, 175–211. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Gil, L., Bråten, I. & Strømsø, H. (2010). Comprehension effects of signalling relationships between documents in search engines. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 419-426. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Baccino, T., Cañas, J.J., Madrid, R. I., & Fajardo, I. (2009). Do graphical overviews facilitate or hinder comprehension in hypertext? Computers & Education, 53, 1308-1319. [post-print]

Fajardo, I., Vigo, M. & Salmerón, L. (2009). Technology for supporting Web information search and learning in Sign Language. Interacting with Computers, 21, 243-256.

Fajardo, I., Cañas, J.J., Salmerón, L. & Abascal, J. (2009). Information structure and practice as facilitators of deaf users’ navigation in textual Websites. Behaviour and Information Technology, 28, 87-97. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Arizo, S., García, V., Vidal-Abarca, E., Gilabert, R., Ruzafa, M. & Llacer, E. (2008). Automated essay grading considering dissimilarity from incorrect responses. Presentation at the International Technology, Education and Development Conference 2008, Valencia (Spain).

Baccino, T., Salmerón, L. & Cañas, J.J. (2008). La lecture des hypertextes. In A. Tricot & A. Chevalier (Eds.) Ergonomie des documents ergonomiques. Paris: PUF.

Salmerón, L., Baccino, T. & Cañas, J. (2006). How prior knowledge and text coherence affect eye fixations in hypertext overviews. In R. Sun & N. Miyake (Ed.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 715-719). Hillsdale NJ: L awrence Erlbaum Associates. [post-print]

León, J. A., Escudero, I., Olmos, R., Cañas, J. J. & Salmerón, L. (2006). Assessing short summaries with human judgments procedure and latent semantic analysis in narrative and expository texts. Behavior Research Methods, 38, 616–627. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Kintsch, W. & Cañas, J. J. (2006). Reading strategies and prior knowledge in learning with hypertext. Memory & Cognition, 34, 1157–1171. [post-print]

Fajardo, I., Cañas, J.J., Salmerón, L. & Abascal, J. (2006).
Improving deaf users’ accessibility in hypertext information retrieval: are graphical interfaces useful for them? Behaviour and Information Technology, 25, 455-467. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Cañas, J.J., Kintsch, W. & Fajardo, I. (2005). Reading strategies and hypertext comprehension. Discourse Processes, 40, 171-191. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Cañas, J.J. & Fajardo, I. (2005). Are expert users’ always better searchers? Interaction of expertise and semantic grouping in hypertext search tasks. Behaviour and Information Technology, 24, 471-475. [post-print]

Salmerón, L., Fajardo, I. & Cañas, J.J. (2003). Las estrategias de navegación reflejan la adquisición de conocimiento de los usuarios. Ponencia presentada en el 4º Congreso Internacional de Interacción Persona-Ordenador, Vigo (España). [post-print]






Last update: 24th January 2024