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E.- Specialisation in environmental toxicology (specialisation 2) (18 ECTS credits)

Subject: Physiological basis of the resistance to xenobiotics (3 ECTS credits) (2nd semester)

Study of the physiological mechanisms used by animals to eliminate xenobiotics: Detoxification. Resistance mechanisms: administration alterations. Excretion modifications. Changes in the place of action.

Subject: Endocrine disruption (3 ECTS credits) (2nd semester)

Definition. Origin of the problem. Affected physiological mechanisms. Endocrine disruption as natural defence. Direct and indirect disruption. Bioassays and detection. Risk assessment.

Subject: Pollution biomarkers (3 ECTS credits) (2nd semester)

Biomarkers, concept and classification. Specificity of biomarkers. Biomarkers and adverse effects of pollutants. Inhibition of esterases. Monoxigenases. Porphyrins and synthesis of the haem group. Metallothionein. Other biomarkers. Toxicogenomics and toxicoproteomics in the development of new biomarkers. Application of biomarkers in the assessment of environmental risk.

Materia: Ecotoxicity bioassays (3 ECTS credits) (2nd semester)

Ecotoxicology. Definitions and concepts. Factors that modify toxicity. Aquatic toxicology. Bioassays of acute toxicity. Bioassays of chronic toxicity. General principles. Methodologies. Bio-accumulation and biomagnification. Legislation for toxic and dangerous wastes. Spanish and European regulations.

Subject: Histology and histopathology of biomarker animals (3 ECTS credits) (2nd semester)

Animals biomarking terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. Sampling techniques and histological preparation. Normal histology. Histopathological alterations of infectious and toxic etiology. Quantification of histological damage.

Subject: Reproductive and developmental toxicology (3 ECTS credits) (2nd semester)

Gametogenesis, events regarding fertilisation and first stages of development. Toxic effects of drugs and chemical pollutants in fertility, the sexual function, full-term pregnancy, etc.: abortion, embryonic malformations...