Research Projects

Project data

Grant number: RTI2018-095820-B-I00.
Project title: PREWAIT: Advanced information tools about peer review of scientific manuscripts.
Funding agencies: Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU), the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
Total funding: 21780 €.


Peer review of scientific manuscripts is a cornerstone of science, whose quality and efficiency depends on a complex, large-scale collaboration process, which is sensitive to motivations, incentives and institutional contexts. Not only can a better peer review system improve the self-regulation processes of science to benefit all science stakeholders, it can also increase the social recognition and credibility of science in Europe. This project aims to define new quantitative indicators and to develop advanced information tools about peer review of scientific manuscripts. The results of the project are called to overcome the current limitations and help capture the full unfolding of the peer review process and be of use to reviewers, editors, publishers and, ultimately, authors.


University of Valencia

Other affiliations
  • Flaminio Squazzoni (University of Milan, Italy).
  • Ana Marusic (University of Split, Croatia).
  • Giangiacomo Bravo (Linnaeus University, Sweden).
  • Bahar Mehmani (Elsevier, The Netherlands).
  • Phil Hurst (The Royal Society, United Kingdom).
  • Michael Willis (Wiley, United Kingdom).
  • Aliaksandr Birukou (Springer-Nature, Germany).
  • Pippa Smart (European Association of Science Editors, United Kingdom).
  • Giulia Andrighetto (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italy).


Does peer review improve the statistical content of manuscripts? A study on 27 467 submissions to four journals. Daniel Garcia-Costa, Anabel Forte, Emilia López-Iñesta, Flaminio Squazzoni, Francisco Grimaldo. Royal Society Open Science 9:210681, 2022.
DOI: 10.1098/rsos.210681

Measuring the effect of reviewers on manuscript change: A study on a sample of submissions to Royal Society journals (2006–2017). Federico Bianchi, Daniel García-Costa, Francisco Grimaldo, Flaminio Squazzoni. Journal of Informetrics 16(3):101316, 2022.
DOI: 10.1016/j.joi.2022.101316

Measuring the developmental function of peer review: a multi-dimensional, cross-disciplinary analysis of peer review reports from 740 academic journals. Daniel Garcıa-Costa, Flaminio Squazzoni, Bahar Mehmani, Francisco Grimaldo. PeerJ 10:e13539, 2022.
DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13539

Unlock ways to share data on peer review. Flaminio Squazzoni, Petra Ahrweiler, Tiago Barros, Federico Bianchi, Aliaksandr Birukou, Harry J. J. Blom, Giangiacomo Bravo, Stephen Cowley, Virginia Dignum, Pierpaolo Dondio, Francisco Grimaldo, Lynsey Haire, Jason Hoyt, Phil Hurst, Rachael Lammey, Catriona MacCallum, Ana Marušić, Bahar Mehmani, Hollydawn Murray, Duncan Nicholas, Giorgio Pedrazzi, Iratxe Puebla, Peter Rodgers, Tony Ross-Hellauer, Marco Seeber, Kalpana Shankar, Joris Van Rossum & Michael Willis. Nature 578:512-514, 2020.
DOI: 10.1038/d41586-020-00500-y

Meta-Research: Large-scale language analysis of peer review reports. Ivan Buljan, Daniel Garcia-Costa, Francisco Grimaldo, Flaminio Squazzoni, Ana Marušić. eLife 9:e53249, 2020. BibTeX
DOI: 10.7554/eLife.53249

Peer review and gender bias: A study on 145 scholarly journals. Flaminio Squazzoni, Giangiacomo Bravo, Mike Farjam, Ana Marusic, Bahar Mehmani, Michael Willis, Aliaksandr Birukou, Pierpaolo Dondio, Francisco Grimaldo. Science Advances 7 (2): eabd0299578, 2021. BibTeX
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd0299

Gender gap in journal submissions and peer review during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A study on 2329 Elsevier journals. Flaminio Squazzoni, Giangiacomo Bravo, Francisco Grimaldo, Daniel Garcıa-Costa, Mike Farjam, Bahar Mehmani. PLoS ONE 16(10): e0257919, 2021.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257919

Measuring the Developmental Function of Peer Review: A Multi-Dimensional, Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of Peer Review Reports from 740 Academic Journals. Daniel Garcıa-Costa, Flaminio Squazzoni, Bahar Mehmani, Francisco Grimaldo. Garcıa-Costa, Daniel and Squazzoni, Flaminio and Mehmani, Bahar and Grimaldo, Francisco. Available at SSRN, 2021.
DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3912607

Only Second-Class Tickets for Women in the COVID-19 Race. A Study on Manuscript Submissions and Reviews in 2329 Elsevier Journals. Squazzoni, Flaminio and Bravo, Giangiacomo and Grimaldo, Francisco and Garcıa-Costa, Daniel and Farjam, Mike and Mehmani, Bahar. Available at SSRN, 2020.
DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3712813

No evidence of any systematic bias against manuscripts by women in the peer review process of 145 scholarly journals. Flaminio Squazzoni, Giangiacomo Bravo, Pierpaolo Dondio, Mike Farjam, Ana Marusic, Bahar Mehmani, Michael Willis, Aliaksandr Birukou, Francisco Grimaldo. SocArxiv preprint, 2020.

Other publications

The invisible hand of peer review: The implications of author-referee networks on peer review in a scholarly journal. Pierpaolo Dondio, Niccolò Casnici, Francisco Grimaldo, Nigel Gilbert, Flaminio Squazzoni. Journal of Informetrics 13(2): 708-716, 2019. BibTeX
DOI: 10.1016/j.joi.2019.03.018

The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals. Giangiacomo Bravo, Francisco Grimaldo, Emilia López-Iñesta, Bahar Mehmani, Flaminio Squazzoni. Nature Communications 10(1): 322, 2019. BibTeX
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08250-2

Effects of seniority, gender and geography on the bibliometric output and collaboration networks of European Research Council (ERC) grant recipients. David G. Pina, Lana Barać, Ivan Buljan, Francisco Grimaldo, Ana Marušić. PLOS ONE 14(2): e0212286, 2019. BibTeX
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212286

The F3-index. Valuing reviewers for scholarly journals. Federico Bianchi, Francisco Grimaldo, Flaminio Squazzoni. Journal of Informetrics 13(1):78-86, 2019. BibTeX
DOI: 10.1016/j.joi.2018.11.007

Más allá de los datos: lectura e interpretación de gráficos estadísticos. Emilia López-Iñesta, María T. Sanz. VII Jornadas ERI LECTURA: Investigación y Buenas Prácticas en Educación, 2019.

Problemas matemáticos: lectura vs resolución. María T. Sanz, Emilia López-Iñesta. VII Jornadas ERI LECTURA: Investigación y Buenas Prácticas en Educación, 2019.

Uso de análisis de datos en Entornos de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje. Emilia López-Iñesta, María T. Sanz, Daniel García-Costa. III Jornadas de Tecnología Educativa: Materiales y Estrategias. November 2019.

Development of computational thinking skills through unplugged activities in mathematical problem-solving. Emilia López-Iñesta, María Ros-Esteve, Pascual D. Diago. V Congreso Internacional sobre Aprendizaje, Innovación y Competitividad (CINAIC 2019), pp. 555-560, 2019.

Learning Analytics in a Statistics university course using Read and Learn. Emilia López-Iñesta, Daniel García-Costa, Francisco Grimaldo, Eduardo Vidal-Abarca. Investigación en Educación Matemática XXIII (SEIEM 2019), p. 626. 2019.

Medición del impacto del Pensamiento Computacional en la resolución de problemas con herramientas de gamificación. María Ros-Esteve, Emilia López-Iñesta, Pascual D. Diago. V Jornadas sobre Sistemas de Votación Electrónica 2019: Buenas prácticas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje (JSVE 2019), pp. 15-19. 2019.

Measuring Arithmetic Word Problem Complexity through Reading Comprehension and Learning Analytics. Maite T. Sanz, Emilia López-Iñesta, Daniel Garcia-Costa, Francisco Grimaldo. Mathematics 2020, 8, 1556.
DOI: 10.3390/math8091556

Girls4STEM: Gender Diversity in STEM for a Sustainable Future. Xaro Benavent, Esther de Ves, Anabel Forte, Carmen Botella-Mascarell, Emilia López-Iñesta, Silvia Rueda, Sandra Roger, Joaquin Pérez, Cristina Portalés, Esther Durá, Daniel Garcia-Costa, Paula Marzal. Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6051.
DOI: 10.3390/su12156051

Towards Breaking the Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Emilia López-Iñesta, Carmen Botella, Silvia Rueda, Anabel Forte, Paula Marzal. IEEE-RITA 15(3): 233-241, 2020.
DOI: 10.1109/RITA.2020.3008114

Windowing as a Sub-Sampling Method for Distributed Data Mining. David Martínez-Galicia, Alejandro Guerra-Hernández, Nicandro Cruz-Ramírez, Xavier Limón, Francisco Grimaldo. Mathematical and Computational Applications 25(3): 39, 2020.
DOI: 10.3390/mca25030039