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    “Not as safe as I believed”: Differences in perceived and self-reported cycling behavior between riders and non-riders

    Sergio Useche, Javier Gené-Morales, Félix Siebert, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2021). Article

    Sustainability. Num.13(4), 1614

    Cycling behavior remains a key issue for explaining several traffic causalities occurring every day. However, recent studies have shown how the assessment of the own safety-related behaviors on the road may substantially differ from how third parties assess them. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between cyclists’ self-reported behavior and the proxyreported behavior that other (non-cyclist) road users perceive from bike riders. For this purpose, this study used data from two samples: (i) 1064 cyclists (M = 32.83 years) answering the Cycling Behavior Questionnaire—CBQ, and (ii) 1070 non-cyclists (M = 30.83 years) answering an adapted version of the CBQ for external...

    Cycling behavior remains a key issue for explaining several traffic causalities occurring every day. However, recent studies have shown how the assessment of the own safety-related behaviors on the road may substantially differ from how third parties assess them. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between cyclists’ self-reported behavior and the proxyreported behavior that other (non-cyclist) road users perceive from bike riders. For this purpose, this study used data from two samples: (i) 1064 cyclists (M = 32.83 years) answering the Cycling Behavior Questionnaire—CBQ, and (ii) 1070 non-cyclists (M = 30.83 years) answering an adapted version of the CBQ for external raters—ECBQ. The results show how the self-reported and proxy-reported behaviors of cyclists greatly differ in terms of all behavioral factors composing the CBQ model, i.e., traffic violations, riding errors, and positive behaviors. Also, external raters (non-cyclists) are those targeting significantly riskier behaviors than those self-reported by cyclists. These discrepancies between perceived behaviors may give rise to conflicting viewpoints on the interaction between bicycle riders and other road users. Therefore, this study underscores the importance of behavioral awareness, providing highlights for future studies on the behavioral interaction between cyclists and other road users. Results can be used to improve the road safety of all road users by giving indications on self-and proxy-perceived safety-related behaviors and visibility of protective riding habits.

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    DOI: 10.3390/su13041614
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    Socioeconomic Status, Health and Life-Style Settings as Psychosocial Risk Factors for Road Crashes in Young People: Assessing the Colombian Case

    Andrea Serge, Johana Quiroz, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2021). Article

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Num.18(3), 886

    The social determinants of health influence both psychosocial risks and protective factors, especially in high-demanding contexts, such as the mobility of drivers and non-drivers. Recent evidence suggests that exploring socioeconomic status (SES), health and lifestyle-related factors might contribute to a better understanding of road traffic crashes (RTCs). Thus, the aim of this study was to construct indices for the assessment of crash rates and mobility patterns among young Colombians who live in the central region of the country. The specific objectives were developing SES, health and lifestyle indices, and assessing the self-reported RTCs and mobility features depending on these...

    The social determinants of health influence both psychosocial risks and protective factors, especially in high-demanding contexts, such as the mobility of drivers and non-drivers. Recent evidence suggests that exploring socioeconomic status (SES), health and lifestyle-related factors might contribute to a better understanding of road traffic crashes (RTCs). Thus, the aim of this study was to construct indices for the assessment of crash rates and mobility patterns among young Colombians who live in the central region of the country. The specific objectives were developing SES, health and lifestyle indices, and assessing the self-reported RTCs and mobility features depending on these indices. A sample of 561 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Through a reduction approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), three indices were constructed. Mean and frequency differences were contrasted for the self-reported mobility, crash rates, age, and gender. As a result, SES, health and lifestyle indices explained between 56.3–67.9% of the total variance. Drivers and pedestrians who suffered crashes had higher SES. A healthier lifestyle is associated with cycling, but also with suffering more bike crashes; drivers and those reporting traffic crashes have shown greater psychosocial and lifestyle-related risk factors. Regarding gender differences, men are more likely to engage in road activities, as well as to suffer more RTCs. On the other hand, women present lower healthy lifestyle-related indices and a less active implication in mobility. Protective factors such as a high SES and a healthier lifestyle are associated with RTCs suffered by young Colombian road users. Given the differences found in this regard, a gender perspective for understanding RTCs and mobility is highly suggestible, considering that socio-economic gaps seem to differentially affect mobility and crash-related patterns

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    DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18030886
    ISSN: 1660-4601
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    Visual health and road safety: It’s time for action!: The implication of vision in traffic accidents and the importance of political action to treat this risk factor

    Luis Montoro, Ignacio Lijarcio, Sergio Useche, Cristina Catalá, Javier LLamazares

    (2021). Informes

    El documento recoge de una manera sintética los principales hallazgos sobre la importancia de la visión en la seguridad vial, con el objetivo de continuar reduciendo los siniestros viales en España y en el resto del mundo producidos por una mala salud visual. Las conclusiones obtenidas indican que la salud visual es un factor importante a tener en cuenta en la seguridad vial y que requiere el continuo desarrollo de investigaciones en conducción nocturna y diurna, la promoción de la salud visual en las personas conductoras, así como una mejora de los protocolos de exploración visual y la creación de acciones de sensibilización a toda la ciudadanía. El compromiso con la seguridad vial y el...

    El documento recoge de una manera sintética los principales hallazgos sobre la importancia de la visión en la seguridad vial, con el objetivo de continuar reduciendo los siniestros viales en España y en el resto del mundo producidos por una mala salud visual. Las conclusiones obtenidas indican que la salud visual es un factor importante a tener en cuenta en la seguridad vial y que requiere el continuo desarrollo de investigaciones en conducción nocturna y diurna, la promoción de la salud visual en las personas conductoras, así como una mejora de los protocolos de exploración visual y la creación de acciones de sensibilización a toda la ciudadanía. El compromiso con la seguridad vial y el desarrollo de iniciativas e investigaciones de este calado ayudará a conseguir la meta trazada en este nuevo decenio de acción por la seguridad vial declarado en agosto de 2020 por la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas.

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    Are Latin American cycling commuters “at risk”? A comparative study on cycling patterns, behaviors, and crashes with non-commuter cyclists

    Sergio Useche, Cristina Esteban, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2020). Article

    Accident Analysis and Prevention. Num.150:105915

    Introduction As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide “revolution”. However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists’ safety. Objectives This study had two objectives. First, to compare key safe cycling-related variables between cycling commuters and non-commuters; and second, to...

    Introduction As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide “revolution”. However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists’ safety. Objectives This study had two objectives. First, to compare key safe cycling-related variables between cycling commuters and non-commuters; and second, to differentially asses the effect of individual and cycling-related variables on their self-reported crash rates. Method: For this cross-sectional research, the data provided by 577 Latin American urban cyclists from three countries (Argentina, Colombia and Mexico) with a mean age of 32.7 years was used. They answered a questionnaire on cycling habits, risk perception, rule knowledge, cycling behaviors and riding crashes. Results The outcomes of this study showed that, despite having a higher risk perception, cycling commuters perform deliberate risky cycling behaviors (traffic violations) more frequently, and they suffer more crashes; cycling commuters report higher rates of psychological distress, and a lower degree of rule knowledge and protective behaviors than non-commuters. Furthermore, structural similarities and differences in the explanation of cycling crashes were found across commuters and non-commuters. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that non-commuters, whose purposes for cycling are more aimed at leisure and occasional trips, perform less risky behaviors but suffer more cycling distractions, whereas commuters are comparatively more exposed to behavioral-based safety risks, and suffer more frequent crashes. Since recent evidence forecasts that urban cycling will keep growing in Latin American cities, it is necessary to implement policies and educational/training improvements that may enhance the safety and health of cyclists in these countries.

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105915
    ISSN: 0001-4575
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    Validation of the Walking Behavior Questionnaire (WBQ): A tool for measuring risky and safe walking under a behavioral perspective

    Sergio Useche, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2020). Article

    Journal of Transport & Health. Num.18:100899

    Introduction Although daily walking implies several potential benefits for the health and well-being of people, and, besides the raise of more “walkable” cities, it is currently being promoted as an active transportation means that is rich in benefits for its users, road risks affecting pedestrians, together with their high vulnerability to suffer severe injuries as a consequence of traffic crashes, have turned into a relevant concern for both policymakers and public health practitioners. In this regard, risky and positive (proactively safe) behaviors have acquired a substantial relevance for the study and prevention of traffic causalities involving different road users, including...

    Introduction Although daily walking implies several potential benefits for the health and well-being of people, and, besides the raise of more “walkable” cities, it is currently being promoted as an active transportation means that is rich in benefits for its users, road risks affecting pedestrians, together with their high vulnerability to suffer severe injuries as a consequence of traffic crashes, have turned into a relevant concern for both policymakers and public health practitioners. In this regard, risky and positive (proactively safe) behaviors have acquired a substantial relevance for the study and prevention of traffic causalities involving different road users, including pedestrians. Objective The objective of this study was to thoroughly describe the validation of an instrument for measuring the walking risky and positive behavior on the road, using the Walking Behavior Questionnaire (WBQ). Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the data from 1070 Spanish pedestrians answering a questionnaire on road behaviors. The data were analyzed using the competitive Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), thus obtaining basic psychometric properties, testing convergent validity and predictive value, and presenting an optimized structure for the scale. Results The obtained findings suggest that the WBQ has a clear dimensional structure, items with high factorial weight, good internal consistency and reliability and an adequate convergent validity with variables theoretically associated with road behaviors. Conclusion The results of this study endorse the psychometric value of the WBQ for measuring errors, violations and positive behaviors of pedestrians. This questionnaire might have relevant applications in the practical field, since, apart from having good psychometric properties, it introduces items related to social and technological trends (e.g., the use of cellphones) that may compromise pedestrians’ safety. This can be particularly useful for designing behavioral-based interventions and educational programs, focused on road risk reduction and on the promotion of safe walking behavior.

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.jth.2020.100899
    ISSN: 2214-1405
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    Multidimensional prediction of work traffic crashes among Spanish professional drivers in cargo and passenger transportation

    Sergio Useche, Boris Cendales, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2020). Article

    International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different environmental, mechanical and individual factors associated with fatalities and serious injuries caused by work traffic accidents among cargo and passenger transport drivers (CPTD) in Spain. For this cross-sectional study, national data on work traffic accidents collected in Spain during the last 3 years were analyzed through a regression modeling approach, in order to predict the severity of traffic crashes involving CPTD. Using binary logistic regression analyses, it was found that the type of road and accident, the meteorological, light and vehicle conditions, individual characteristics and risky driving behaviors significantly...

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different environmental, mechanical and individual factors associated with fatalities and serious injuries caused by work traffic accidents among cargo and passenger transport drivers (CPTD) in Spain. For this cross-sectional study, national data on work traffic accidents collected in Spain during the last 3 years were analyzed through a regression modeling approach, in order to predict the severity of traffic crashes involving CPTD. Using binary logistic regression analyses, it was found that the type of road and accident, the meteorological, light and vehicle conditions, individual characteristics and risky driving behaviors significantly predict the risk of fatal work traffic accidents and serious injuries. These findings highlight the importance of combining organizational efforts with national road safety policies in order to generate a traffic safety culture among CPTD.

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    DOI: 10.1080/10803548.2020.1732102
    ISSN: 1080-3548
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    La Seguridad Vial Laboral. La influencia de los Accidentes de Tráfico en el entorno Laboral.

    Francisco Javier Llamazares Robles

    (2019). Tesi

    Directores: Luis Montoro, Francisco Alonso, Rafael Ruiz

    Calificación: Sobresaliente "cum laude"

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    More Aware, More Protected: Do Road Safety Skills Predict the use of Passive Safety Elements among Teenagers

    Sergio Useche, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro, Leandro Garrigós.

    (2019). Article

    BMJ Open. Num.9:e035007

    Objective This study had two objectives: first, to test the effects of sociodemographic variables, and the effects of three key road safety skills (knowledge–risk perception–attitudes) on the use of passive safety elements (PSEs) among teenagers; and second, to assess the differential impact of the study variables on PSEs use from a gender-based perspective. Setting and participants This cross-sectional study was framed in the paradigm of primary care, and it involved students from several educational centres in Spain. A sample of 827 Spanish teenagers (52.4% females and 47.6% males) with a mean age of M=14.41–7 (12–19) years was used. Results Through SEM modelling, we found that the use...

    Objective This study had two objectives: first, to test the effects of sociodemographic variables, and the effects of three key road safety skills (knowledge–risk perception–attitudes) on the use of passive safety elements (PSEs) among teenagers; and second, to assess the differential impact of the study variables on PSEs use from a gender-based perspective. Setting and participants This cross-sectional study was framed in the paradigm of primary care, and it involved students from several educational centres in Spain. A sample of 827 Spanish teenagers (52.4% females and 47.6% males) with a mean age of M=14.41–7 (12–19) years was used. Results Through SEM modelling, we found that the use of PSEs is largely explained by psychosocial variables through the mediation of three road safety skills: risk perception (β=0.103***), rule knowledge (β=0.095*) and attitudes towards road safety (β=0.186***). Furthermore, multigroup analyses showed that, although most variables explain the use of PSEs among teenagers in a similar way, key gender-based differences exist in this regard. Conclusions Road safety skills have a significant effect on the use of PSEs among Spanish teenagers, and gender explains some differences in the mechanisms which predict them. Also, in the study we discuss the need for strengthening school-based interventions aimed at helping this vulnerable group of road users acquire and develop positive behavioural competences.

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    DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035007
    ISSN: 2044-6055
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    Validation of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (MDSI) in Professional Drivers: How does it work in transportation workers?

    Sergio Useche, Boris Cendales, Francisco Alonso, Juan C. Pastor, Luis Montoro

    (2019). Article

    Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. Num.67:155-163

    The Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory or MDSI constitutes, perhaps, the most relevant tool for measuring driving styles. Since its releasing in 2004, it has been applied worldwide to different samples of drivers, showing an important value and utility for road safety. However, empirical studies using the MDSI on professional drivers are scarce and, to the date, there is no validated version of the instrument in this workforce yet. Objectives: This study had two aims. First, to describe in detail the validation of the Taubman-Ben-Ari’s MDSI among professional drivers and, second, to test its convergent validity with other key relevant factors present in the work environment of this...

    The Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory or MDSI constitutes, perhaps, the most relevant tool for measuring driving styles. Since its releasing in 2004, it has been applied worldwide to different samples of drivers, showing an important value and utility for road safety. However, empirical studies using the MDSI on professional drivers are scarce and, to the date, there is no validated version of the instrument in this workforce yet. Objectives: This study had two aims. First, to describe in detail the validation of the Taubman-Ben-Ari’s MDSI among professional drivers and, second, to test its convergent validity with other key relevant factors present in the work environment of this particular population: driving anger, job strain and occupational driving crashes. Method: The data used for this validation was gathered from a representative sample of 752 Colombian professional drivers and analyzed by means of competitive Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFAs), assessing psychometric properties and obtaining an optimized structure for the instrument applied to active transportation workers. Results: The outcomes of this study suggest a clear factorial structure, adequate model fit, factorial weights, reliability and internal consistency, keeping the re-evaluated four-factor structure of the questionnaire: Reckless & Careless (F1); Anxious (F2); Angry & Hostile (F3); and Patient & Careful (F4). Conclusion: This applied research supports the hypothesis that the validated version of MDSI in professional drivers, together with further measures applied to other work environment factors, may play a relevant role in the improvement of driving safety and injury prevention for this vulnerable workforce from the perspective of occupational research in transportation.

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2019.10.012
    ISSN: 1369-8478
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    Perceived safety and attributed value as predictors of the intention to use autonomous vehicles: A national study with Spanish drivers

    Luis Montoro, Sergio Useche, Francisco Alonso, Ignacio Lijarcio, Patricia Bosó-Seguí, Ana Martí-Belda

    (2019). Article

    Safety Science. Num.120:865-876

    Sooner than later, the growing development of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) will represent not only an imminent transformation of transportation dynamics, but also further advantages for their users, including many improvements in road crash prevention, efficiency and sustainability. However, different concerns and constraints may affect the intention of adopting this technology among its potential customers, especially for what concerns those constraints related to safety, viability and stability. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of perceived safety and value attributed to the AV in the drivers’ intention to use it, considering the drivers’ demographic factors, driving...

    Sooner than later, the growing development of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) will represent not only an imminent transformation of transportation dynamics, but also further advantages for their users, including many improvements in road crash prevention, efficiency and sustainability. However, different concerns and constraints may affect the intention of adopting this technology among its potential customers, especially for what concerns those constraints related to safety, viability and stability. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of perceived safety and value attributed to the AV in the drivers’ intention to use it, considering the drivers’ demographic factors, driving habits, interaction with information technologies and self-reported safety records (using conventional vehicles) as potential predictors. For this cross-sectional study, data from 1205 drivers of conventional vehicles were analyzed through a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The intention to use autonomous vehicles could be predicted through demographic and driving-related factors, as well as by the level of interaction of individuals with information and communication technologies (ITCs). It was also found that the perceived safety of AVs and their attributed value for transport and road safety mediate the associations between drivers’ features and the final intention of using (or not) autonomous vehicles. The results of this study suggest that perceived safety and the value attributed to AVs significantly influence the intention of adopting it. In other words, a deeper emphasis on the safety, causality prevention and efficiency-related benefits may strengthen the acceptance of this new technology and enhance its progressive inclusion in transport dynamics among drivers.

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2019.07.041
    ISSN: 0925-7535