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  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Is there a predisposition towards the use of new technologies within the traffic field of emerging countries? The case of the Dominican Republic

    Francisco Alonso, Mireia Faus, Cristina Esteban, Sergio Useche

    (2021). Article

    Electronics. Num.10(10):1208

    Technological devices are becoming more and more integrated in the management and control of traffic in big cities. The population perceives the benefits provided by these systems, and, therefore, citizens usually have a favorable opinion of them. However, emerging countries, which have fewer available infrastructures, could present a certain lack of trust. The objective of this work is to detect the level of knowledge and predisposition towards the use of new technologies in the transportation field of the Dominican Republic. For this study, the National Survey on Mobility was administered to a sample of Dominican citizens, proportional to the ONE census and to sex, age and province. The...

    Technological devices are becoming more and more integrated in the management and control of traffic in big cities. The population perceives the benefits provided by these systems, and, therefore, citizens usually have a favorable opinion of them. However, emerging countries, which have fewer available infrastructures, could present a certain lack of trust. The objective of this work is to detect the level of knowledge and predisposition towards the use of new technologies in the transportation field of the Dominican Republic. For this study, the National Survey on Mobility was administered to a sample of Dominican citizens, proportional to the ONE census and to sex, age and province. The knowledge of ITS topics, as well as the use of mobile applications for mobility, are scarce; however, there was a significant increase that can be observed in only one year. Moreover, technology is, in general, positively assessed for what concerns the improvement of the traffic field, even though there is a lack of predisposition to provide one’s personal data, which is necessary for these devices. The process of technological development in the country must be backed up by laws that protect the citizens’ privacy. Thus, technologies that can improve road safety, mobility and sustainability can be implemented in the country.

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    DOI: 10.3390/electronics10101208
    ISSN: 2079-9292
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    A VR-enhanced rollover car simulator and edutainment application for increasing seat belt use awareness

    José V. Riera, Sergio Casas, Francisco Alonso, Marcos Fernández

    (2021). Article

    Computers, Special Issue Game-Based Learning, Gamification in Education and Serious Games. Num.10(5):55

    Most countries have active road safety policies that seek the objective of reducing deaths in traffic accidents. One of the main factors in this regard is the awareness of the safety measures, one of the most important being the correct usage of the seat belt, a device that is known to save thousands of lives every year. The presented work shows a VR-enhanced edutainment application designed to increase awareness on the use of seat belts. For this goal, a motorized rollover system was developed that, synchronized with a VR application (shown in a head-mounted display for each user inside a real car), rolls over this car with up to four passengers inside. This way, users feel the sensations...

    Most countries have active road safety policies that seek the objective of reducing deaths in traffic accidents. One of the main factors in this regard is the awareness of the safety measures, one of the most important being the correct usage of the seat belt, a device that is known to save thousands of lives every year. The presented work shows a VR-enhanced edutainment application designed to increase awareness on the use of seat belts. For this goal, a motorized rollover system was developed that, synchronized with a VR application (shown in a head-mounted display for each user inside a real car), rolls over this car with up to four passengers inside. This way, users feel the sensations of a real overturn and therefore they realize the consequences and the results of not wearing a seat belt. The system was tested for a month in the context of a road safety exhibition in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, one of the leading countries in car accidents per capita. More than 500 users tested and assessed the usefulness of the system. We measured, before and after the rollover experience, the perception of risk of not using the seat belt. Results show that awareness regarding the use of seat belts increases very significantly after using the presented edutainment tool.

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    DOI: 10.3390/computers10050055
    ISSN: 2073-431X
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Could road safety education (RSE) help parents protect children? Examining their driving crashes with children on board

    Francisco Alonso, Sergio Useche, Eliseo Valle. Cristina Esteban, Javier Gene-Morales

    (2021). Article

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Num.18(7), 3611

    Recent evidence suggests that driving behavior and traffic safety outcomes of parents may be influenced by the extent to which they receive information and education on road safety, as well as the fact of driving with their children on board, which may increase their risk perception. However, there are no studies specifically addressing the case of crashes suffered while driving with children. Hence, this study aimed to describe the relationship between road safety education-related variables and parents’ traffic safety outcomes while driving with children on board. For this cross-sectional study, data was retrieved from a sample composed of 165 Spanish parents—all of them licensed...

    Recent evidence suggests that driving behavior and traffic safety outcomes of parents may be influenced by the extent to which they receive information and education on road safety, as well as the fact of driving with their children on board, which may increase their risk perception. However, there are no studies specifically addressing the case of crashes suffered while driving with children. Hence, this study aimed to describe the relationship between road safety education-related variables and parents’ traffic safety outcomes while driving with children on board. For this cross-sectional study, data was retrieved from a sample composed of 165 Spanish parents—all of them licensed drivers—with a mean age of 45.3 years. Through binary logistic regression (logit) analysis, it was found that factors such as gender, having received road safety education (RSE), and having been sanctioned for the performance of risky driving behavior contribute to modulating the likelihood of suffering crashes while driving with children on board. Gender differences showed a riskier status for male parents. In this study, a set of risk factors explaining the involvement in traffic crashes when driving with children as passengers was identified among parents: gender, traffic sanctions, valuation, and exposure to road safety campaigns. Also, substantial limitations in the self-reported degree of received RSE were found, especially considering that risky driving behavior and traffic crash rates with children on board still have a high prevalence among parents.

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    DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073611
    ISSN: 1660-4601
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Comparing oculomotor efficiency and visual attention between drivers and non-drivers through the Adult Developmental Eye Movement (ADEM) test: A visual-verbal test.

    Andrés Gené-Sampedro, Francisco Alonso, Celia Sánchez-Ramos, Sergio Useche

    (2021). Article

    Plos One. Num.16(2): e0246606

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess and compare drivers’ and non-drivers’ outcomes in the Adult Developmental Eye Movement test (ADEM), a visual-verbal test that measures the time needed to read series of numbers in both a vertical and horizontal reading pattern. A set of driving parameters (i.e., experience, risk exposure, and day and night perceived difficulty) and demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, and academic level) were considered as potential predictors of the test performance. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 302 healthy subjects (age range 20 to 86 years old) completed a self-reported questionnaire aimed at retrieving data on the independent...

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess and compare drivers’ and non-drivers’ outcomes in the Adult Developmental Eye Movement test (ADEM), a visual-verbal test that measures the time needed to read series of numbers in both a vertical and horizontal reading pattern. A set of driving parameters (i.e., experience, risk exposure, and day and night perceived difficulty) and demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, and academic level) were considered as potential predictors of the test performance. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 302 healthy subjects (age range 20 to 86 years old) completed a self-reported questionnaire aimed at retrieving data on the independent variables, and underwent the ADEM in order to obtain the dependent outcomes. 214 (70.9%) of the participants were drivers. Non-parametric analyses and multilevel linear regression were used to assess differences between the variables and a prediction model. Also, some correlations were evaluated through the Spearman test. Results Drivers showed significantly better test performance than non-drivers. The age, driving experience, and perceived difficulty in driving at night were obtained as potential predictors of the test performance with the applied linear regression model. Conclusion The ADEM may be a practical, non-expensive, easy-to-apply tool in the assessment of drivers, useful for obtaining or renewing the driving license. This test may help in the detection of impairments in the saccadic efficiency that could have a detrimental effect on the driving performance.

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    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246606
    ISSN: 1932-6203
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    “Not as safe as I believed”: Differences in perceived and self-reported cycling behavior between riders and non-riders

    Sergio Useche, Javier Gené-Morales, Félix Siebert, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2021). Article

    Sustainability. Num.13(4), 1614

    Cycling behavior remains a key issue for explaining several traffic causalities occurring every day. However, recent studies have shown how the assessment of the own safety-related behaviors on the road may substantially differ from how third parties assess them. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between cyclists’ self-reported behavior and the proxyreported behavior that other (non-cyclist) road users perceive from bike riders. For this purpose, this study used data from two samples: (i) 1064 cyclists (M = 32.83 years) answering the Cycling Behavior Questionnaire—CBQ, and (ii) 1070 non-cyclists (M = 30.83 years) answering an adapted version of the CBQ for external...

    Cycling behavior remains a key issue for explaining several traffic causalities occurring every day. However, recent studies have shown how the assessment of the own safety-related behaviors on the road may substantially differ from how third parties assess them. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between cyclists’ self-reported behavior and the proxyreported behavior that other (non-cyclist) road users perceive from bike riders. For this purpose, this study used data from two samples: (i) 1064 cyclists (M = 32.83 years) answering the Cycling Behavior Questionnaire—CBQ, and (ii) 1070 non-cyclists (M = 30.83 years) answering an adapted version of the CBQ for external raters—ECBQ. The results show how the self-reported and proxy-reported behaviors of cyclists greatly differ in terms of all behavioral factors composing the CBQ model, i.e., traffic violations, riding errors, and positive behaviors. Also, external raters (non-cyclists) are those targeting significantly riskier behaviors than those self-reported by cyclists. These discrepancies between perceived behaviors may give rise to conflicting viewpoints on the interaction between bicycle riders and other road users. Therefore, this study underscores the importance of behavioral awareness, providing highlights for future studies on the behavioral interaction between cyclists and other road users. Results can be used to improve the road safety of all road users by giving indications on self-and proxy-perceived safety-related behaviors and visibility of protective riding habits.

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    DOI: 10.3390/su13041614
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Socioeconomic Status, Health and Life-Style Settings as Psychosocial Risk Factors for Road Crashes in Young People: Assessing the Colombian Case

    Andrea Serge, Johana Quiroz, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2021). Article

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Num.18(3), 886

    The social determinants of health influence both psychosocial risks and protective factors, especially in high-demanding contexts, such as the mobility of drivers and non-drivers. Recent evidence suggests that exploring socioeconomic status (SES), health and lifestyle-related factors might contribute to a better understanding of road traffic crashes (RTCs). Thus, the aim of this study was to construct indices for the assessment of crash rates and mobility patterns among young Colombians who live in the central region of the country. The specific objectives were developing SES, health and lifestyle indices, and assessing the self-reported RTCs and mobility features depending on these...

    The social determinants of health influence both psychosocial risks and protective factors, especially in high-demanding contexts, such as the mobility of drivers and non-drivers. Recent evidence suggests that exploring socioeconomic status (SES), health and lifestyle-related factors might contribute to a better understanding of road traffic crashes (RTCs). Thus, the aim of this study was to construct indices for the assessment of crash rates and mobility patterns among young Colombians who live in the central region of the country. The specific objectives were developing SES, health and lifestyle indices, and assessing the self-reported RTCs and mobility features depending on these indices. A sample of 561 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Through a reduction approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), three indices were constructed. Mean and frequency differences were contrasted for the self-reported mobility, crash rates, age, and gender. As a result, SES, health and lifestyle indices explained between 56.3–67.9% of the total variance. Drivers and pedestrians who suffered crashes had higher SES. A healthier lifestyle is associated with cycling, but also with suffering more bike crashes; drivers and those reporting traffic crashes have shown greater psychosocial and lifestyle-related risk factors. Regarding gender differences, men are more likely to engage in road activities, as well as to suffer more RTCs. On the other hand, women present lower healthy lifestyle-related indices and a less active implication in mobility. Protective factors such as a high SES and a healthier lifestyle are associated with RTCs suffered by young Colombian road users. Given the differences found in this regard, a gender perspective for understanding RTCs and mobility is highly suggestible, considering that socio-economic gaps seem to differentially affect mobility and crash-related patterns

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    DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18030886
    ISSN: 1660-4601
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Visual health and road safety: It’s time for action!: The implication of vision in traffic accidents and the importance of political action to treat this risk factor

    Luis Montoro, Ignacio Lijarcio, Sergio Useche, Cristina Catalá, Javier LLamazares

    (2021). Informes

    El document recull d'una manera sintètica les principals troballes sobre la importància de la visió en la seguretat viària, amb l'objectiu de continuar reduint els sinistres vials a Espanya ia la resta de l'món produïts per una mala salut visual. Les conclusions obtingudes indiquen que la salut visual és un factor important a tenir en compte en la seguretat viària i que requereix el continu desenvolupament d'investigacions en conducció nocturna i diürna, la promoció de la salut visual a les persones conductores, així com una millora de els protocols d'exploració visual i la creació d'accions de sensibilització a tota la ciutadania. El compromís amb la seguretat viària i el desenvolupament...

    El document recull d'una manera sintètica les principals troballes sobre la importància de la visió en la seguretat viària, amb l'objectiu de continuar reduint els sinistres vials a Espanya ia la resta de l'món produïts per una mala salut visual. Les conclusions obtingudes indiquen que la salut visual és un factor important a tenir en compte en la seguretat viària i que requereix el continu desenvolupament d'investigacions en conducció nocturna i diürna, la promoció de la salut visual a les persones conductores, així com una millora de els protocols d'exploració visual i la creació d'accions de sensibilització a tota la ciutadania. El compromís amb la seguretat viària i el desenvolupament d'iniciatives i investigacions d'aquest calat ajudarà a aconseguir la meta traçada en aquest nou decenni d'acció per la seguretat viària declarat a l'agost de 2020 per l'Assemblea General de Nacions Unides.

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  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Enseñanzas para la gestión de la accidentalidad en emplazamientos peligrosos en las carreteras

    Francisco Alonso, Cristina Esteban, Enrique Casquero, Jose Luis Velarte, Jorge Suarez, Juan Carlos Pastor

    (2020). Llibre

    El present document s'ha centrat a manifestar la necessitat fonamental, comuna a tots els països, d'actuar sobre els emplaçaments perillosos (denominats per la literatura científica amb una infinitat de termes), i precisament en aquest sentit, desenvolupar polítiques encaminades a l'adequada implantació de sistemes de gestió de la seguretat viària (tant en fase de projecte com en fase d'explotació, com es deixa constància en documents marc tan importants com la Directiva Europea 2019/1936). L'objectiu és clar: s'ha de treballar per assolir el concepte de Sistema Segur, en el qual els enginyers vials s'assegurin que la xarxa de carreteres s'ha dissenyat i mantingut des de la perspectiva de...

    El present document s'ha centrat a manifestar la necessitat fonamental, comuna a tots els països, d'actuar sobre els emplaçaments perillosos (denominats per la literatura científica amb una infinitat de termes), i precisament en aquest sentit, desenvolupar polítiques encaminades a l'adequada implantació de sistemes de gestió de la seguretat viària (tant en fase de projecte com en fase d'explotació, com es deixa constància en documents marc tan importants com la Directiva Europea 2019/1936). L'objectiu és clar: s'ha de treballar per assolir el concepte de Sistema Segur, en el qual els enginyers vials s'assegurin que la xarxa de carreteres s'ha dissenyat i mantingut des de la perspectiva de la seguretat. S'espera que el present document no només sigui d'utilitat pel seu caràcter divulgatiu, sinó també pel seu caràcter pràctic, ja que pot servir de referència a tots els actors que decideixin fer front a la problemàtica de l'accidentalitat des del punt de vista de la gestió d'emplaçaments perillosos, gràcies a l'adopció d'estratègies d'èxit ia la possibilitat de "esquivar" els errors apresos de l'experiència.

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    ISBN:  978-84-09-21202-6
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Are Latin American cycling commuters “at risk”? A comparative study on cycling patterns, behaviors, and crashes with non-commuter cyclists

    Sergio Useche, Cristina Esteban, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro

    (2020). Article

    Accident Analysis and Prevention. Num.150:105915

    Introduction As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide “revolution”. However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists’ safety. Objectives This study had two objectives. First, to compare key safe cycling-related variables between cycling commuters and non-commuters; and second, to...

    Introduction As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide “revolution”. However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists’ safety. Objectives This study had two objectives. First, to compare key safe cycling-related variables between cycling commuters and non-commuters; and second, to differentially asses the effect of individual and cycling-related variables on their self-reported crash rates. Method: For this cross-sectional research, the data provided by 577 Latin American urban cyclists from three countries (Argentina, Colombia and Mexico) with a mean age of 32.7 years was used. They answered a questionnaire on cycling habits, risk perception, rule knowledge, cycling behaviors and riding crashes. Results The outcomes of this study showed that, despite having a higher risk perception, cycling commuters perform deliberate risky cycling behaviors (traffic violations) more frequently, and they suffer more crashes; cycling commuters report higher rates of psychological distress, and a lower degree of rule knowledge and protective behaviors than non-commuters. Furthermore, structural similarities and differences in the explanation of cycling crashes were found across commuters and non-commuters. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that non-commuters, whose purposes for cycling are more aimed at leisure and occasional trips, perform less risky behaviors but suffer more cycling distractions, whereas commuters are comparatively more exposed to behavioral-based safety risks, and suffer more frequent crashes. Since recent evidence forecasts that urban cycling will keep growing in Latin American cities, it is necessary to implement policies and educational/training improvements that may enhance the safety and health of cyclists in these countries.

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105915
    ISSN: 0001-4575
  • Imatge representativa de la publicació

    Does Urban Security Modulate Transportation Choices and Travel Behavior of Citizens? A National Study in the Dominican Republic

    Francisco Alonso, Sergio Useche, Mireia Faus, Cristina Esteban

    (2020). Article

    Frontiers in Sustainable Cities. Num.2:42

    Introduction: Traditionally, the scientific literature on urban and transportation dynamics addresses many topics, but the security-related outcomes of users remain a pending issue, especially in emerging countries and their cities. Nevertheless, recent evidence suggests that, especially in developing countries, security issues may influence people's decision-making in the choice of transport means, daily urban-trip patterns and road behaviors of users. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the perceived security (in both urban environments and public transport systems) and the daily-travel behavior and trip patterns of the Dominican Republic...

    Introduction: Traditionally, the scientific literature on urban and transportation dynamics addresses many topics, but the security-related outcomes of users remain a pending issue, especially in emerging countries and their cities. Nevertheless, recent evidence suggests that, especially in developing countries, security issues may influence people's decision-making in the choice of transport means, daily urban-trip patterns and road behaviors of users. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the perceived security (in both urban environments and public transport systems) and the daily-travel behavior and trip patterns of the Dominican Republic population. Methods: This cross-sectional study, performed in 2019, analyzed data collected from 1,026 inhabitants from different cities of the Dominican Republic (54% females and 46% males), who completed a survey on security issues, travel behaviors and transportation-related habits. Results: The results of this research suggest that demographic factors, such as age, education, and city/town size, and the safety perceived in the urban environment play a significant role in the choice of transportation modes, as well as in the participants' experience as victims of crime-related incidents (either witnessing or suffering crime episodes on public transport or city streets) during urban trips performed over the last 5 years. Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest that perceived safety, in both urban environments and public transport systems, is a relevant issue affecting the daily transport-related patterns and behavioral choices of the Dominican Republic's population. The results of this research might contribute to the strengthening of transport security planning, considering factors that are not traditionally kept in mind for policymaking in transportation dynamics.

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    DOI: 10.3389/frsc.2020.00042
    ISSN: 2624-9634