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The Trombone is made by a 2.69 m length tube. It is usually made of brass, nickel silver or gold brass. The Trombone has a U-shaped movable outer slide, which produces the different sounds. This slide is operated by the right hand. The left hand just hold the instrument and adjust the transposition valve. It can be played with different mutes, which change its sound, like the Horns and the Trumpet.
The Trombone sounds by blowing into a mouthpiece too. Although it is pitched in the key of B-flat, it is written in C and notated in bass clef and tenor clef for the upper register. Its range cover from the E2 to the F5. Its low register sounds dense, dark and weight. The middle register is grave, sustaining and full, while the upper register is brilliant and more mellow.
The Bass Trombone is the Tenor Trombone big brother and the tube length is a bit longer (between 2.69 and 2.9 m). It is made of the same materials and the only difference is only that is a bit bigger than the Tenor Trombone as I said before. It can be also played with different mutes.
The sound is produced in the same way. Although it is pitched in the key of B-flat, it is written in C and notated in bass clef and tenor clef. Its range goes from the B-flat0 to the F5. Its low register has more or less the same characteristics as the Tenor Trombone, but the middle register is darker. The upper register is very difficult to play.
The Tuba is the lowest instrument of the orchestra beside the Contrabasson. The Tuba is made by a 3.5 -4 m length tube. It is made of gold brass, nickel silver or gold lacquer and it has 4 to 6 valves which low the pitch between 1 tone, ½ tone or 1½ tones. It can also be played with a huge mute.
The tuba player make it sound by blowing into a mouthpiece. It can be pitched in the key of B-flat, C, F or E-flat. The Tuba range cover from D-1 to G4. Its low register is soft and unobtrusive. The middle register is full-sounding, while the upper register is loud and powerful.